chapter 8 A-P

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All three joints in the figure are classified as

Fibrous Joint In all three joints, bones are directly connected by dense fibrous tissue to form a joint lacking a cavity.

Which of the following best describes all of the joints in this figure

They are immovable These joints are all considered to be immovable during normal conditions

Which of the following is true regarding the structure indicated by the arrow in Figure A?

It becomes ossified late in adult development The dense connective tissue that originally forms sutures ossifies to form synostoses during middle age.

The arrows in B and C point to structures that can both be described as _

ligaments The band of fibrous tissue that connects two bones is generally referred to as a ligament. In the case of the gomphosis shown in C, the fibrous connection is specifically termed the periodontal ligament.

What material is found in C and D that is not found in A and B?

Fibrocartilage forms part of the articular materials on the bones shown in C and D, but it is not found in A and B

Which of the joints will eventually develop into a synostosis

Endochondral ossification of the growth plate leads to the eventual fusion of the epiphysis and diaphysis to form a synostosis

Which of the following best describes the joint labeled B in the figure?

Synarthrotic The cartilage joint formed between the first rib and the manubrium is immovable.

Which of the following terms describes the range of movement of the illustrated joint?

Diarthotic Synovial joints are considered to be freely movable and are therefore described as diarthrotic

Which of the following best describes the surface of the structure at D?

Loose connective tissue This is a synovial membrane containing loose connective tissue that produces synovial fluid.

Structures C and D collectively form which of the following?

Articular capsule The synovial membrane and the fibrous layer that covers it collectively form the articular capsule.

Which structure in the figure is the primary area of degeneration in osteoarthritis?

Overuse and normal aging can cause degeneration of the cartilage in joints, leading to osteoarthritis

Which joint in the figure is capable of multiaxial movement?

Ball-and-socket joints, as found in the shoulder and hip, are capable of multiaxial movement in all three planes.

What joint’s actions may take place at the elbow from its current position?

Which joint moves only by a uniaxial movement around its own axis

The radioulnar joint is a pivot joint in which movement of the ulna is limited to rotation along its own long axis

which of the following is a hinge joint

Interphalangeal joints are hinge joints capable of uniaxial angular movement.

The thumb joint indicated by D mediates which of the following special movements

Opposition is the movement that allows the touching of the thumb to the tip of each finger.

If a torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is not properly repaired, the consequences could include the inability to prevent _

forward sliding of the tibia on the femur The ACL extends from the anterior intercondylar notch of the femur to the anterior intercondylar eminence of the tibia. This ligament prevents the tibia from being pushed too far anterior relative to the femur.

To realign an anteriorly dislocated Temporomandibular joint (TMJ), a physician must push the mandible inferiorly and posteriorly in order to move the mandibular condyle past the temporal bone’s

articular tubercle A tubercle is a round nodule or bumpy outgrowth from the main body of a bone. This tubercle forms the anterior boundary of the mandibular fossa

The Focus Figure of Synovial Joints has examined a number of types of movement and the joints in which they are located. Review the types you have studied, and select a true statement or characteristic of uniaxial movement in a representative joint.

A person curls his or her fingers, and the phalanges flex at the interphalangeal joints Uniaxial hinge-type joints include those that are interphalangeal (between the fingers or toes), as well as that of the elbow. These exhibit flexion and extension. Another uniaxial joint is a cylindrical bone rotating along one axis in a sleeve-type opening, the pivot joint, as in atlas-axis (also known as atlantoaxial) rotation or the proximal radioulnar joints. Biaxial joints include the condylar joint, as found in the metacarpophalangeal joint, and the saddle joint, as found in the carpometacarpal joints of the thumbs. Congratulations on expanding your knowledge of joint classification by recognizing both movements permitted and the shapes of the articulating bones!

Which of the following represents a correct statement about multiaxial joints?

The multiaxial joint has movement in three directions, around all three axes in space, permitting the most movement of any joint type

As one of four major knee ligaments, the anterior cruciate ligament, or ACL, is critical to knee stability. Patients with a slightly injured ACL may complain that their knee "wants to give-out from under them." Which of the following is a rehabilitation procedure that would most likely benefit this type of patient

muscle strengthening exercises

Why it is easier for a fall or blow to cause a dislocated shoulder injury than for a comparable fall or blow to cause a dislocated hip injury

shallower joint socket

Which of these terms best categorizes the joints in the figure?

Cartilaginous joints All of these joints are composed primarily of cartilage (hyaline and/or fibrocartilage).

What joint’s actions may take place at the elbow from its current position?

flex and pronate The elbow may flex or pronate from its current anatomical position.

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