Chapter 9 test – Nutrition Issues

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Which of the following refers to the two-step process in which bone tissue is recycled?

bone remodeling

Which of the following organs is NOT involved in the synthesis of vitamin D?

A) skin
B) liver
C) heart
D) kidneys


**Which of the following does NOT describe a role that calcitonin plays when blood calcium levels are elevated?

A) Calcitonin inhibits osteoclasts from breaking down bone.
B) Calcitonin prevents the reabsorption of calcium in the kidneys.
C) Calcitonin stimulates the action of vitamin D.
D) Calcitonin limits calcium absorption in the intestine.

Calcitonin stimulates the action of vitamin D.

The average person will absorb no more than how many mg of calcium at one time?


Newborn infants receive a single injection of vitamin K at birth because

newborns do not have enough bacteria in their small intestine to make vitamin K.

Which of the following is our primary dietary source of vitamin D?

a) chicken
b) seafood
c) green leafy vegetables
d) milk


Which of the following is FALSE concerning calcium?

a) Calcium’s alkalinity assists in regulating acid-base balance.
b) When blood calcium falls, osteoclasts will liberate calcium from the skeleton.
c) 99% percent of calcium is found in the blood and soft tissue.
d) Calcium is a major mineral.

Ninety-nine percent of calcium is found in the blood and soft tissue.

Which of the following foods is high in phosphorus

a) table salt
b) meat
c) spinach
d) oranges


Which of the following does NOT increase the risk of developing osteoporosis?

a) smoking
b) moderate alcohol consumption
c) high caffeine consumption
d) low dietary intake of calcium

moderate alcohol consumption

Dowager’s hump is one characteristic of


Which of the following foods are good sources of magnesium?

a) french fries and onion rings
b) soft drinks and fruit juices
c) citrus fruits
d) green leafy vegetables

green leafy vegetables

Fluorosis is associated with

consuming too much fluoride

Which of the following provides more than twice the recommended Adequate Intake (AI) of vitamin K?

a) 1 tablespoon of canola oil
b) 1/2 cup of boiled turnip greens
c) 1 cup of raw cabbage
d) 1 cup of boiled broccoli

1/2 cup of boiled turnip greens

The point in life at which our bones are the densest is called what?

peak bone density

Vitamin K’s primary role in the body is

a) nerve transmission.
b) muscle contraction.
c) enzyme action.
d) blood clotting.

blood clotting

When blood calcium levels fall, which of the following does NOT occur?

a) PTH and vitamin D stimulate the kidneys to reabsorb calcium from the blood.
b) PTH is produced and activates vitamin D.
c) Vitamin D increases the absorption of calcium from the intestines.
d) PTH and vitamin D stimulate osteoblasts to break down bone.

d) PTH and vitamin D stimulate osteoblasts to break down bone.

Bone cells that are responsible for bone resorption are called

a) cortical.
b) osteoblasts.
c) osteoclasts.
d) trabecular.


Around what age does bone resorption generally begin to occur more rapidly than bone formation?


in addition to proper growth and development, bone remodeling is critical in maintaining

a) blood calcium levels.
b) vitamin D production.
c) blood glucose levels.
d) blood coagulation.

blood calcium levels

The spongy bone that is found within the ends of long bones is called

a) collagen.
b) osteoblast.
c) trabecular.
d) cortical.


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