chapter 6,8.9 practice quiz

Which of the following is CORRECTLY paired?

smooth muscle: striated
skeletal muscle: voluntary control
cardiac muscle: voluntary control
cardiac muscle: nonstriated

skeletal muscle: voluntary control

Hyaline cartilage ________.

forms "shock-absorbing" pads between the vertebrae
gives shape to the external ear
is the rarest of the skeletal cartilages
is found on the ends of bones that form movable joints

is found on the ends of bones that form movable joints

When chondrocytes in lacunae divide and form new matrix, it leads to an expansion of the cartilage tissue from within. This process is called ________.

calcification
hematopoiesis
appositional growth
interstitial growth

interstitial growth

Cartilage grows in two ways, appositional and interstitial. What is appositional growth?

the secretion of new matrix against the external face of existing cartilage
along the edges only of existing osteons, making each osteon larger
the lengthening of hyaline cartilage
growth at the epiphyseal plate

the secretion of new matrix against the external face of existing cartilage

The axial skeleton includes the ________.

hip bones
bones of the legs
ribs
bones of the arms

ribs

Hematopoiesis is a term for which of the following physiological processes?

blood cell formation
release of minerals into the blood
energy storage in fat tissue
bone formation during growth

blood cell formation

Bones do NOT have a role in ________.

blood cell formation
glycogen production
fat storage
support
movement

glycogen production

Which of the following is stored in bones?

glycogen
calcitonin
phosphate
vitamin C
iodine

phosphate

Which hormone is produced in bone and regulates bone formation, but also protects against diabetes mellitus?

leptin
calcitonin
osteocalcin
growth hormone

osteocalcin

Which of the following is not a function of the skeletal system?

communication
houses the bone marrow which produces blood cells (hematopoiesis)
support
storage of minerals

communication

Which description of bone cells is INCORRECT?

Osteoblasts secrete collagen and calcium-binding proteins.
Osteogenic cells can differentiate into osteoclasts.
Osteoclasts secrete digestive enzymes and hydrogen ions.
Bone lining cells on the internal surfaces of bone are also called endosteal cell

osteogenic cells can differentiate into osteoclasts

Osteoclasts ________.

calcify bone matrix
form new bone
break down bone
form skeletal cartilage

break down bone

In adults, yellow marrow is located ________.

in the medullary cavity of long bones
in the epiphyseal plates of long bones
primarily in flat bones
in the central canals of osteons

in the medullary cavity of long bones

The resilience of bone is primarily due to which of the following?

amount of mineral salt and protein in the bone
sacrificial bonds in or between collagen molecules
amount of mineral salts in the bone
presence of osteoblasts in the bone

sacrificial bonds in or between collagen molecules

The structure of bone tissue suits the function. Which of the following bone tissues is adapted to support weight and withstand tension stress?

irregular bone
spongy bone
trabecular bone
compact bone

compact bone

The term diploë refers to the ________.

two types of marrow found within most bones
fact that most bones are formed of two types of bone tissue
internal layer of spongy bone in flat bones
double-layered nature of the connective tissue covering the bone

internal layer of spongy bone in flat bones

The periosteum is secured to the underlying bone by dense connective tissue called ________.

Volkmann's canals
a bony matrix with hyaline cartilage
the struts of bone known as spicules
perforating (Sharpey's) fibers

the struts of bone known as spicules perforating(sharpeys) fibers

What is osteoid?

the inorganic part of the matrix of bone
the outer surface of bone
one of the cell types found in bone
the organic part of the matrix of bone

the organic part of the matrix of bone

The periosteum is a tissue that serves only to protect the bone because it is not supplied with nerves or blood vessels.

True
False

false

What is the structural unit of compact bone?

canaliculus
osteon
haversian canal
osteoid

osteon

Which bone cells form bone?

osteoclasts
osteoblasts
chondroblasts
osteocytes

osteoblasts

Choose the TRUE statement.

Endochondral ossification leads to the formation of the clavicles and cranial bones.
Most bones in the body are formed by intramembranous ossification.
Endochondral ossification converts hyaline cartilage "bone" models into true bones (i.e., hyaline cartilage serves as a template for bone formation).
Endochondral ossification occurs within fibrous connective tissue membranes.

Endochondral ossification converts hyaline cartilage "bone" models into true bones (i.e., hyaline cartilage serves as a template for bone formation).

During infancy and childhood, the most important stimulus of epiphyseal plate activity is ________.

estrogen
testosterone
growth hormone
the thyroid hormones

growth hormone

Ossification of the ends of long bones ________.

is a characteristic of intramembranous bone formation
involves medullary cavity formation
takes twice as long as diaphysis ossification
is produced by secondary ossification centers

is produced by secondary ossification centers

What tissue forms the model for endochondral ossification?

bone
cartilage
fascia
membranes

cartilage

What can a deficiency of growth hormone during bone formation cause?

inadequate calcification of bone
decreased proliferation of the epiphyseal plate cartilage
decreased osteoclast activity
increased osteoclast activity

decreased proliferation of the epiphyseal plate cartilage

Which structure allows the diaphysis of the bone to increase in length until early childhood, as well as shaping the articular surfaces?

epiphyseal plate
Haversian system
lacunae
epiphyseal line

epiphyseal plate

Cranial bones develop ________.

within osseous membranes
from cartilage models
within fibrous membranes
from a tendon

within fibrous membrane

Which of the following is UNLIKELY to affect bone remodeling?

low blood Ca2+ concentration
mechanical stress
glucagon
parathyroid hormone

glucagon

Which of the following is CORRECTLY matched?

nondisplaced fracture: the fractured bone ends are misaligned
compound fracture: the fractured bone ends penetrate the skin
incomplete fracture: the bone is broken through
linear fracture: the break is perpendicular to the bone's long axis

compound fracture: the fractured bone ends penetrate the skin

Hypercalcemia can be caused by_________.

insufficient vitamin D levels in the body
hypersecretion of parathyroid hormone
reduced parafollicular cell activity
All of the listed responses are correct.

hypersecretion of parathyroid hormone reduced parafollicular cell activity

Which hormone increases osteoclast activity to release more calcium ions into the bloodstream?

estrogen
calcitonin
thyroxine
parathyroid hormone

parathyroid hormone

Bones are constantly undergoing resorption for various reasons. Which of the following cells accomplishes this process?

stem cell
osteocyte
osteoblast
osteoclast

osteoclasts

What controls bone remodeling?

the nervous system and hormones
hormones and diet
mechanical stress and hormones
mechanical stress and diet

mechanical stress and hormones

Normal bone formation and growth are dependent on the adequate intake of ________.

potassium, phosphate, and vitamin D
calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D
sodium, calcium, and vitamin E
vitamin D, phosphate, and chloride

calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D

Functional classification of joints is based on ________.

the size of the joint
the location of the joint
the amount of movement allowed by the joint
whether a joint cavity is present

the amount of movement allowed by the joint

In the classification of joints, which of the following is true?

Synarthrotic joints are slightly movable.
All synovial joints are freely movable.
Immovable joints are called amphiarthroses.
In cartilaginous joints, a joint cavity is present.

all synovial joints are freely movable

Which of the following refers to a joint that is immovable?

amphiarthrosis
diarthrosis
synarthrosis
synovial

synarthrosis

All joints permit some degree of movement, even if very slight.

True
False

false

The structural classification of joints is based on the composition of the binding material and the presence or absence of a joint cavity.

True
False

true

A fibrous joint that is a peg-in-socket is called a ________ joint.

gomphosis
synchondrosis
syndesmosis
suture

gomphosis

On the basis of structural classification, which joint is fibrous connective tissue?

syndesmosis
pivot
synchondrosis
symphysis

syndesmosis

Fibrous joints are classified as ________.

pivot, hinge, and ball and socket
symphysis, sacroiliac, and articular
hinge, saddle, and ellipsoidal
sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses

sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses

An example of an interosseus fibrous joint is ________.

the radius and ulna along its length
between the humerus and the glenoid cavity
the clavicle and the scapula at the distal ends
between the vertebrae

the radius and ulna along its length

Which of the following are CORRECTLY paired?

gomphoses: articulating bones are separated by a fluid containing cavity
synchondrosis: a plate of hyaline cartilage unites the bones
syndesmoses: bony edges interlock
suture: bones connected exclusively by ligaments

synchondrosis: a plate of hyaline cartilage unites the bones

A joint united by dense fibrocartilaginous tissue that usually permits a slight degree of movement is a ________.

syndesmosis
suture
symphysis
gomphosis

symphysis

Which of the following are cartilaginous joints?

Sutures
Gomphoses
Syndesmoses
Synchondroses

synchondroses

Which of the following statements defines synchondroses?

joints that permit angular movements
interphalangeal joints
amphiarthrotic joints designed for strength and flexibility
cartilaginous joints where hyaline cartilage unites the ends of bones

cartilaginous joints where hyaline cartilage unites the ends of bones

Which of the following is one difference between bursae and tendon sheaths?

Bursae are only found in synovial joints, while tendon sheaths are only found in fibrous joints.
Bursae are flattened fibrous sacs wedged between adjacent structures, while tendon sheaths are elongated fibrous sacs that wrap around tendons.
Bursae contain a thin film of synovial fluid, while tendon sheaths lack synovial fluid altogether.
Bursae serve as cushioning fat pads between adjacent structures, while tendon sheaths reduce friction between adjacent structures.

Bursae are flattened fibrous sacs wedged between adjacent structures, while tendon sheaths are elongated fibrous sacs that wrap around tendons.

Synovial fluid does NOT ________.

prevent the articulating bones from dislocating
reduce friction between the articular cartilages
contain phagocytic cells
nourish the cartilage cells in the joint

prevent the articulating bones from dislocating

The synovial membrane ________.

lines the inside of the fibrous joint capsule
reinforces the joints so that the opposing bones are not pulled apart
functions as a cushion between opposing bones
covers and protects the articulating bone surfaces

lines the inside of the fibrous joint capsule

Which of the following is NOT a factor that contributes to joint stability?

amount of muscle tone applied to tendons that cross the joint
amount of synovial fluid in the joint cavity
number and positioning of reinforcing ligaments
shape of the articulating surfaces

amount of synovial fluid in the joint cavity

chapter 6,8.9 practice quiz - Subjecto.com

chapter 6,8.9 practice quiz

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Which of the following is CORRECTLY paired?

smooth muscle: striated
skeletal muscle: voluntary control
cardiac muscle: voluntary control
cardiac muscle: nonstriated

skeletal muscle: voluntary control

Hyaline cartilage ________.

forms "shock-absorbing" pads between the vertebrae
gives shape to the external ear
is the rarest of the skeletal cartilages
is found on the ends of bones that form movable joints

is found on the ends of bones that form movable joints

When chondrocytes in lacunae divide and form new matrix, it leads to an expansion of the cartilage tissue from within. This process is called ________.

calcification
hematopoiesis
appositional growth
interstitial growth

interstitial growth

Cartilage grows in two ways, appositional and interstitial. What is appositional growth?

the secretion of new matrix against the external face of existing cartilage
along the edges only of existing osteons, making each osteon larger
the lengthening of hyaline cartilage
growth at the epiphyseal plate

the secretion of new matrix against the external face of existing cartilage

The axial skeleton includes the ________.

hip bones
bones of the legs
ribs
bones of the arms

ribs

Hematopoiesis is a term for which of the following physiological processes?

blood cell formation
release of minerals into the blood
energy storage in fat tissue
bone formation during growth

blood cell formation

Bones do NOT have a role in ________.

blood cell formation
glycogen production
fat storage
support
movement

glycogen production

Which of the following is stored in bones?

glycogen
calcitonin
phosphate
vitamin C
iodine

phosphate

Which hormone is produced in bone and regulates bone formation, but also protects against diabetes mellitus?

leptin
calcitonin
osteocalcin
growth hormone

osteocalcin

Which of the following is not a function of the skeletal system?

communication
houses the bone marrow which produces blood cells (hematopoiesis)
support
storage of minerals

communication

Which description of bone cells is INCORRECT?

Osteoblasts secrete collagen and calcium-binding proteins.
Osteogenic cells can differentiate into osteoclasts.
Osteoclasts secrete digestive enzymes and hydrogen ions.
Bone lining cells on the internal surfaces of bone are also called endosteal cell

osteogenic cells can differentiate into osteoclasts

Osteoclasts ________.

calcify bone matrix
form new bone
break down bone
form skeletal cartilage

break down bone

In adults, yellow marrow is located ________.

in the medullary cavity of long bones
in the epiphyseal plates of long bones
primarily in flat bones
in the central canals of osteons

in the medullary cavity of long bones

The resilience of bone is primarily due to which of the following?

amount of mineral salt and protein in the bone
sacrificial bonds in or between collagen molecules
amount of mineral salts in the bone
presence of osteoblasts in the bone

sacrificial bonds in or between collagen molecules

The structure of bone tissue suits the function. Which of the following bone tissues is adapted to support weight and withstand tension stress?

irregular bone
spongy bone
trabecular bone
compact bone

compact bone

The term diploë refers to the ________.

two types of marrow found within most bones
fact that most bones are formed of two types of bone tissue
internal layer of spongy bone in flat bones
double-layered nature of the connective tissue covering the bone

internal layer of spongy bone in flat bones

The periosteum is secured to the underlying bone by dense connective tissue called ________.

Volkmann’s canals
a bony matrix with hyaline cartilage
the struts of bone known as spicules
perforating (Sharpey’s) fibers

the struts of bone known as spicules perforating(sharpeys) fibers

What is osteoid?

the inorganic part of the matrix of bone
the outer surface of bone
one of the cell types found in bone
the organic part of the matrix of bone

the organic part of the matrix of bone

The periosteum is a tissue that serves only to protect the bone because it is not supplied with nerves or blood vessels.

True
False

false

What is the structural unit of compact bone?

canaliculus
osteon
haversian canal
osteoid

osteon

Which bone cells form bone?

osteoclasts
osteoblasts
chondroblasts
osteocytes

osteoblasts

Choose the TRUE statement.

Endochondral ossification leads to the formation of the clavicles and cranial bones.
Most bones in the body are formed by intramembranous ossification.
Endochondral ossification converts hyaline cartilage "bone" models into true bones (i.e., hyaline cartilage serves as a template for bone formation).
Endochondral ossification occurs within fibrous connective tissue membranes.

Endochondral ossification converts hyaline cartilage "bone" models into true bones (i.e., hyaline cartilage serves as a template for bone formation).

During infancy and childhood, the most important stimulus of epiphyseal plate activity is ________.

estrogen
testosterone
growth hormone
the thyroid hormones

growth hormone

Ossification of the ends of long bones ________.

is a characteristic of intramembranous bone formation
involves medullary cavity formation
takes twice as long as diaphysis ossification
is produced by secondary ossification centers

is produced by secondary ossification centers

What tissue forms the model for endochondral ossification?

bone
cartilage
fascia
membranes

cartilage

What can a deficiency of growth hormone during bone formation cause?

inadequate calcification of bone
decreased proliferation of the epiphyseal plate cartilage
decreased osteoclast activity
increased osteoclast activity

decreased proliferation of the epiphyseal plate cartilage

Which structure allows the diaphysis of the bone to increase in length until early childhood, as well as shaping the articular surfaces?

epiphyseal plate
Haversian system
lacunae
epiphyseal line

epiphyseal plate

Cranial bones develop ________.

within osseous membranes
from cartilage models
within fibrous membranes
from a tendon

within fibrous membrane

Which of the following is UNLIKELY to affect bone remodeling?

low blood Ca2+ concentration
mechanical stress
glucagon
parathyroid hormone

glucagon

Which of the following is CORRECTLY matched?

nondisplaced fracture: the fractured bone ends are misaligned
compound fracture: the fractured bone ends penetrate the skin
incomplete fracture: the bone is broken through
linear fracture: the break is perpendicular to the bone’s long axis

compound fracture: the fractured bone ends penetrate the skin

Hypercalcemia can be caused by_________.

insufficient vitamin D levels in the body
hypersecretion of parathyroid hormone
reduced parafollicular cell activity
All of the listed responses are correct.

hypersecretion of parathyroid hormone reduced parafollicular cell activity

Which hormone increases osteoclast activity to release more calcium ions into the bloodstream?

estrogen
calcitonin
thyroxine
parathyroid hormone

parathyroid hormone

Bones are constantly undergoing resorption for various reasons. Which of the following cells accomplishes this process?

stem cell
osteocyte
osteoblast
osteoclast

osteoclasts

What controls bone remodeling?

the nervous system and hormones
hormones and diet
mechanical stress and hormones
mechanical stress and diet

mechanical stress and hormones

Normal bone formation and growth are dependent on the adequate intake of ________.

potassium, phosphate, and vitamin D
calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D
sodium, calcium, and vitamin E
vitamin D, phosphate, and chloride

calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D

Functional classification of joints is based on ________.

the size of the joint
the location of the joint
the amount of movement allowed by the joint
whether a joint cavity is present

the amount of movement allowed by the joint

In the classification of joints, which of the following is true?

Synarthrotic joints are slightly movable.
All synovial joints are freely movable.
Immovable joints are called amphiarthroses.
In cartilaginous joints, a joint cavity is present.

all synovial joints are freely movable

Which of the following refers to a joint that is immovable?

amphiarthrosis
diarthrosis
synarthrosis
synovial

synarthrosis

All joints permit some degree of movement, even if very slight.

True
False

false

The structural classification of joints is based on the composition of the binding material and the presence or absence of a joint cavity.

True
False

true

A fibrous joint that is a peg-in-socket is called a ________ joint.

gomphosis
synchondrosis
syndesmosis
suture

gomphosis

On the basis of structural classification, which joint is fibrous connective tissue?

syndesmosis
pivot
synchondrosis
symphysis

syndesmosis

Fibrous joints are classified as ________.

pivot, hinge, and ball and socket
symphysis, sacroiliac, and articular
hinge, saddle, and ellipsoidal
sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses

sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses

An example of an interosseus fibrous joint is ________.

the radius and ulna along its length
between the humerus and the glenoid cavity
the clavicle and the scapula at the distal ends
between the vertebrae

the radius and ulna along its length

Which of the following are CORRECTLY paired?

gomphoses: articulating bones are separated by a fluid containing cavity
synchondrosis: a plate of hyaline cartilage unites the bones
syndesmoses: bony edges interlock
suture: bones connected exclusively by ligaments

synchondrosis: a plate of hyaline cartilage unites the bones

A joint united by dense fibrocartilaginous tissue that usually permits a slight degree of movement is a ________.

syndesmosis
suture
symphysis
gomphosis

symphysis

Which of the following are cartilaginous joints?

Sutures
Gomphoses
Syndesmoses
Synchondroses

synchondroses

Which of the following statements defines synchondroses?

joints that permit angular movements
interphalangeal joints
amphiarthrotic joints designed for strength and flexibility
cartilaginous joints where hyaline cartilage unites the ends of bones

cartilaginous joints where hyaline cartilage unites the ends of bones

Which of the following is one difference between bursae and tendon sheaths?

Bursae are only found in synovial joints, while tendon sheaths are only found in fibrous joints.
Bursae are flattened fibrous sacs wedged between adjacent structures, while tendon sheaths are elongated fibrous sacs that wrap around tendons.
Bursae contain a thin film of synovial fluid, while tendon sheaths lack synovial fluid altogether.
Bursae serve as cushioning fat pads between adjacent structures, while tendon sheaths reduce friction between adjacent structures.

Bursae are flattened fibrous sacs wedged between adjacent structures, while tendon sheaths are elongated fibrous sacs that wrap around tendons.

Synovial fluid does NOT ________.

prevent the articulating bones from dislocating
reduce friction between the articular cartilages
contain phagocytic cells
nourish the cartilage cells in the joint

prevent the articulating bones from dislocating

The synovial membrane ________.

lines the inside of the fibrous joint capsule
reinforces the joints so that the opposing bones are not pulled apart
functions as a cushion between opposing bones
covers and protects the articulating bone surfaces

lines the inside of the fibrous joint capsule

Which of the following is NOT a factor that contributes to joint stability?

amount of muscle tone applied to tendons that cross the joint
amount of synovial fluid in the joint cavity
number and positioning of reinforcing ligaments
shape of the articulating surfaces

amount of synovial fluid in the joint cavity

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