Chapter 7 Deviance and Social Control

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The term "social control" refers to

techniques and strategies for preventing deviant human behavior in any society.

Sanctions" are defined as

penalties and rewards for conduct concerning a social norm.

Since 1976, more than __________ people in the U.S. have been executed by individual states.


Jennifer is attending a business luncheon with several corporate executives. At one point during the meal, she reaches in front of another executive for a saltshaker and hits the executive’s arm as he is about to put a spoonful of soup in his mouth. The soup spills on his shirt, and he glares at Jennifer. The glare is an example of a (an)

informal sanction

Being arrested for murder would be an example of a (an)

formal sanction

Clyde is arrested for "tagging," or "visual terrorism." The arrest is an example of a (an)

formal sanction

Which sociological perspective emphasizes that societies literally could not operate if massive numbers of people defied standards of appropriate conduct?

functionalist perspective

Which of the following terms refers to going along with one’s peers, with peers defined as individuals of a person’s own status who have no special right to direct that person’s behavior?


Obedience refers to

compliance with higher authorities in a hierarchical structure.

The managing editor of a newspaper, acting on an order from the publisher, fires three editors, one of whom is an old friend. This is an example of


According to a study by Stanley Milgram, individuals will

obey the commands of people viewed as legitimate authority figures, even if the behavior may harm another individual.

Which of the following examined obedience by conducting an experiment that required subjects to administer "painful" shocks to subjects in an analysis of "learning?"

Stanley Milgram

Social control carried out casually by people through such means as laughter, smiles, and ridicule is known as

informal social control.

What type of informal social control is supported by 59 percent of pediatricians in spite of the risk of harmful effects to recipients?


Social control carried out by authorized agents—such as police officers, judges, school administrators, and employers—is called

formal social control.

A college student is caught cheating on an exam and is brought before a college-wide disciplinary committee, which decides to expel the student from the school. The committee’s action is an example of

formal social control

Which sociological perspective would most likely be concerned with the association between the use of surveillance techniques as a means of social control and the power of an authoritarian government?

conflict perspective

Which of the following theories offers a view of conformity and deviance that suggests that our connection to members of society leads us to conform systematically to society’s norms?

control theory

Control theory states that we

are bonded to our family members, friends, and peers in a way that leads us to follow the mores and folkways of our society.

Which sociologist is responsible for creating control theory?

Travis Hirschi

Deviance is behavior that

violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group or society.

Which sociological perspective would most likely be concerned with the stigmatizing nature of formal social controls that require convicted sex-offenders to register with police agencies and have their pictures published in newspapers to make their identities publicly known?

functionalist perspective

The contemporary study of possible genetic roots of criminality is but one aspect of the larger debate over


Which of the following connections to criminality is commonly rejected by sociologists?

genetic roots

Deviance defines the limits of proper behavior." This statement represents the view of which sociological perspective?

functionalist perspective

In Émile Durkheim’s view

the punishments established within a culture help to define acceptable behavior and thus contribute to social stability.

Which sociologist noted that punishments established within a culture help to define acceptable behavior and contribute to societal stability?

Émile Durkheim

Which sociologist illustrated the boundary-maintenance function of deviance by examining the Puritans of seventeenth-century New England?

Kai Erikson

Which term is used in the sociological literature to describe a loss of direction felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective?


Which functionalist sociologist developed a theory of deviance that suggests that members of a society may conform or deviate from the culturally prescribed goals and the means of attaining those goals?

Robert Merton

The most common adaptation in Robert Merton’s anomie theory of deviance is


In his anomie theory of deviance, Robert Merton

described five types of deviance.

According to Robert Merton, an innovator is an individual who has

accepted the goals of society, but pursues them with means regarded as improper.

In Robert Merton’s terms, people who overzealously and cruelly enforce bureaucratic regulations can be classified as


According to Robert Merton, a retreatist is an individual who has

withdrawn from the goals and means of society

An unemployed young adult wants a stereo, but he doesn’t have the money or the means of earning the money needed to buy it. His desire for the stereo overwhelms him, and he steals one from a local store. This incident illustrates which theory of deviance?

anomie theory of deviance

Arnold gets an "A" on his organic chemistry exam because he copies most of his answers from Stanley, the "class brain" who is sitting next to him. According to Merton’s anomie theory of deviance, Arnold would be classified as a (an)v


An employee at a welfare office is so concerned with paperwork that he doesn’t have time to administer to the needs of the poor, hungry, and homeless individuals who seek assistance. According to Merton’s theory, this welfare worker would be a (an)


According to Robert Merton, members of revolutionary political organizations such as the Irish Republican Army would typically be classified as


Which sociological perspective’s approach to deviance focuses on why rule violation continues to exist in societies despite pressures to conform and obey?

functionalist perspective

Which theory was used by Edwin Sutherland to emphasize that criminal behavior is learned through social interactions with others?

cultural transmission

Which sociologist used the term "differential association" to describe the process by which exposure to attitudes favorable to criminal acts leads to violation of rules?

Edwin Sutherland

Monica, a new student at Valley High School, becomes friends with a group of teenagers who use marijuana and remain seated during the singing of the National Anthem. Although Monica had never used marijuana and used to sing the Anthem, she begins to engage in the same behavior as her new friends. This is an example of

differential association

Which sociologist constructed an experiment utilizing an abandoned car in two different neighborhoods in order to demonstrate the power of communal relationships?

Philip Zimbardo

Which theory attributes increases in crime and deviance to the absence or breakdown of communal relationships and social institutions?

social disorganization theory

Which sociologist examined two groups of high school males—the Saints and the Roughnecks—and concluded that social class standing was important in the labeling process?

William Chambliss

In his study of the Saints and the Roughnecks, William Chambliss concluded that a key factor in the varying fortunes of the two groups was their differing

social class standing.

The societal-reaction approach is also known as

labeling theory.

A sociologist studies how a teacher’s attitudes toward particular students affects students’ performance. Students of similar abilities who are "teacher’s pets" perform at a high level, and students who are viewed as "troublemakers" perform poorly. This would illustrate which explanation of deviance?

labeling theory

Which of the following individuals would most likely be the focus of labeling theorists who are researching the power of some individuals or groups to define labels

regulators of social control

Which sociologist created an interactionist/conflict explanation of deviance that emphasizes that the response to an act—not the behavior—determines deviance?

Howard Becker

The social constructionist perspective is most closely affiliated with which other sociological explanation of deviance

labeling theory

Which conflict sociologist argues that the criminal justice system serves the interests of the powerful and that lawmaking is often an attempt by the powerful to coerce others into their own morality?

Richard Quinney

A person convicted of a crime—even when prior arrest record and severity of the crime are taken into account—is more likely to receive a shorter prison sentence if he or she is

White and non-Hispanic.

Which sociological perspective would be particularly concerned about studies that show that White criminal offenders receive shorter sentences than comparable Latino and African-American offenders?

conflict perspective

Feminist sociologists contend that the so-called victimless crime of prostitution, as well as the more disturbing aspects of pornography

reinforce the misconception that women can be treated as "toys."

A professional criminal is

a person who pursues crime as a day-to-day occupation, developing skilled techniques and enjoying a certain degree of status among other criminals.

An important aspect of a professional criminal’s work is

developing technical skills.

The work of a group that regulates relations between various criminal enterprises involved in the smuggling and sale of drugs, prostitution, gambling, and other illegal activities is called

organized crime.

ethnic succession,"

the process during which the leadership of organized crime is passed from one ethnic group to another.

Which sociologist coined the term "ethnic succession?"

Daniel Bell

In a city on the East Coast, organized crime was dominated by an Italian "family," but they were eventually displaced by African Americans. This would be an example of

ethnic succession

What term is used to refer to crimes committed by individuals in the course of their daily business activities?

white-collar crimes

Crime that occurs across multiple national borders is known as

transnational crime.

Which perspective would look to the disproportionate economic and lobbying power wielded by groups such as the National Rifle Association in the debate over gun violence in U.S. society?


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