Chapter 7 Plate Tectonics

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What was the main view how the world worked geologically prior to the 1960’s?

A) It was generally believed that mountains were produced by vertical force

Why did scientists not accept the Continental Drift hypothesis?

C)It was based on observation from the southern hemisphere which was unfamiliar to most geologist

The change from thinking the continents are stationary to understanding that the outer layer of the Earth moves slowly nearly all the time occurred primarily because?

We began to make global observations that required recognition that the continents and oceans had not always been in their current positions

The former late Paleozoic supercontinent is known as?


Wegener thought that

There was once one big continents that later broke into several pieces

Glossopteris, a fossil found in Africa, Australia, India, South America, and Antartica, i significant because

It demonstrated that all the continents where the fossil is found must have been cold when the organism was alive

In Wegener’s time , scientists thought that the occurrence of fossils of the same organism in two different, disconnect continents was proof of

There had once been land bridges separating the continents

——– was (were)never prosed as evidence supporting the existence of Pangea

Late Paleozoic glacial features

The main objection to Wegner’s theory of Continental Drift was

Wegener’s gravitational mechanism for the movement of continents would also stop the Earth’s rotation, which has not happened

Wegener’s work is a good demonstration of the scientific method because

His hypothesis did not pass all the scientific test to become a theory

Which of the following is NOT a type of plate boundary

Hot spot

Which of the following major discoveries was NOT made near or after World War II

Rift valley in Africa

Plate Tectonic boundaries were identified by

mapping earthquakes and volcanoes

A transform boundary is characterized by

A deep, vertical fault along which two plates slide past one another in opposite directions

What is this image

The lithosphere is the outer layer of the Earth characterized by

Hard rock that break

The asthenosphere is the second layer of Earth characterized by

soft rock that flow easily

Which of the following statement apply to the asthenosphere , but not the lithosphere

Zone in the upper mantle that deforms by the plastic plate

The largest lithospheric plate is the

Pacific Plate

Most deformation occurs along plate boundaries because

The plates are in constant motion and as a result the boundaries are where they interact

The most obvious evidence of the Plate boundary where two plates move apart is (are)

Upwelling of hot material from the mantle

When two plates move together, lithosphere is


New York ad London are on two separate plates so the distance between the cities is


Oceanic ridges represent ——– percent of the Earths surface


Evidence that tensile stress are actively pulling the lithosphere apart in an ocean ridge system is given by

The existence of a rift valley in the ridge system

All of the Earths ocean basins are

Less than 200 million years old

What is the typical rate for the seafloor spreading


Which of the following is in a place where continental rifting is occurring today

Mt. Kilimanjaro in East Africa

Materials that was once considered to be asthenosphere can change to lithosphere by

Cooling so that it will break

Oceanic island arcs are similar to continental volcanic in that

Oceanic islands arcs form by the same mechanism as continental arcs

Oceanic lithosphere subjects because

Old oceanic lithosphere is more dense that the asthenosphere

Mount St. Helen and the other Cascade volcanos are

Young, active stratovolcano built on a continental margin above a sinking slab of oceanic lithosphere

The Himalayas formed as a result of

A continent-continent convergence

The —— is an example of an active, continent collusion

Northward movement of India into Eurasia

Deep ocean trenches are surficial evidence for

Sinking of oceanic lithosphere into the mantle at a subdivision zone

Why do scientists think that lithosphere has to destroy somewhere on or in the Earth

Lithosphere is created at divergent boundaries and the Earth is not getting any larger

An identifying characteristic of convergent boundaries is

Deep, linear trenches in the seafloor

Volcanoes form above subduction zone because

Water squeezes out of the subducting slab and water triggers melting of the overlying asthosphere

Which one of the following is an important fundamental assumption underlying the plate tectonic theory

Earth surface area has been essentially constant over time

Fracture zone associated with transform boundaries are

Inactive faults

The San Andreas fault zone in California is an example

A transform plate boundaries

Which ocean formed as a direct result of the break of Pangaea


Which of the following are evidence supporting the theory of plate tectonics except

Changes in the moon’s orbit due to the shifting plates

Which of the following plates is getting significantly smaller


Which part of Pangea broke apart first

The United States and Africa

Which of the following is NOT evidence collected by the Glomar Challenger in support of the Plate Tectonics model

Continental crust is typically several hundred million years old and older

The Hawaiian Island – Emperor Seamount chain as a result of

Hot spot activities

Apparent changes in the position of the magnetic pole measured in rocks in Europe is attributed to

polar wandering

A very long lives magma source located deep in the mantle is called

Hot spots

A map of the ages of the sea floor shows

How fast the plates are moving

What is GPS used for in study of plate tectonics

It measures elevation of the plates

The major driving force of tectonics is

Subduction of cold , dense lithosphere

Which convection model suggest "sluggish flow" in the lower mantle

Ridge push

Which of the following is considered the most important driving factor for Plate tectonics

Slab pull

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