Chapter 7 Psych

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Mental images
a) represent abstract ideas.
b) have a picture-like quality.
c) consist entirely of unconscious information.
d) are always prototypes.

Ans: have a picture-like quality Expln: Mental images are mental representations of objects that have a picture-like quality

If three people used mental images to tell you how many windows they each had in their individual
houses, which person would take the longest to answer?
a) the person with two windows in his or her house
b) the person with eight windows in his or her house
c) the person with twelve windows in his or her house
d) They would all take the same amount of time to answer.

Ans: the person with twelve windows in his or her house Expln: Research has found that if the individuals used mental images to answer the question, they would actualize visualize the house and have to count the windows, so the person with the most windows would take the longest time to answer

Concepts are ideas that represent
a) a class or category of objects, events, or activities.
b) thoughts, images, muscle patterns of behavior.
c) higher-order conditioning and secondary reinforcers.
d) representations that stand in for objects or events and have a picturelike quality

Ans: a class or category of objects, events, or activities Expln: The definition for concepts is that they are ideas that represent a class or category of objects or events.

A very general form of a concept, such as "vegetable" represents which concept level?
a) subordinate
b) superordinate
c) basic level
d) hyperordinate

Ans: superordinate Expln: Superordinate is the highest or most general level of a concept. Basic level is the level most commonly used (such as potato or lettuce), subordinate is the most specific such as a russet potato or romaine lettuce.

The trial-and-error method of solving problems is also known as
a) the use of a heuristic device.
b) the use of algorithms.
c) the mechanical solution.
d) the A.I. Solution.

Ans: the mechanical solution Expln: Trial-and-error problem solving tries one solution after another until one that works is found.

Zach could not remember the four-digit combination needed to open the lock on his bicycle. After
struggling to figure out what to do, he turned to start the long walk home and all of a sudden he
remembered the combination to the lock. The problem-solving strategy Zach used would be best
described as
a) trial-and-error.
b) algorithm.
c) a heuristic.
d) insight.

Ans: insight Expln: Insight problem solving occurs when you get a sudden inspiration that leads you to the solution to your problem.

The tendency for people to persist in using problem-solving patterns that have worked for them in
the past is known as
a) mental set.
b) confirmation bias.
c) creativity.
d) divergent thinking.

Ans: mental set Expln: A mental set exists when someone continues to use the same approaches that worked in the past. Confirmation bias occurs when someone pays attention to information that confirms his ideas and ignores any contradictory input.

. Luann needs to hammer a nail into the wall but the only tool she can find in the house is a
screwdriver. Luann’s inability to see how the handle of the screwdriver could be used as a hammer,
best represents the concept of
a) functional fixedness.
b) confirmation bias.
c) creativity.
d) artificial bias.

Ans: functional fixedness Expln: Functional fixedness occurs when an individual is fixed on only one function of a particular object.

The ability to produce solutions to problems that are unusual, inventive, novel, and appropriate is
a) creativity.
b) insight.
c) heuristics.
d) latent learning.

Ans: creativity Expln: This is the definition of creativity.

Which of the following activities would not increase your creativity?
a) keeping a journal
b) brainstorming
c) subject mapping
d) convergent thinking

Ans: convergent thinking Expln: Convergent thinking occurs when you assume there is only one single answer or solution to a problem. Typically, convergent thinking decreases creative ability.

The ability to understand the world, think rationally or logically, and use resources effectively when
faced with challenges or problems, or the characteristics needed to succeed in one’s culture is the
psychologist’s working definition of
a) divergent problem solving.
b) creative thinking.
c) heuristic usage.
d) intelligence.

Ans: intelligence Expln: As can be seen, intelligence is a broad idea that can be difficult to define

Measuring intelligence by testing is a rather new concept in the history of the world. It is
roughly____ years old.
a) 50
b) 100
c) 200
d) 500

Ans: 100 Expln: Alfred Binet started testing children in France in 1916

An 8-year-old child who scored like an average 10-year-old on an intelligence test would have a
mental age of ________ and an IQ of ________.
a) 8; 80
b) 8; 125
c) 10; 100
d) 10; 125

Ans: 10; 125 Expln: The IQ is based on a mental age of 10 divided by a chronological age of 8 and multiplied by 100. This gives an IQ = 125.

Because of the need to measure the IQ of people of varying ages, newer IQ tests base their
evaluation of IQ on
a) mental age alone.
b) deviation scores from the mean of the normal distribution.
c) giving extra points for older folks to compensate for their slower processing times.
d) none of these.

Ans: deviation scores from the mean of the normal distribution Expln: Deviation IQ scores are based on the norms of a representative sample of the population (also known as the standardization group).

If a test consistently produces the same score when administered to the same person under identical
conditions, that test can be said to be high in
a) reliability.
b) validity.
c) accuracy.
d) norms.

Ans: reliability Expln: Reliability indicates a test consistency, while validity indicates accuracy, or how well the test measures what it says it measures.

George is a successful organic farmer. On which of Gardner’s nine types of intelligence would
George be most likely to have a high score?
a) Verbal/linguistic
b) Movement
c) Intrapersonal
d) Naturalist

Ans: naturalistic Expln: Naturalist intelligence is the ability to recognize the patterns found in nature, which would help to make George a successful organic farmer.

Which two of the following aspects are included in the definition of intellectual disability?
a) IQ scores and adaptive behavior
b) age and socioeconomic status
c) race and country of origin
d) Only IQ scores are considered

Ans: IQ scores and adaptive behavior Expln: The diagnosis of intellectual disability is based on IQ scores as well as how well the individual is able to function in day-to-day life.

Which of the following statements about the gifted is true?
a) They are more likely to suffer from mental illnesses.
b) They are physically weaker than nongifted persons.
c) They are often skilled leaders.
d) They are socially unskilled

Ans: they are often skilled leaders Expln: Skilled leaders often are gifted individuals; the other three statements are myths that have not been supported by research.

Which was not a finding of the Terman and Oden (1974) study of gifted kids?
a) They were socially well-adjusted.
b) They were more resistant to mental illness.
c) They were clearly much more likely to be females.
d) They were average in weight, height, and physical attractiveness.

Ans: they were clearly much more likely to be females Expln: Slightly more males than females were selected for the Terman study.

Sternberg has found that __________ intelligence is a good predictor of success in life, but has a
low relationship to ___________ intelligence.
a) practical; analytical
b) practical; creative
c) analytical; practical
d) academic; creative

Ans: practical; analytical Expln: Sternberg has found that practical intelligence is a good predictor of success in life, but has a low relationship to analytical intelligence

What three types of intelligence constitute Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence?
a) global, intuitive, and special
b) general, global, and specific
c) analytical, creative, and practical
d) mathematical, reasoning, and verbal

Ans: global, intuitive, and special Expln: Sternberg proposed that intelligence should actually be broken down into three components that can be thought of as book smarts, street smarts, and creativity

The "g" in Spearman’s g factor of intelligence stands for
a) gifted intelligence.
b) general intelligence.
c) graded intelligence.
d) The g does not stand for anything.

Ans: general intelligence Expln: Spearman proposed a two-factor theory of intelligence. The g factor was for general intelligence and the s factor was for specific intelligence.

If intelligence is determined primarily by heredity, which pair should show the highest correlation
between IQ scores?
a) fraternal twins
b) identical twins
c) brothers and sisters
d) parents and children

Ans: identical twins Expln: Identical twins should show the strongest correlation since they share 100 percent of the same genes

If a researcher believed that nature was the most important factor in determining an individual’s
intelligence level, she would most closely agree with which of the following statements?
a) Intelligence is largely inherited from your parents.
b) Intelligence has no relationship to your biological family.
c) The environment is the most important factor in determining a child’s intelligence level.
d) A child’s intelligence can be greatly increased by providing stimulating toys throughout

Ans: Intelligence is largely inherited from your parents. Expln: Nature refers to the influence of heredity on behaviors and traits

Language, by definition,
a) is symbolic.
b) can be written, spoken, or signed.
c) is capable of an infinite set of meaningful utterances.
d) includes all of these characteristics.

Ans: includes all of these characteristics Expln: The definition of language includes all three of these attributes.

The basic units of sound are called
a) morphemes.
b) phonemes.
c) semantics.
d) syntax.

Ans: phonemes Expln: Phonemes are the basic units of sound.

Syntax is
a) a system of rules for combining words and phrases to form sentences.
b) the smallest units of meaning within a language.
c) the basic units of sound.
d) the rules to determine the meaning of words.

Ans: a system of rules for combining words and phrases to form sentences Expln: Syntax refers to the rules we use to form meaningful sentences.

The linguistic relativity hypothesis suggests that
a) one’s language determines the pattern of one’s thinking and view of the world.
b) one’s thinking and view of the world determines the structure of one’s language.
c) we decide which objects belong to a concept according to what is most probable or
sensible, given the facts at hand.
d) perception of surface structure precedes deep structure in understanding a sentence.

Ans: one’s language determines the pattern of one’s thinking and view of the world. Expln: Linguistic relativity hypothesis (also referred to as the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis) states that our thought processes are relative to the language (or linguistic setting) in which we grew up.

Which theory would support the idea that certain concepts are shared by all people regardless of the
language spoken?
a) Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
b) linguistic relativity hypothesis
c) cognitive universalism
d) heuristic theory

Ans: cognitive universalism Expln: Cognitive universalism proposes that our basic thought processes, or cognitions, are universally shared by all people.

Dolphins, according to TV and movies, are very intelligent and have strong language abilities. They
might even be able to talk! However, which statement is true from the research?
a) Dolphins have been shown to master syntax.
b) Dolphins have the language abilities of a 3-year-old.
c) Dolphin communication with parrots has been firmly established.
d) None of these are true.

Ans: none of these are true Expln: Chimpanzees have demonstrated a vocabulary equal to a 2-year-old child, but no animal to date has demonstrated the ability to use and comprehend syntax.


very specific, step-by-step procedures for solving certain types of problems.

analytical intelligence

the ability to break problems down into component parts, or analysis, for problem solving.

availability heuristic

estimating the frequency or likelihood of an event based on how easy it is to recall relevant information from memory or how easy it is for us to think of related examples

basic level type

an example of a type of concept around which other similar concepts are organized, such as "dog," "cat," or "pear."

cognition (thinking)

mental activity that goes on in the brain when a person is organizing and attempting to understand information, and communicating information to others.

cognitive universalism

theory that concepts are universal and influence the development of language


ideas that represent a class or category of objects, events, or activities

confirmation bias

the tendency to search for evidence that fits one’s beliefs while ignoring any evidence that does not fit those beliefs.

convergent thinking

type of thinking in which a problem is seen as having only one answer, and all lines of thinking will eventually lead to that single answer, using previous knowledge and logic

creative intelligence

the ability to deal with new and different concepts and to come up with new ways of solving problems.


the process of solving problems by combining ideas or behavior in new ways.

deviation IQ score

a type of intelligence measure that assumes that IQ is normally distributed around a mean of 100 with a standard deviation of about 15.

divergent thinking

type of thinking in which a person starts from one point and comes up with many different ideas or possibilities based on that point

emotional intelligence

the awareness of and ability to manage one’s own emotions as well as the ability to be self-motivated, able to feel what others feel, and socially skilled

formal concepts

concepts that are defined by specific rules or features

functional fixedness

a block to problem solving that comes from thinking about objects in terms of only their typical functions.

g factor

the ability to reason and solve problems, or general intelligence.


the 2 percent of the population falling on the upper end of the normal curve and typically possessing an IQ of 130 or above


the system of rules governing the structure and use of a language.


an educated guess based on experiences that help narrow down the possible solutions for a problem. Also known as a "rule of thumb."

intellectual disability

condition in which a person’s behavioral and cognitive skills exist at an earlier developmental stage than the skills of others who are the same chronological age; may also be referred to as developmentally delayed. This condition was formerly known as mental retardation.


the ability to learn from one’s experiences, acquire knowledge, and use resources effectively in adapting to new situations or solving problems.

intelligence quotient (IQ)

a number representing a measure of intelligence, resulting from the division of one’s mental age by one’s chronological age and then multiplying that quotient by 100.


a system for combining symbols (such as words) so that an unlimited number of meaningful statements can be made for the purpose of communicating with others.

Lewis Terman

1877-1956. Cognitive psychologist well known for his longitudinal study of gifted children, affectionately referred to as Terman’s Termites.

linguistic relativity hypothesis

the theory that thought processes and concepts are controlled by language.

means-end analysis

heuristic in which the difference between the starting situation and the goal is determined and then steps are taken to reduce that difference.

mental images

mental representations that stand in for objects or events and have a picturelike quality.

mental set

the tendency for people to persist in using problem-solving patterns that have worked for them in the past.


the smallest units of meaning within a language

natural concepts

concepts people form as a result of their experiences in the real world.


the role a person’s environment plays in his or her development.


the basic units of sound in language

practical intelligence

the ability to use information to get along in life and become successful.


aspects of language involving the practical ways of communicating with others, or the social "niceties" of language.

problem solving

process of cognition that occurs when a goal must be reached by thinking and behaving in certain ways.


an example of a concept that closely matches the defining characteristics of a concept


the tendency of a test to produce the same scores again and again each time it is given to the same people.

representative heuristic

assumption that any object (or person) sharing characteristics with the members of a particular category is also a member of that category.

s factor.

the ability to excel in certain areas, or specific intelligence


the rules for determining the meaning of words and sentences.

subordinate concept

the most specific category of a concept, such as one’s pet dog or a pear in one’s hand; subordinate refers to lowest in status or standing

superordinate concept

the most general form of a type of concept, such as "animal" or "fruit"; superordinate refers to highest in status or standing


the system of rules for combining words and phrases to form grammatically correct sentences.

thinking (cognition)

mental activity that goes on in the brain when a person is organizing and attempting to understand information, and communicating information to others.

trial and error (mechanical solution)

problem-solving method in which one possible solution after another is tried until a successful one is found.

triarchic theory of intelligence

Sternberg’s theory that there are three kinds of intelligences: analytical, creative, and practical.


the degree to which a test actually measures what it’s supposed to measure.

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