Chapter 7 – The Environment

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The "tragedy of the commons" is

that individual pursuit of self-interest can sometimes make everyone worse off

Some environmental regulations (like forbidding the burning of coal in cities) benefit each and every one of us because the air we all breather is cleaner. If an individual ignores the regulation and burns coal, while others obey the regulation, then he or she

is being a free rider

Cost-benefit analysis

is influenced by value judgements

According to the anthropocentric (or human-oriented) ethic of Baxter and others,

the Grand Canyon is valuable only because people care about it

Which of the following is true of factory farms?

They permit the mass production of meat at low prices

Which of the following is true of regulatory approach to environmental problems?

It requires the EPA or other body to determine the most effective, feasible pollution-control technology for each different industry

"Pollution permits" are an example of which of the following methods of achieving our environmental goals?

pricing mechanisms

One truth about factory farms is

most animals we eat are from them

William F. Baxter addresses environmental ethics by noting

judgements about environmental problems ought to be people-oriented.

Which of the following is a drawback to the regulatory approach?

regulation can take away an industry’s incentive to do more than the minimum

T or F: Regulation is always the most effective way to allocate the costs of environmental protection


T or F: Advocates of a "naturalistic ethic" believe that penguins are important only because people like them.


T or F: Cost-benefit analyses of rival environmental polices inevitably involve making value judgments about non monetary costs and benefits


T or F: The word "ecology" refers to the science of the interrelationships among organisms and their environment


T or F: The word "ecosystem" refers to a total ecological community, both living and non-living


T or F: The disparity between private industrial costs and public social costs is what economists call an "internality".


T or F: Cost-benefit analysis is a device used to determine whether it’s worthwhile to incur a particular cost.


T or F: According to Jeremy Bentham, the question is not whether animals can feel pain, but whether they can talk and reason


T or F: Advocates of a naturalistic ethic contend that some natural objects are morally considerable in their own right, apart from human interest


T or F: Moral vegetarians are people who reject the eating of meat on moral grounds


T or F: According to William F. Baxter, we ought to respect the "balance of nature" and "preserve the environment" even if doing so brings no benefit to human beings


T or F: Three approaches have gained the most attention when it comes to achieving our environmental goals: Th use of regulations, incentives, and pricing mechanisms.


T or F: One of the attitudes prevalent in business that has led to increased environmental problems is the tendency to view the natural world as a free and unlimited good


T or F: The rising affluence of people in the United States has meant a corresponding decrease in pollution and its attendant environmental problems in the United States


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