Chapter 9 Test for Exam – World History

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Christians who adopted some Arabic customs but did not convert


Arabic term meaning "supporters of Ali"; they make up one of the two main divisions of Islam


A unit of government


The sacred book of Islam


A community of people who share a religious faith and commitment rather than a tribal tie


A school for the study of Muslim law and religion


A term meaning "protected peoples’; they included Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians


A group of religious scholars whom Sunnis trust to interpret the Qur’an and the Sunna


Muslim law, which covers social, criminal, political, commercial, and religious matters

Five Pillars of Islam

The basic tenets of the Islamic faith, they include reciting a profession of faith in God and in Muhammad as God’s prophet, praying five times daily, fasting and praying during the month of Ramadan, making a pilgrimage to Mecca once in one’s lifetime, and contributing alms to the poor


Collections of the sayings of and anecdotes about Muhammad


An Arabic term meaning "trodden path". The term refers to the deeds and sayings of Muhammad, which constitute the obligatory example for Muslim life


Members of the larger of the two main divisions of Islam; the division between Sunnis and Shi’a began in a dispute about succession to Muhammad, but over time many differences in theology developed


Arab governors who were given overall responsibility for public order, maintenance of the armed forces, and tax collection


The leader in community prayer


In what year did Muhammad die?

Bedouin tribes

What group was the most important political and military force in pre-Islamic Arabia


The presence of the Ka’ba attracted pilgrims to what city?

Warrior elite

Who dominated political affairs in northern and central Arabia before Muhammad?

Angle Gabriel

According to Muhammad, who visited him and commanded him to reach God’s revelations?


The divine revelations of Muhammad are recorded in what Islamic holy book?


What are the collections of sayings of or anecdotes about Muhammad called?

Muhammad, the prophet

The Sunna, or normative example, for a follower of Islam is based on the life of whom?

Both men and women were to received the same punishments

According to the Qur’an and Muslim law, what kinds of punishments were required for inappropriate sexual behavior


The hijra of 622 occured when Muhammad and his followers fled to what city?

A community of people who shared a religious faith and commitment

According to Muhammad, what was the umma?


What empire was defeated by the Muslim army at the battle of Nihawand and ended in 642?

They provided soldiers with a monthly ration of food and an annual cash stipend

How did the Muslim military elite ensure the recruitment of troops and their loyalty?

It didn’t. The Qur’an did not provide guidance for the succession

How did the Qur’an influence the selection of Muhammad’s successor?

He was Muhammad’s father-in-law and a close supporter

Why was Abu Bakr elected first caliph?


Which caliph issued the completed text of the Qur’an?


Who founded the Umayyad Dynasty?

The assassination of Ali and the assumption of the caliphate Mu’awiya

Which of the following gave rise to a fundamental division in the umma?

An imam

One division between Sunni and Shi’a Muslims is the questions of who interprets the Qur’an and the Sunna. Who has that authority for the Shi’a?

The relatively new capital became a commercial, artistic, and scientific center

Under the Abbasids and Haru al-Rashid, what role did the city of Baghdad play in caliphate?

He was responsible for supervising the army and provincial governors

What important responsibilities did the vizier, or chief assistant to the caliph possess?

Became governor of Khurasan and ruled it independently of Baghdad

Weakness in the Abbasid Empire was revealed when Tahir did which of the following?


What is the term used for the leader of a Turkish state?

The Turks brought badly needed military strength to the Islamic world

How did the introduction of large numbers of Turks affect the Islamic world?

Leading the army that conquered Baghdad, ending the Abbasid caliphate

For what was the Mongol leader Hülegü best remembered?


According to the Qur’an, honor in the Muslim world was based on what?

They worshipped only one God

Why were dhimmis, or protected people, allowed some religious freedom?

They participated fully in commercial and profession activities

What was life like for Jews living under Islam?

The Qur’an suggested that slaves should be allowed to buy freedom

How did the Qur’an differ from the Old and New Testaments on the question of slavery?

They were viewed as more dependable and manageable

Why were eunuchs allowed to serve in variety of occupations in the Muslim world?

In the Islamic world, slavery was seldom hereditary

How was slavery in the Islamic world different from the slavery later practiced in the Americas?

Women had virtually no legal status or property or succession rights

What rights did women have under pre-Islamic Arab tribal law?

Were a substantial improvement on earlier treatment of women in Arab societies

According to the text, the Qur’an’s injunctions regarding the treatment of women

Marriages were arranged by families or guardians

How did most Muslim marriages come about?

Four, as long as all were treated justly

How many wives does the Qur’an allow a man to have?

The custom of veiling was probably of Byzantine or Persian origin

How did the Muslim tradition of veiling women likely originate?

By 800, women in more prosperous households stayed out of sight

Which of the following was true of the harem system?

Divorce was allowed but not encouraged

What was the early Muslim attitude toward divorce?

They were viewed as a respected part of society

In Muslim society, how were merchants viewed?


Muslim and Jewish merchants in the Indian Ocean trade used what language for commerce?

They developed the joint stock company

Which of the following was an important financial innovation developed by Muslim merchants?

Extensive trade through Muslim lands led to the spread of many useful plants like cotton, sugarcane, and rice

How did Muslim trade routes affect the development of agriculture?


Which of the following was one of the two great centers of Muslim civilization in the tenth century?

They attempted to prepare men for religious and legal responsibilities

Why were madrasas important to the Muslim world?

If her husband or male guardian encouraged it

Under what circumstance could a woman in the Muslim world become educated?

Both systems viewed the personal relationship between teacher and student as key to education

How was higher education in the Muslim world similar to that in China?

Divine love and knowledge through intuition rather than rational deduction and study

Which of the following was a focus of the religious movement known as Sufism?

All three required students to master a sacred language

Which of the following describes the similarities between Islamic, European, and Chinese education systems?

Was immediately sentenced to death

After the eleventh century, a Muslim who converted to Chrsitianity


In the Christian West, where did Christians and Muslims have the greatest interaction?

The Five Pillars of Islam are the basic tenets of the Islamic faith; they include reciting a profession of faith in God and in Muhammad as God’s prophet, praying five times daily, fasting and praying during the month of Ramadan, making a pilgrimage to Mecca once in one’s lifetime, and contributing alms to the poor. It provides a code of morality because the Qur’an prescribes a strict code of moral behavior.

What are the Five Pillars of Islam, and how do they provide a code of morality? (Short Answer)

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