Chapter 9 – Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle and Late Childhood.

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During the elementary school years, children grow an average of _____ inches a year.

b. 2 to 3

On average, children gain _____ pounds per year during middle and late childhood.

c. 5 to 7

During elementary school years, head circumference and waist circumference:

d. decrease in relation to body height.

Advances in the _____ of the brain are linked to children’s _____.

c. prefrontal cortex; improved attention, reasoning, and cognitive control

Improvement of fine motor skills during middle and late childhood is a reflection of:

a. increased myelination of the central nervous system.

Eight-year-old Ella can use scissors to cut small paper dolls out of construction paper, something she could not do at age 3. What best accounts for her improving dexterity?

b. Increased myelination of the central nervous system

What is the most common cause of death for children in middle childhood?

a. Motor vehicle accidents

Being overweight is defined in absolute relation to a person’s _____.

b. body mass index

In 2009-2010, _____ percent of U.S. 6- to 11-year-olds were classified as obese.

d. 18

Gertrude, 9, has been placed in the 98th percentile in terms of her BMI. Her doctor would likely tell her parents that she is:

d. obese.

Mitchell has been placed in the 96th percentile in terms of his BMI. His doctor would likely tell his parents that he is:

b. overweight.

Ross has been placed in the 85th percentile in terms of his BMI. His doctor would likely tell his parents that he is:

c. at risk for being overweight.

Cardiovascular disease is _____ in children.

a. uncommon

Which of the following statements about children and cardiovascular disease is true?

c. High blood pressure goes undiagnosed in 75 percent of children with the disease.

A recent study found that children with a high body mass index and waist circumference are at risk for _____, a constellation of factors, including obesity, high blood pressure, and type 2 diabetes.

d. metabolic syndrome

Which of the following is the second leading cause of death in U.S. children 5 to 14 years of age?

b. Cancer

The incidence of cancer in children has _____ in recent years.

c. slightly increased

Which type of cancer is most prevalent in children?

a. Leukemia

_____ are characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of abnormal cells.

b. All child cancers

Children with cancer:

c. are surviving longer today than in the past.

One in every _____ children in the United States develops cancer before the age of 19.

d. 330

Lillette, 9, has been diagnosed with _____, a cancer in which the bone marrow manufactures an abundance of abnormal white blood cells, which crowd out normal cells, making her susceptible to bruising and infection.

c. leukemia

Of all children from 3 to 21 years of age in the United States, _____ percent received special education or related services in 2008-2009

b. 14

Which was the largest group of students with a disability to be served by federal programs and receive special education in the 2008-2009 school year?

a. Students with a learning disability

A learning disability:

d. is not primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities.

About _____ as many boys as girls are classified as having a learning disability.

b. three times

One of the explanations for the gender difference in the identification of learning disabilities is that:

a. boys have a greater biological vulnerability for learning disabilities.

_____ children with a learning disability have a reading problem.

c. Most

Sabeen has a severe impairment in reading and spelling ability. Identify the condition that Sabeen has.

c. Dyslexia

Marshall writes very slowly and his handwriting is virtually illegible. He also makes numerous spelling errors because of his inability to match up sounds and letters. Which of the following conditions does Marshall suffer from?

b. Dysgraphia

Sandra, 9, was always behind in class because she could only write very slowly, and even then her painstaking efforts would be virtually illegible and riddled with spelling mistakes. Her teacher referred her to a psychologist who diagnosed her with a learning disability called:

b. dysgraphia.

Terrence has a learning disability that involves difficulty in math computation. This disability is also known as a developmental arithmetic disorder. Identify Terrence’s condition.

d. Dyscalculia

Samuel, 8, has difficulty in math computation. His physician diagnosed him as suffering from a learning disability called _____, or developmental arithmetic disorder.

a. dyscalculia

Research indicates that it is unlikely learning disabilities:

a. reside in a single, specific brain location.

Interventions with children who have a learning disability often focus on improving:

d. reading ability.

_____ is a disability in which children consistently show one or more of these characteristics over a period of time: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.


Damon’s teachers frequently complain that he disrupts his kindergarten class by fidgeting and moving about all the time. He does not pay any attention to what is being taught in class and behaves impulsively.

Considering the presence of the tell-tale characteristics of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, Damon’s pediatrician diagnosed him with _____ and put him on a combination of Ritalin and behavior therapy. a. ADHD

The number of children diagnosed and treated for ADHD has _____ in recent decades.

b. increased substantially

ADHD occurs _____ more frequently in boys than in girls.

b. four to nine times

A number of causes for ADHD have been proposed, including:

d. cigarette and alcohol exposure during prenatal development.

A recent study revealed that peak thickness of the cerebral cortex occurs _____ in children with ADHD than in children without ADHD.

c. three years later

Which of the following has been found to be better at improving the behavior of children with ADHD in most cases?

d. A combination of stimulant medication and behavior management

These disorders consist of serious, persistent problems that involve relationships, aggression, depression, and fears associated with personal or school matters, as well as other inappropriate socioemotional characteristics.

Approximately 8 percent of children who have a disability and require an individualized education plan fall into this classification. c. Emotional and behavioral disorders

The most recent estimate is that _____ children had an autism spectrum disorder in 2008.

a. 1 in 88

_____ is a severe developmental disorder that has its onset in the first three years of life and includes deficiencies in social relationships, abnormalities in communication, and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior.

c. Autistic disorder

Jared, 3, was taken to the doctor by his parents who were concerned by his seeming lack of attachment to those around him. Jared hardly spoke at all and spent all day preoccupied with bouncing his ball off a wall. After a thorough investigation, his pediatrician diagnosed him with _____.

c. autistic disorder

_____ is a relatively mild autism spectrum disorder in which the child has relatively good verbal language, milder nonverbal language problems, and a restricted range of interests and relationships.

a. Asperger syndrome

What causes the autism spectrum disorders?

b. A brain dysfunction with abnormalities in brain structure and neurotransmitters

Boys are estimated to be _____ more likely to have autism spectrum disorders than girls are.

d. five times

The Education for All Handicapped Children Act, enacted in 1975, required that:

c. all students with disabilities be given a free, appropriate public education.

A(n) _____ is a written statement that spells out a program that is specifically tailored for the student with a disability.

b. individualized education plan I.E.P

The _____ is a setting that is as similar as possible to the one in which children who do not have a disability are educated.

d. least restrictive environment aka L.R.E

Jacob is a third-grader and has a disability that has caused him to be separated from his peers during the school day. Recently Jacob has been moved to the regular third-grade classroom. Jacob has just experienced _____.

d. inclusion

Sadie has a learning disability and is being educated in the least restrictive environment possible. This means that Sadie:

b. is placed in as regular a classroom as possible.

With regard to the cognitive development theory, Piaget proposed that the concrete operational stage lasts from approximately _____ years of age.

c. 7 to 11

A child is presented with two identical balls of clay. The experimenter rolls one ball into a long, thin shape; the other remains in its original ball. The child is then asked if there is more clay in the ball or in the long, thin piece of clay.

If the child answers the problem correctly, but cannot use abstract reasoning yet, the child most likely is in which stage of Piaget’s cognitive development theory? d. Concrete operational stage

Children who have reached the concrete operational stage are capable of _____, which is the ability to order stimuli along a quantitative dimension.

b. seriation

Luis is able to organize coins in a row from the largest in size to the smallest. His newfound ability is called _____.

b. seriation

Byron can take sticks of different lengths and put them all in order from shortest to longest. He can also discern that if stick A is longer then B and B is longer than C, then A is longer then C. This ability to logically combine relations to understand certain conclusions is _____.

b. transitivity

_____ develop(s) more rapidly during early childhood, and _____ develop(s) more rapidly during middle and late childhood.

b. Short-term memory; long-term memory

Compared with novices, experts have:

b. acquired extensive knowledge about a particular content area.

If the word "win" is on a list of words a child is asked to remember, the child might think of the last time he won a pony race with a friend. This is an example of _____.

d. elaboration

Which of the following is a strategy for improving children’s memory skills?

b. Embed memory-relevant language when instructing children.

Which of the following is NOT an effective memory strategy?

c. Encourage memorization rather than understanding of information

At some point during the early elementary school years, children begin to use _____ more and, according to the fuzzy trace theory, this contributes to the improved memory and reasoning of older children.

d. gist

According to the fuzzy trace theory, the _____ consists of the precise details of the information.

b. verbatim memory trace

Voletta thinks reflectively and reviews, connects, and reflects as a means of evaluating evidence. This means that she is engaging in:

a. critical thinking.

_____ refers to being alert, mentally present, and cognitively flexible while going through life’s everyday activities and tasks.

b. Mindfulness

Emily has the ability to think about things in novel and unusual ways; this allows her to come up with unique solutions to problems. This ability is called _____.

d. creative thinking

_____ thinking characterizes the kind of thinking that is required on conventional tests of intelligence.

a. Convergent

The type of thinking that produces many answers to the same question is called:

a. divergent thinking.

"What would you do if you could be invisible for a day?" This is an example of a question that has many possible answers and fosters _____ thinking.

a. divergent

From the following, identify an important difference between the reasoning of children and the reasoning of scientists.

a. Children tend to bias experiments in favor of whatever hypothesis they began with.

_____ refers to a technique in which individuals are encouraged to come up with creative ideas in a group, play off each other’s ideas, and say almost anything that comes to mind.

c. Brainstorming

Which of the following is a way to get children to be more creative?

c. Guide children to be persistent and delay gratification

_____ involves knowing about knowing.

c. Metacognition

Knowledge about memory is known as:

a. metamemory.

Megan, 8, has a test tomorrow. "It’s an easy test," she tells her mother. "I just have to recognize a bunch of stuff on a chart. I finished studying for it yesterday." Megan is exhibiting her:

c. metamemory.

Michael Pressley believes that the key to education is helping students to:

c. learn a repertoire of strategies for problem solving.

Mental age (MA) is:

c. an individual’s level of mental development relative to others.

A person’s mental age divided by chronological age (CA), multiplied by 100 would indicate that person’s:

b. intelligence quotient.

Sergio’s mental age is 8, but his chronological age is 9, we would say that Sergio’s IQ is:

c. above average

Who created the concept of intelligence quotient?

b. William Stern

Sally’s mental age is 12, but her chronological age is 9. Sally’s IQ is _____.

d. 133

If intelligence is assumed to be normally distributed, which of the following would you expect to find in the overall population?

b. More people of moderate intelligence than of high or low intelligence

Amber is given a Stanford-Binet intelligence test. Her mental age is determined to be 14 and her chronological age is 10. Which of the following can be said about Amber?

d. Her IQ score is above the majority of the population.

The _____ not only provide an overall IQ score, but they also yield several composite indexes that allow the examiner to quickly determine the areas in which the child is strong or weak.

a. Wechsler scales

Which of the following is a type of intelligence identified in Robert J. Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence?

b. Practical intelligence

Although Casey scores only about average on standardized intelligence tests, he has street smarts, excellent social skills, and good common sense. According to Sternberg, he has _____ intelligence.

b. practical

Robert J. Sternberg’s triarchic theory and Howard Gardner’s theory of intelligence are examples of the idea that:

c. intelligence consists of a number of specific abilities.

Howard Gardner suggests that there are _____ types of intelligence.

c. 8

Colin does not earn high grades on standardized tests but has a black belt in martial arts. According to Gardner, Colin has _____ skills.

c. bodily-kinesthetic

Who among the following would have good spatial abilities?

d. An architect

Which of the following is a type of intelligence identified by Howard Gardner?

a. Intrapersonal

Nathan Brody and many other researchers have observed that people who excel at one type of intellectual task are:

d. likely to excel at others too.

Which of the following statements about IQ and intelligence is true?

d. IQ scores have been rapidly increasing around the world.

The worldwide increase in intelligence scores that has occurred over a short period of time has been called the:

c. Flynn effect.

Considering how early intervention programs to improve intellectual development—such as the Abecedarian Intervention program—have shown marked improvements in the

IQ of participants, it can be inferred that the main reason children from low SES families earn lower scores on IQ tests is that: a. the parents have difficulty providing an intellectually stimulating environment for their children.

Many intelligence tests are biased in that they:

c. reflect the cultures of some test takers more than others.

Paul has an IQ of 60. He lives in his own apartment and supports himself with a job. He has many friends, goes bowling, and eats out frequently. He has no difficulty adapting to everyday life. According to the definition of mental retardation, Paul is:

b. mildly retarded.

Those individuals who have IQs of 55 to 70 fall into the _____ category of mental retardation.

a. mild

About _____ percent of the mentally retarded fall into the mild category.

a. 89

What percentage of mentally retarded are considered moderately retarded?

b. About 6 percent

Individuals who are categorized as having moderate mental retardation have an IQ of _____.

d. 40 to 54

Less than 1 percent of mentally retarded Americans are considered to be:

d. profoundly mentally retarded.

About _____ percent of the mentally retarded are in the severe category, with IQs of _____.

c. 3.5; 25 to 39

Julie has an IQ of 50. She lives in a group home and works at a recycling plant, sorting cans and bottles into bins. Overall, Julie functions at the level of a second-grader. Julie’s level of mental retardation is considered _____.

b. moderate

Organic retardation is caused by:

a. a genetic disorder or brain damage.

Most people who suffer from organic retardation have IQs that range between _____.

c. 0 and 50

Cultural-familial retardation is characterized by:

a. mild to moderate retardation.

Children with superior talent for something are called:

a. gifted.

A child with an IQ of _____ or higher is considered to be gifted.

d. 130

Fiona, 10, is an outstanding pianist and has an IQ of 140. Fiona is:

b. gifted.

Ethan is a gifted 14-year-old child who excels academically and has an IQ of 140. In the light of the findings from Lewis Terman’s study of high IQ children, it is likely that Ethan is:

c. more mature than others his own age.

Ellen Winner described three criteria that characterize gifted children. Which of the following was NOT one of these criteria?

c. Easily bored

Which of the following is true of giftedness?

c. Individuals with world-class status in the arts, mathematics, science, and sports all report strong family support.

By the time children are 11 years old their vocabulary has increased to approximately:

c. 40,000 words.

_____ is knowledge about language, such as knowing what a preposition is or the ability to discuss the sounds of a language, and allows children to think about their language, understand what words are, and even define them.

b. Metalinguistic awareness

The _____ approach stresses that reading instruction should parallel a child’s natural language learning.

d. whole-language

At Jackson Elementary, children are taught to read by learning to recognize entire words and sentences and to use the context words are used in the text to guess their meaning. Their reading material consists of stories, poems, and later, newspapers and magazines.

This school is using the _____ approach to reading instruction. d. whole-language

The _____ approach to reading instruction emphasizes the teaching of basic rules for translating written symbols into sounds.

b. phonics

Louise is teaching her son to read by telling him the sound that each alphabet stands for. What approach is she using?

b. Phonics

Alberta is a school teacher who introduces children to reading by teaching them a rhyme that goes, "A for apple, A says ah; B for ball, B says buh," and so on. This exemplifies the _____ approach to reading instruction.

b. phonics

Which of the following statements represents the current thinking among increasing numbers of experts in the field of reading?

b. Direct instruction in phonics is a key aspect of learning to read.

Which of the following is true about second-language learning?

a. For adolescents and adults, new vocabulary is easier to learn than new sounds or new grammar.

Which of the following statements about children who are bilingual is NOT true?

c. Children who are bilingual are less conscious of the structure of spoken language than children who speak only one language.

Before she started school in the U.S., Mita, daughter of immigrant parents of Indian origin, used to speak only her home language of Hindi fluently. She then learned to speak English in school and attained fluency in both Hindi and English.

However, as she grew older, she started to feel ashamed of her roots and has given up speaking Hindi altogether. This phenomenon is called: c. subtractive bilingualism.

This leading developmental neuroscientist and his colleagues recently proposed that the prefrontal cortex likely orchestrates the functions of many other brain regions during development.

Answer: Mark Johnson

These theorists proposed the fuzzy trace theory in understanding the development of memory.

Answer: Charles Brainerd and Valerie Reyna

This theorist distinguished between convergent thinking and divergent thinking.

Answer: J. P. Guilford

This theorist developed the triarchic theory of intelligence.

Answer: Robert J. Sternberg

This theorist described three criteria that characterize gifted children, whether in art, music, or academic domains.

Answer: Ellen Winner

Tabitha has a learning disability that involves a severe impairment her ability to read and spell. She most likely has _____.

Answer: dyslexia

This is a disability in which individuals consistently show problems in one or more of these areas: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.

Answer: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder aka ADHD

The concept that a child with a disability must be educated in a setting that is as similar as possible to settings of children who do not have disabilities.

Answer: Least restrictive environment (LRE)

Moira’s teacher asks her to put sticks in order from smallest to largest. The cognitive ability to order stimuli along a quantitative dimension is known as _____.

Answer: seriation

A theory that states that memory is best understood by considering two types of memory representation: verbatim memory trace and gist.

Answer: Fuzzy trace theory

Quinn is asked "how many things can you do with a paper clip?" This kind of question which can produce many different answers, is a test of _____.

Answer: divergent thinking

If we look at Madeline’s mental age and divided it by her chronological age, and then multiply it by 100, we are calculating her _____.

Answer: intelligence quotient (IQ)

Discuss height and weight changes that take place during middle and late childhood.

Answer: During the elementary school years, children grow an average of 2 to 3 inches a year until, at the age of 11, the average girl is 4 feet, 10 inches tall, and the average boy is 4 feet, 9 inches tall. During the middle and late childhood years, children gain about 5 to 7 pounds a year.

Identify and describe the most common child cancer.

Answer: The most common cancer in children is leukemia, a cancer in which bone marrow manufactures an abundance of abnormal white blood cells, which crowd out normal cells, making the child susceptible to bruising and infection.

Briefly describe the three types of learning disabilities. Discuss the various treatment options. Do you think that educators treat learning disabilities appropriately? Provide reasons for your answer. Answer: Three types of learning disabilities are dyslexia, dysgraphia, and dyscalculia.

Dyslexia involves individuals who have a severe impairment in their ability to read and spell. Dysgraphia is a learning disability that involves difficulty in handwriting. Dyscalculia, aka developmental arithmetic disorder, is a learning disability that involves difficulty in math.

What are the treatment options available for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder A.D.H.D? Answer: Stimulant medication such as Ritalin or Adderall which has fewer side effects than Ritalin is effective in improving the attention of

many children with A.D.H.D, but it usually does not improve their attention to the same level as children who do not have A.D.H.D. A meta-analysis concluded that behavior management treatments are effective in reducing the effects of

A.D.H.D. Researchers have often found that a combination of medication, such as Ritalin, and behavior management improves the behavior of

children with A.D.H.D better than medication alone or behavior management alone, although not in all cases.

Discuss what IDEA does. Answer: Until the 1970s, most U.S. public schools either refused enrollment to children with disabilities or inadequately served them. This changed in 1975 when Public Law 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act,

In 1990, Public Law 94-142 was recast as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). IDEA was amended in 1997 and then reauthorized in 2004 and renamed the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act. IDEA spells out broad mandates

for services to children with disabilities of all kinds. These services include evaluation and eligibility determination,

appropriate education and an individualized education plan I.E.P, and education in the least restrictive environment L.R.E.

Compare and contrast convergent thinking with divergent thinking.

Answer: Convergent thinking produces one correct answer to a question, characteristic of the kind of thinking on standardized intelligence tests. Divergent thinking produces many answers to the same question and characterizes creativity.

According to Robert J. Sternberg, which type of intelligence in students is most likely to be favored in conventional schooling? Answer: According to Robert J. Sternberg, students with high analytic ability tend to be favored in conventional schooling. They often do well under direct instruction, in

which the teacher lectures and gives students objective tests. They often are considered to be "smart" students who get good grades, show up in high-level tracks, do well on traditional tests of intelligence and the SAT, and later get admitted to competitive colleges.

What are the barriers to creating culture-fair tests? Answer: Most tests tend to reflect what the dominant culture thinks is important. If tests have time limits, that will bias the test against groups not concerned with time.

Even pictures can produce bias because some cultures have less experience with drawings and photographs. Because of such difficulties in creating culture-fair tests, Robert Sternberg concludes that there are no culture-fair tests, only culture-reduced tests.

Is giftedness a product of heredity or environment? Give one example.Answer: It is likely that giftedness is a product of both heredity and environment. those who are gifted recall that they had signs of high ability in a particular area at a very young age.

This suggests the importance of innate ability in giftedness. However, researchers have also found that individuals with world-class status in the arts, mathematics, science, and sports all report strong family support and years of training and practice.

Deliberate practice is an important characteristic of individuals who become experts in a particular domain.

For example, in one study, the best musicians engaged in twice as much deliberate practice over their lives as did the least successful ones.

What is bilingual education? What are the positive aspects of bilingual education? Answer: Bilingual education teaches academic subjects to immigrant children in their native language while slowly teaching English.

Advocates of bilingual education programs argue that if children who do not know English are taught only in English, they will fall behind in academic subjects. Research supports bilingual education in that

1 children have difficulty learning a subject when it is taught in a language they do not understand, and

2 when both languages are integrated in the classroom, children learn the second language more readily and participate more actively.

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