chapter 9- race

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Although race has no deterministic, biological basis, it still:

b. has important social influence.

Which term refers to a group of people who share a set of physical characteristics and a bloodline?

a. race

When the term race comes up in America today, we usually think in two colors:

b. black and white

In ancient Egypt, physical markers were linked to:

b. geography

Hippocrates believed that physical markers such as skin color were the result of:

c. different environmental factors.

The concept of race:

a. has changed over time

Aristotle’s principle of civic association was that the true test of a person’s worth was in what they did, not who they were. All people were included in this EXCEPT:

b. women

The term phrenology refers to:

b. the differences in head formation.

Johann Caspar Lavater suggested that outside appearances were connected to inner virtues. He tended to value:

b. light skin over darker skin.

Reverend Samuel Stanhope Smith proposed that dark skin should be thought of as different levels of suntan or:

a. a universal freckle.

Because the German Nazis could not find a reliable marker to identify Jews, the Jews were forced to:

a. wear a yellow star of David

The one-drop rule asserts that just "one drop" of black blood makes:

b. a person black

An 1851 excerpt from Harper’s Weekly magazine describes a certain racial group as lawbreaking, idle, thriftless, poor, and barbarian. What group is this excerpt describing?

a. irish

Which term refers to the belief that members of separate races possess different and unequal traits?

b. racism

European Christians and scientists interpreted the curse that Noah put on his son Ham to mean that Ham:

a. was the original black man.

In the nineteenth century, theories of race moved from religious-based racism to:

c. scientific racism

The General Social Survey asked respondents why, on average, African Americans have worse jobs, income, and housing than white people. Nearly half of the respondents believed that blacks

b. don’t have the motivation to pull themselves out of poverty.

Ethnocentrism classified nonwhites as abnormal and inferior to help justify:

b. impearlism

Ontological equality is the notion that:

d. all people are created equal under God.

Which group believed that humans were one species, united under God?

c. monogensits

Which group believed that different races were distinct species?

b. polygensits

Social Darwinism was the evolutionary notion of:

b. survival of the fittest

Which term refers to a pseudoscience of genetic lines and the inheritable traits they pass on from generation to generation?

a. eugenics

Eugenics literally means:

a. "well-born"

Which group, led by Sir Francis Galton, believed that negative traits such as criminality were passed through bloodlines and could be bred out?

d. eugenicists

Nativists believed that restricting the immigration of certain groups would:

b. protect the nation

Miscegenation refers to:

c. interracial marriage.

Muslims in America have undergone what scholars refer to as the formation of a new racial identity in which new ideological boundaries of difference are drawn around a formerly unnoticed group of people, known as:

d. racialization

Muslims have recently (since 9/11) undergone a new racial identity, from being formally unnoticed as a group to being singled out for more discrimination. This is known as:

a. racialization

Most Arabs in the United States are not Muslim but ____________, and about 20 percent of U.S. Muslims are ____________.

c. Christian; African American

Some Muslims have been in North America since the seventeenth century, when they were transported from:

a. africa as slaves

Race is not a fixed biological or natural reality; rather, it is:

d. a social construction

America’s first naturalization law, passed in 1790, granted citizenship to:

b . free white people

Which act formalized the exclusive definition of whiteness by imposing immigration restrictions based on a national origins quota system that limited the yearly number of immigrants from each country?

c. Immigration Act of 1924

Who was one of the first sociologists to point out the importance of culture in determining race?

a. robert park

What allows one to identify with a nationality without the rights and duties of a citizen?

c. ethnicity

The differences between race and ethnicity underscore the privileged positions of ____________ in America, who have the freedom to pick and choose their identities and freely show their ethnic backgrounds.

a. whites

Compared with 11 percent of the U.S. population as a whole, around 33 percent of Native Americans die before age:

a. 45

Which minority group has the highest percentage of males in prison?

b. blacks

Afro-Caribbeans such as Cubans, Haitians, and Jamaicans resent being unilaterally categorized as African American, because these immigrant groups:

b. have a unique culture and language.

The majority of the Latinos in the United States come from:

c. mexico

The majority of Latinos in the United States have immigrated here within the last ____________ years.

c. 40

Mexicans are generally classified as a physical type that combines Native American and European traits and referred to as:

a. mestizos

In 1907, the United States barred immigration from what country, because its people were seen as a threat to the American-born labor force?

b. china

Asians have been applauded for their smooth assimilation and are referred to as:

A. the model minority

Robert Park’s model explains the universally progressive pattern in which immigrants arrive, settle in, and achieve full assimilation in a newly homogeneous country. His model is called:

d. straight-line assimilation.

Clifford Geertz used what term to describe the fact that ethnic ties remained even after people assimilated?

a. primordialism

A society is pluralistic if no one ethnic group is statistically:

d. in the majority

The 1896 Supreme Court decision Plessy v. Ferguson upheld:

d. segregation

The legal or social practice of separating people on the basis of their race or ethnicity is referred to as:

a. segregation

The Supreme Court’s landmark 1954 decision in Brown v. Board of Education struck down what doctrine?

a. separate but equal

the black ghetto was manufactured by whites through a set of deliberate, conscious practices. Which of the following is NOT one of the practices mentioned in your book?

b. high homeowner association dues

Japanese internment camps resulted in:

c. greater wealth for white Americans.

Thoughts and feelings (usually negative) about an ethnic or racial group are referred to as:

d. prejudice

Prejudice is to discrimination as thinking is to:

c. doing

Which term refers to the mass killing of a particular population?

d. genocide

African Americans often turn to ____________ when they are attempting to be accepted by the dominant group. This means acting differently with the dominant group.

d. code switching

During the mid-twentieth century in the United States, many blacks moved north to escape Jim Crow laws in the rural South. This resulted in:

c. competition for housing and employment in the North, resulting in violent clashes between whites and blacks.

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