Chapter 9, Motivation and emotion

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the process by which activities are started, directed, and continued so that physical or psychological needs or wants are met.

motivation is…

what "moves" people to do the things they do.

extrinsic motivation

a person performs an action because it leads to an outcome that is separate from the person

intrinsic motivation

the type of motivation in which a person performs an action because the act itself is fun, rewarding, challenging or satisfying in some internal manner.


biologically determined and innate patterns of behavior. Evolutionary theorists proposed that human beings may also be governed by similar instincts. For instance, according to these theorists, the human instinct to reproduce is responsible for sexual behavior.

Central idea in the study of human behavior

research on the genetics of both cognitive and behavioral traits suggest that hereditary factors can account for more than 50 percent of variance in some aspects of human cognition, temperament, and personality; and much of the variance in some aspects of human cognition, temperament, and personality; and much of this variance is due to the influence of multiple genes or hereditary factors, not just one.


a requirement of some material (such as food or water) that is essential for survival of the organism. When an organism has a need, it leads to a psychological tension as well as a physical arousal that motivates the organism to act in order to fulfill the need and reduce the tension.


the tension felt by the need

Drive-reduction theory

proposes the connection between internal physiological states and outward behavior. In this theory, there are two kinds of drives.

Primary drives

those that involve survival needs of the body such as hunger and thirst

acquired (secondary) drives

those that are learned through experience or conditioning, such as the need for money or special approval


tendency of the body to maintain a steady state. When there is a primary drive need, the body is in a state of imbalance. This stimulates behavior that brings the body back into balance, or homeostasis.

Need for affiliation (nAff)

people high in this need seek to be liked by others and to be held in high regard by those around them.

Need for power (nPow)

power is not about reaching a goal but about having control over other people. People high in this need would want to have a high influence over others and make an impact on them.

Carol Dweck

according to motivation and personality psychologist, the need for achievement is closely linked to personality factors, including a person’s view of how self (the beliefs a person holds about his or her own abilities and relationships with others) can affect the individuals perception of the success or failure of his or her actions.

Dweck’s concept

it is related to the much olfer notion of locus of control, in which people who assume that they have control over what happens in their lives are considered to be internal in locus of control, and those who feel that their lives are controlled by powerful other, luck, or fate are considered to be external in locus of control

Dweck focused his research mainly in the field of education

according to this research, people can form one of two belief systems about intelligence, which in turn affects their motivation to achieve. Those who believe intelligence is fixed and unchangeable often demonstrate an external locus of control when faced with difficulty, leading them to give up easily or avoid situations in which they might fail. They are prone to helplessness, the tendency to stop trying. Dweck’s research suggest that students who have had a long history of successes may be at most risk for developing a learned helplessness after a big failure because their past successes have led them to believe in their own fixed intelligence.

Dweck believes that constructive criticism

when linked with praise of effort and the use of strategies, will be a better influence on the child’s self-esteem and willingness to challenge themselves than endless praise that can become meaningless when given indiscriminately.

stimulus motive

one that appears to be unlearned but causes an increase in stimulation

arousal theory

optimal (best or ideal) level of tension

arousal levels

if the arousal level is too high, such as severe test anxiety, or even if the level of arousal is too low, such as boredom, task may suffer.

moderate level of arousal

is best

Yerkes-Dodson law

explains the relationship between task performance and arousal has been explained.

Arousal effect appears to be modified by the difficulty level of the task

easy tasks demand a somewhat "high moderate" level for optimal performance, whereas difficult tasks require a "low-moderate" level.

Sensation seeker

a person who needs more arousal. they seem to need more complex and varied sensory experiences than other people. the need can be either high or low


things that attract or lure people into action

incentive approaches

behavior is explained in terms of the external stimulus and its rewarding properties.

Abraham Maslow (self determination thoery)

proposed that there are several levels of needs that a person must strive to meet before achieving the highest level of personality fulfillment.


the point that is seldom reached, at which people have satisfied the lower needs and achieved their full human potential. For a person to achieve self-actualization, which is one of the highest level of growth needs, the primary, fundamental needs must first be fulfilled.

Maslow’s hierarchy pyramid

8 levels of hierarchy (some not included in pyramid)

Starting from above esteem and up -cognitive needs: to know, understand and explore -aesthetic needs: to appreciate symmetry, order, and beauty -Self-actualization needs: to find self fulfillment and realize one’s potential – Transcendence needs (highest): find spiritual meaning beyond one’s immediate self

peak experience

times in a person’s life in which self-actualization is achieved, atleast temporarily

Richard ryan and edward deci (SDT, self-determination theory)

in this theory, there are three inborn and universal needs that help people gain a complete sense of self and whole, healthy relationships with others. the 3 needs are autonomy, or the need to be in control of one’s own behavior and goals. competence, or the need to to able to master the challenging tasks of one’s life. relatedness, or the need to feel a sense of belonging, intimacy, and security in relationships with others.

How do SDT needs relate to other theories?

These needs are common in several theories of personality; they relatedness need is, of course, similar to Maslow’s belonging needs, and both autonomy and competence are important aspects of Erikson’s theory of psychosocial personality development

hunger pangs

stomach contractions, caused hunger and that the presence of food in the stomach would stop the contractions and appease the hunger drive.

insulin and glucagon

hormones that are secreted by the pancreas to control the levels of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates in the whole body, including glucose (blood sugar). Insulin reduces the level of glucose in the bloodstream which also results in increased hunger.


the ventromedial area, may be involved in stopping eating when glucose level goes up; lateral hypothalamus appears to influence onset of eating when insulin level goes up. a person’s weight set point and basal metabolic rate are tied to hypothalamus, and the hormone leptin appears to affect appetite.


body weight 20% or more over ideal (based on height), significantly impacted by genetics, overeating, exercise, and changes in metabolism


can be defined as the "feeling" aspect of consciousness, characterized by three elements: a certain physical arousal, a certain behavior that reveals the feeling to the outside world, and an inner awareness of feeling.

Chris is in his twenties and has completed college; he has satisfied his curiosity about other cultures with a trip around the world when he graduated.

According to Maslow’s hierarchy, which needs might he work to satisfy next?

aesthetic needs

The psychological tension that arises in an organism and motivates the organism to act to reduce the tension is called __________.

a drive

Expectancy value theories assume that the actions of humans cannot be predicted without an understanding of people’s __________.

beliefs and values The expectancy-value theory of motivation argues that motivation is a function of an individual’s perceived success level and the value of the goal. Individuals adjust their actions, based on what has happened in the past and cognitive expectancy that they develop.

Drive-reduction theory proposes that __________.

humans seek homeostasis, motivating them to achieve balance when a need arises

Which of the following is NOT an example of the Yerkes-Dodson law?

A student’s high performance in the classroom is based on parents and teachers giving the correct form of praise.

The approach to understanding motivation that is based solely on the belief in the need for stimulation is the __________ approach.


According to the Yerkes-Dodson law, how is performance related to arousal during difficult tasks?

Performance is best when arousal is low-moderate

Luke goes for a three-mile run, causing him to sweat and become thirsty.
In response to this need, Luke drinks a bottle of water. When he drinks, he restores his body’s __________.


__________ is the psychological tension and physical arousal created when there is a need that motivates the organism to act in order to fulfill the need and reduce the tension.

drive Departures from optimal states create drives. Primary drives, such as hunger and thirst, preserve homeostasis. Secondary or acquired drives, such as sex or social drives, initiate other activities. A drive to preserve safety motivates feelings of fear, anger, and even the need for sleep. Sexual drives and drives to protect offspring motivate sexual and family relationships. Social drives make people want to cooperate, and educative drives inspire curiosity and play, as well as the pursuit of art and literature.

After dinner, Mitchell feels full and satisfied. A few minutes later, he gets up off the couch, heads to the kitchen and grabs a candy bar.
His anticipation of the delicious taste of chocolate was his __________ for choosing to eat even though he was full.

incentive Incentives—positive or negative stimuli in the environment—motivate us to act. You may eat because you feel hungry, but you might also eat because you like the taste of the food, in this case chocolate.

__________ is a type of motivation in which a person performs an action because the act itself is rewarding or satisfying in some internal matter.

intrinsic motivation An example of an intrinsic motivation would be reading a book just to learn new information, rather than reading to earn a grade (extrinsic motivation).

The biologically determined and innate patterns of behavior that exist in both people and animals are called __________.


The motivation approach in which behavior is explained in terms of the external stimulus and its rewarding properties is the __________.

incentive approach

A gymnast can complete a trick on the balance beam consistently without falling in practice. However, during competition the gymnast becomes nervous, causing her to bobble and fall.
According to the Yerkes-Dodson law, what is the problem?

the gymnast’s arousal level is too high

A person who is full but still takes another helping of food at dinner because it tastes so good is eating because __________.

taste of the food is the incentive for eating

A(n) __________ is a requirement of some material, such as food or water, that is essential for survival of the organism.

need A need can be biological, such as food or drink, or it can be psychological, such as a need for achievement. According to the drive-reduction theory, when an organism has a need, it creates a drive to motivate the organism to fulfill it.

Many arousal theorists believe that a __________ level of arousal is optimal for most people under normal circumstances.


Why is it that there are two different curves to describe our optimum level of arousal on a curve illustrating the Yerkes-Dodson law?

Because our optimum level of arousal is mediated by the difficulty of the task being undertaken, with levels being higher on easy tasks and lower on difficult tasks.

Drive reduction theorists believe that believe that __________.

there is a connection between internal physiological states and outward behavior

The theory of motivation in which the social context of an action has an effect on the type of motivation existing for the action is known as __________.

the self-determination theory According to this theory, there are three needs that help a person develop a sense of self and secure relationships with others: autonomy, competence, and relatedness.Meeting these needs leads to an increase in behavior that is intrinsically motivated. The need of autonomy refers to an individual’s need to be in control of his or her actions, the need for competence refers to perception of mastery of goals, and relatedness refers to a sense of belonging.

Which of the following is a theory developed out of the humanistic approach to understanding motivation?

maslow’s hierarchy of needs

People driven by the need for ___________have a strong desire to attain both realistic goals, and very challenging ones.


Xavier has a strong desire to succeed in attaining goals. He currently has a medical degree and is in the process of earning a law degree.
Xavier has a need for __________.


People who seek careers and hobbies that allow others to evaluate them because they like the feedback on their performance are high in the need for __________.

achievement Individuals high in need for achievement like to compete and have an intrinsic belief in their abilities. Need for achievement is correlated with academic and occupational success, but not necessarily with an increase in wealth.

Work on expectancy-values and how our beliefs and values affect our actions was developed under the __________ approach to understanding motivation.

incentive Incentive models consider an individual’s value of the goal and the perceived level of success as affecting motivation.

Which of the following instincts is responsible for our reaction to run away if we sense danger?


Claire is intrinsically motivated to play tennis.
Why does she play?

she enjoys the exercise and the game because playing is enjoyable and rewarding to her

According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, before a person is ready to worry about his or her self-esteem needs, which needs must be met first?

love and belongingness needs

Being motivated to achieve a goal based on a consequence outside of our self is an example of __________.

extrinsic motivation

Annie controls what she eats very carefully, and has reduced her intake so that she could lose weight. Her body weight has decreased by 15 percent below her expected body weight. She cooks elaborate meals for friends but doesn’t eat any of it herself, and she believes she is fat. She exercises for at least 2 hours every day.
Annie is likely suffering from __________.


The role of the ventromedial hypothalamus is to __________.

stop the eating response when glucose levels go up

Social influences on hunger can have a powerful effect. Which of the following is a social influence that may affect our eating habits?

size of the plate

Which of the following does not play a role in determining the body’s weight set point?

the size of the stomach The weight set point is the level of weight that the body tries to maintain. Some researchers believe that the hypothalamus affects the weight set point. Injury to the hypothalamus does raise or lower the weight set point dramatically, causing either drastic weight loss or weight gain. The basal metabolic rate (the amount of energy your body expends at rest), metabolism (the speed at which the body burns available energy), and exercise all play a part in the weight set point.

Anorexia nervosa is a condition in which a person reduces eating to the point that a weight loss of __________ percent below expected body weight occurs.


The condition in which the body weight of a person is 20-30 percent over the ideal body weight for that person’s height is known as __________.


Even if Lily eats a late breakfast, she still "feels" hungry at noon.
This is an example of __________.

classical conditioning

The role of the lateral hypothalamus is __________.

to trigger the eating response, when insulin levels go up

Which of the following is a physiological factor in causing hunger?

insulin is released, causing blood glucose levels to drop

Which of the following is not a factor that creates obesity?

a raised metabolism as people age

The rate at which the body burns energy while resting is the __________.

basal metabolic rate

Which of the following is an example of a social component of hunger?

a girl feels lonely so she eats an extra helping of dessert to cheer herself up

What hormone do low-carbohydrate diets try to control to prevent hunger cravings that commonly occur after consuming highly refined carbohydrates?

insulin When glucose levels drop, we feel hungry. If glucose levels rise, the hormone insulin reduces them by telling the body to convert glucose to fat. As the body monitors these chemical levels, it sends messages to the brain about whether to eat or not.

Bulimia nervosa is a condition in which a person develops a cycle of binging on enormous amounts of food and then using inappropriate methods to avoid weight gain. What causes a person to binge when he or she is so worried about weight gain?

Prompts such as an anxious or depressed mood, social stressors, or intense hunger after extreme diet attempts

The level of weight that the body tries to maintain is known as __________.

weight set point

Which hormone secreted by the pancreas signals hunger by lowering blood sugar levels?


As people age, what happens to the body’s BMR and weight set point?

BMr decreases, weight set point increases

Insulin and glucagon are hormones secreted by the __________ to control the levels of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins in the whole body.


The United States has the highest rate of obesity in the world because __________ of its population is obese.


Severe tooth decay, erosion of the esophagus, potassium, calcium and sodium imbalances, damage to the intestinal tract, heart problems, fatigue, and seizures are all severe consequences of __________.

bulimia nervosa

What did Alfred Kinsey believe about sexual orientation?

he believed that sexual orientation falls on a continuum with some people falling at either extreme and some falling in the middle

The term heterosexual refers to a person’s __________.

sexual orientation

Which of the following is an example of a sociocultural factor of sexual dysfunction?

an Indian wife views sex as a duty of married couples but also a joy to be celebrated within the context of bearing children, upon which her status depends greatly

A woman’s clitoris swells, the lips of the vagina open, and the inside of the vagina is moistened. This woman is in the __________ phase of the sexual-response cycle.

excitement According to Masters and Johnson, the four stages of the sexual response cycle are excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution. Orgasm is the third phase and the climax of the sexual response cycle. Resolution if the fourth phase of the sexual response cycle. During this stage, the body returns to normal functioning. Plateau is the second phase of the sexual response cycle. During this stage, the changes begun in phase 1 are intensified. During the first phase in the sexual response cycle, excitement, a woman’s breasts become fuller and vaginal lubrication begins.

According to research, when did most gay or bisexual students first become aware of their sexual orientation?

during high school

Allen has low self-esteem and has a lot of anxiety about his ability to perform the sex act well.

His sexual dysfunction probably stems from __________.

physchological factors

Which of the following is not true about a woman in the orgasm phase?

the muscle contractions of the vaginal wall trigger the release of the egg from the ovary

Melvin and his girlfriend Zakiya are having a friendly argument about their sexual practices. Zakiya insists that all people go through the sexual cycles identically.

Which of the following should Melvin say if he wants to win the argument?

"Men have two different progressions of the sexual-response cycle, and women have three." In 1957, William Masters and Virginia Johnson conducted the first direct observational study on the physical aspects of the human sexual response by recording the physiological reactions of 700 female and male volunteers while they were engaged in sexual intercourse or masturbation. Their research led them to propose four stages of the sexual response cycle: excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution, respectively. Men show a refractory period after the fourth phase during which time they cannot achieve erection. Women may go through all four stages (excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution). They may also experience multiple orgasms, or remain in plateau without experiencing orgasm. Women do not experience a refractory period.

Which of the following is an example of a situation in which a psychological factor may lead to sexual dysfunction?

Jennie was molested as a child and suffers from low self-esteem

Which of the following is the shortest phase of the sexual-response cycle?


One of the most important studies of human sexual behavior was conducted by __________.

Alfred Kinsey In 1948, Alfred Kinsey published his findings from a large survey of adult sexual behavior in the United States. His findings were based on face-to-face interviews with participants and included details about the frequency of behaviors such as masturbation, anal sex, premarital sex, and sexual orientation.

What was controversial about Masters’s choice of subjects for his study?

They were prostitutes

Organic factors, psychological factors, and sociocultural factors can all be causes of __________.

sexual dysfunction

Even though it was a study that presented an enormous amount of information regarding human sexual behavior, which of the following was a major criticism of Alfred Kinsey’s work?

he gave more attention to "unusual or abnormal" sexual behavior than he did to normal sexual behaviors

What physical responses would a male experience during the plateau phase of the sexual-response cycle?

the penis becomes more erect and may release a few drops of fluid

The most common sexual orientation is __________.


Which of the following is true about the resolution phase of the sexual-response cycle?

Women can still experience an orgasm

A person who is either male or female and is attracted to both sexes is called __________.


Which of the following was not a criticism of Kinsey’s study?

Kinsey collected surveys from several different groups including an equal number of minorities, a wide range of age groups, and from both rural and urban areas.

Alfred Kinsey is most known for __________.

the report he published concerning human sexual behavior and the different ways in which people engage in the sex act

A study has found that homosexual men and heterosexual women respond similarly to a testosterone-based pheromone that is secreted in perspiration; what does this tell us about the origin of homosexuality?

it tells us that homosexuality can be linked to biological origins.

Masters and Johnson are known for research concerning __________.

the physical responses that occur during sexual activity

Who is credited with conducting one of the most important studies of the human sexual response?

Masters and Johnson

__________ are types of sexual problems caused by physical disorders or psychological stress.

organic or stress-induced dysfunctions

Elizabeth is told by her mother that her interest in sex is evil. Elizabeth can no longer feel pleasure when she has sex.

This sexual dysfunction is attributed to __________.

sociocultural factors

Which of the following is evidence that sexual orientation is influenced by genetics?

A study of twins found that 52 percent of the identical twin siblings were both homosexual, and that only 22 percent of fraternal twins and 11 percent of adopted brothers and sisters were homosexual.

__________ is a sexual dysfunction in which a male cannot maintain an erection long enough to complete the sexual act.

erectile dysfunction

According to Masters and Johnson’s sexual-response cycle, what would a male experience during the excitement phase?

The penis becomes erect, the testes pull up, and the skin of the scrotum tightens.

The __________ is an adaptation of Charles Darwin’s theory that when an emotion is expressed freely on the face, the emotion intensifies.

facial feedback hypothesis

In a social situation, an American may display anger outwardly by shouting or banging on a table, but a Japanese person may not show anger outwardly at all and will remain calm.

This is an example of __________.

display rules Research has supported the idea that at least seven basic facial expressions are recognized and mimicked in cultures around the world. However, the display rules, or exactly when, where, and how these emotions can be expressed, appears to differ across cultures.

The theory of emotion in which a person would process emotion by thinking "My stomach is fluttering, therefore, I must be nervous," is the __________.

James-Lange theory

What portion of the brain is involved in creating the facial expressions of emotions in humans?


Which statement is not true about display rules?

display rules are innate, not learned

Liam was confronted by a large salivating dog.

According to the Cannon-Bard theory, Liam experienced __________.

fear and bodily reactions at the same time Walter Cannon and Philip Bard believed that physiological reactions did not precede emotions because sudden emotions don’t allow for the delay in experiencing and then processing. According to the Cannon-Bard theory, the mental and physiological components of emotions happen simultaneously.

Which of the following describes the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion?

"I am shaking and feeling afraid at the same time."

While walking down the street, Preeti sees a large, snarling dog standing on the sidewalk. She immediately appraises the situation as dangerous, experiences fear, and becomes aroused.
Preeti’s response to the dog is best explained by __________.

Lazarus’s cognitive-mediational theory Richard Lazarus believes that we have to think about our physiological responses in order to develop an emotion. According to the cognitive-mediational theory, if you notice a particular physiological response, you first have to decide what it means before you can feel an emotion. For instance, your heart could be pounding because you’re nervous that you didn’t prepare for an exam or because you’re excited that the person you went on a date with last weekend just walked into the room. Having to decide what emotion a physiological response indicates could lead to misattribution. If you are taking an exam while sitting next to someone, you might think that you feel attracted to that person, when in fact you are simply terrified of failing the exam.

The theory of emotion that proposes that physical arousal and cognitive appraisal of a stimulus happen simultaneously is known as the __________.

cognitive arousal theory of emotion In the 1960s Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer developed the Schachter and Singer two-factor theory, which says that the cognitive evaluation happens alongside our physiological arousal to create the emotion we experience. Labels become important since physiological experiences can be very similar. Schachter’s cognition-plus-feedback theory says that how we perceive an environment feeds back into the physiological arousal and influences what we feel.

A babysitter has put the children to sleep. It is dark and quiet in the house. She hears what sounds like a doorknob turning an hour before the parents are expected to be home, making her think that perhaps a stranger is trying to break into the house.
According to Lazarus’s cognitive-mediational theory, how would the babysitter experience an emotion in this situation?

She would first go to the door to see what is causing the doorknob to turn. If the parents are home early, she would feel relieved, but if it was a stranger she would feel afraid.

Adam wants to feel happier.
According to the facial feedback hypothesis, what should Adam do?

smile more

Learned ways of controlling displays of emotion in social settings are known as __________

display rule

After experiencing fear that morning at school due to the loud noise of the fire alarm before a fire drill, a little boy later jumps at the sound of the phone ringing at home. After he realizes it was just the phone, the boy relaxes.
How would the boy’s initial reaction to the phone be explained?

The stimulus traveled to the boy’s amygdala first through the subcortical route, which notified his brain of the potential danger before he could assess the situation more carefully and take control of his emotions.

A study conducted by Kitayama & Markus (1994) showed that Japanese students associated the subjective emotion of happiness with feelings of friendliness and social engagement.
The study demonstrated an aspect of processing emotion in a(n) __________ culture.

collectivistic Individuals from collectivistic cultures, such as non-western cultures, tend to use different labels to describe emotions than individuals from individualistic cultures.

What portion of the brain is involved in the interpretation of facial expressions conveying emotion?

right hemisphere Damage to the right side of the brain results in an inability to identify faces, a disorder called prosopagnosia. Positive and negative emotions also engage different sides of the brain. Negativity, such as resentment or guilt, activates the right side of the prefrontal cortex more than the left. Depressed people often show less activity in the left side of the frontal cortex, which is associated with positive emotions.

The theory that we experience emotion first with physical arousal (e.g., increased heart rate, shaky hands) which then leads to awareness of the emotion is the __________.

James-Lange theory

Physiologically, the body responds to emotion with arousal created by the __________.

sympathetic nervous system

Darwin proposed that emotions are a product of evolution and are therefore universal. Which of the following supports the idea that emotions are based in biology rather than in learning?

A child, blind from birth, makes the appropriate facial expression for an emotion without ever having seen it.

Which of the following describes the cognitive arousal theory?

"I am aroused due to dangerous cues in my environment; therefore, I must be afraid."

What was the primary difference between the James-Lange and the Cannon-Bard theories of emotion?

The James-Lange theory suggests that the different components of emotion occur in a sequential order, while the Cannon-Bard theory suggests that they occur at the same time.

Which of the following is not an element of emotion?

anticipation of what another human being may feel

Physiologically, the body responds to anger with __________.

high heart rate and blood pressure

According to the James-Lange theory of emotion, a physiological response to a stimulus is caused by the arousal of the __________.

sympathetic nervous system

According to the work of Ekman and Friesen, which of the following is one of the seven universally recognized facial expressions of emotion?

disgust Research has supported the idea that at least seven basic facial expressions are recognized and mimicked in cultures around the world. These include anger, fear, disgust, happiness, surprise, sadness, and contempt. However, the display rules, or exactly when, where, and how these emotions can be expressed, appears to differ across cultures.

Charles Darwin theorized that emotions were a product of __________ and therefore, universal.


Which of the following is an element of emotion?

physical arousal Emotion includes three distinct but related parts: physiological arousal, expressive behavior, and cognitive experience. If your heart pounds in fear as you walk to the edge of a diving board or you feel choked up watching Brokeback Mountain or Atonement, you are experiencing physiological arousal. If you turn around and run back down the diving board ladder or cry during the film, you are exhibiting expressive behaviors. Your cognitive experience might include feeling embarrassed and deciding never to try diving off the high board again. On the other hand, you might feel moved and continue to rent sad movies.

If we were to measure various physiological changes going on in her body, we would find that Myra’s heart rate was higher than normal, and her vascular measures were also elevated.
Which emotion is Maya likely experiencing?


Professor Peterson is a psychology professor who taught his class about theories of emotion. He told his class that facial expressions provide feedback to the brain, which in turn intensifies and causes emotions.
Professor Peterson taught his class the __________.

facial feedback hypothesis of emotion

sensation seekers

need more arousal in the form of more complex and varied sensory experiences

the desire to avoid an unpleasant consequence is an example of

extrinsic motivation

the psychological tension that arises in an organism and motivates the organism to act to reduce the tension is called

a drive

Ryan and Deci’s self-determination theory asserts that the three primary human interpersonal needs are competence, relatedness, and


according to psychologist carol dweck, a person’s needs for achievement is closely linked to that persons

beliefs about control over his or her body

in the ____________ approach to motivation, behavior is explained in terms of an external stimulus and its rewarding properties


an example of a stimulus motive is


one of the earliest approaches to motivation focused on

biologically determined patterns of behavior

in order to control emotions, the technique of distraction has been linked to what area of the brain?

anterior cingulate cortex

In the classical Schachter-singer "angry man/happy man" experiment, participants were given a drug to elicit a physical response and then exposed to two different conditions. One group was paired with a confederate pretending to be angry, and the other group with a confederate pretending to be happy. What was the main objective of this experiment?

to determine whether physical arousal has to be interpreted cognitively before it can be labeled as an emotion

which area of the brain has been linked to the processing of positive emotions?

the left frontal lobe

physiologically, the body responds to emotion with arousal created by the

sympathetic nervous system

the theory that feeling an emotion comes first as a physical reaction that leads to a behavioral response is known as

common sense theory of emotion

according to Dweck’s research on achievement motivation, why might a student who has a history of bad grades be most at risk for learned helplessness?

the student may become depressed because of the belief that intelligence is fixed, unchangeable and out of his or her control.

Marcus and Geoff decide to train together to participate in a triathlon. Geoff is doing it because he likes the challenge, but Marcus is only doing it because he wants to win the prize money. In terms of theory, Marcus is being motivated by a(n) _______ drive


Phil is a sales representative at a company that offers many incentives to employees including bonuses and free trips to employees for good performance. Phil is the highest-performing rep in the company and has won the trip every year for 4 years. Phil is probably motivated


according to Ryan and Deci’s research when a person feels a strong sense of autonomy and competence when completing a task his/her __________ increases

intrinsic motivation

A criticism of Maslow’s hierarchy is that it was developed using only Americans. In which country’s culture would security needs be much stronger than self-actualization needs?


Stacy is trying to find a parking spot in a busy parking lot she seems to find an open space and heads towards it but before she pulls in a car cuts her off and almost caused an accident during this time Stacy’s heart begins racing after moment later she realizes she is angry. what is this theory that best describes her reaction

james-lange theory

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