Chapter 8 Biology bbc

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organisms which make their own food


stacks of thylakoids


saclike photosynthetic membranes


plants’ principle pigment


light-absorbing molecules


plants use the energy of sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into high-energy carbohydrates – sugars and starches – and oxygen, a waste product

Adenosine triphosphate

one of the principle chemical compounds that cells use to store and release energy


organisms which obtain energy from the food that they consume


chlorophyll and other pigments are organized into complexes

Light – dependent reactions

requires light

ATP synthase

spans the membrane and allows H+ ions to pass through it and produces ATP

Calvin cycle

plants use the energy that ATP and NADPH contain to build high-energy compounds that can be stored for a long time


the region outside the thylakoid membranes


an electron carrier

What do autotrophs require from the environment in order to synthesize sugar?

Light Carbon dioxide Water (and soil minerals)

Organisms that make their own food are called


Most autotrophs obtain their energy from:


How is energy released from ATP?

A phosphate is removed.

How is it possible for most cells to function with only a small amount of ATP?

ATP can be quickly regenerated from ADP and P.

Compared to the energy stored in a molecule of glucose, ATP stores

much less energy.

What is the ultimate source of energy for plants?

The Sun

What is ATP and what is its role in the cell

ATP stands for adenosine triphosphate, which is one of the principle chemical compounds that living things use to store energy and release it for cell work to be done.

Describe several cellular activities that uses the energy released by ATP.

Active transport, movements within the cell, synthesis of proteins and nucleic acids, or responses to chemical signals.

How do autotrophs obtain energy?

Autotrophs obtain energy by making their own food

How do heterotrophs obtain energy?

Heterotrophs obtain energy from the foods they consume

With respect to energy, how are ATP and glucose similar?

Both store energy for a cell

With respect to energy, how are ATP and glucose different?

A single molecule of glucose stores more than 90 times the chemical energy of an ATP molecule.

In van Helmont’s experiment, most of the added mass of the tree came from

water and carbon dioxide.

Plants use the sugars produced in photosynthesis to make


The raw materials required for plants to carry out photosynthesis are

carbon dioxide and water.

The principal pigment in plants is


The colors of light that are absorbed by chlorophylls are

blue, violet, and red

What did van Helmont discover about plants?

water is involved in increasing the mass of the plant

What did Priestly (first bell jar experiment) discover about plants?

a plant produces the substance in air required for burning

What did Ingenhousz (second bell jar experiment) discover about plants?

light is necessary for plants to produce oxygen

Describe the process of photosynthesis, including the reactants and products.

Photosynthesis uses the energy of sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy sugars

Why are light and chlorophyll needed for photosynthesis?

Light provides the energy to produce high-energy sugars Chlorophyll absorbs light, and the energy of that absorbed light makes photosynthesis work

Describe the relationship between chlorophyll and the color of plants.

Plants are green because green light is reflected by the chlorophyll in the leaves.

How well would a plant grow under pure yellow light? Explain your answer.

The plant would not grow well because chlorophyll does not absorb much light in the yellow region of visible light.

In plants, photosynthesis takes place inside the


Energy to make ATP in the chloroplast comes most directly from:

hydrogen ions flowing through an enzyme in the thylakoid membrane.

NADPH is produced in light-dependent reactions and carries energy in the form of:

high-energy electrons

What is another name for the Calvin cycle?

light-independent reactions

Summarize the light-dependent reactions.

The light-dependent reactions produce oxygen gas and convert ADP and NADP+ into the electron carriers ATP and NADPH.

What reactions make up the Calvin cycle?

The Calvin cycle uses ATP and NADPH from the light-dependent reaction to produce high-energy sugars.

How is light energy converted into chemical energy during photosynthesis?

Light energy is converted into chemical energy by the pigments in the chloroplast.

What is the function of NADPH?

The main function of NADPH is to carry high-energy electrons produced by light absorption in chlorophyll to chemical reactions elsewhere in the cell.

Why are the light-dependent reactions important to the Calvin cycle?

The light-dependent reactions provide the Calvin cycle with ATP and NADPH. The Calvin cycle uses the energy in ATP and NADPH to produce high-energy sugars.

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