Chapter 5 Study Notes Aaron

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Mendeleev arranged the known chemical elements in a table according to increasing…

Unknown element he predicted would have properties similar to those of aluminum

Mendeleev gave the name eka-aluminum to a (an)

Mass number

Moving from left to right across a row of the periodic table, which of the following values increase by exactly one from element to element?

Carbon-12 atom.

The standard on which the tomic mass unit is based is the mass of a

a weighted average of the masses of the elemnt’s isotopes

The atomic mass of an element is


At room temperature, none of the metals are

Most metals are brittle

Which general statement does NOT apply to metals?

Nonmetal bromine

Two highly reactive elements in Period 4 are the metal potassium and the

one or seven valence electrons

Atoms of the most reactive elements tend to have…


An alkali metal has one valence electron, while an alkaline earth metal has

They are similar to noble gases.

Which statement is NOT true about the elements fluorine, chlorine, and iodine?

decreases from top to bottom within the group

Among the alkali metals, the tendency to react with other substances


What halogen is most likely to react?


To keep them from reacting, some highly reactive elements are stored in


Which element is found in nature only in compounds?


When Mendeleev organize elements in his periodic table in order of increasing mass, elements with similar properties were in the same


Mendeleev predicted that the undiscovered element he called eka- aluminum would have a _____ melting point

periodic law

The pattern of repeating properties of elements revealed in the periodic table is known as the ____


Fertilizers usually contains two elements from group 5A, which are _____ and phosphorus


One way to demonstrate reactivity among the alkaline earth metals, Group 2A, is to observe what happens when they are placed in ____

He wanted to organize information about the elements for a textbook he waas writing.

Why did Mendeleev want to make a periodic table of the elements

Atomic number, number or protons in each element.

What do the whole numbers on the periodic table represent?

Selium is a nonmetal

Selenium has six valence electrons, while rubidium has one valence electron. Identify each element as a metal or a nonmetal


Silicon and chlorine are both in Period 3. Which is the more reactive element

Sulfur is not a highly reactive element under ordinary conditions.

Sulfur is often found in nature as an element, not combined with other elements in a compound. What does this fact tell you about the reactivity of sulfur?

You could store the compound in a jar filled with a noble gas such as argon. Students may also recall that reactive elements are stored under oil.

In a laboratory procedure, you form a highly reactive compound. How could you store the compound so that it will not react?

You could see which piece conducts an electric current or which piece is a better conductor of heat.

In science lab, your teacher gives you two small pieces of matter and tells you that one piece is a metal and one is a nonmetal. Without changing the size or shape of the pieces, how could you test them to determine which is the metal?

The properties repeat at regular intervals

How are the octaves on a keyboard on analogy for the periods in a periodic table?

Lithium is an alkali metal in Group 1A. Alkali metals are the most reactive metals. Neon is a noble gas in Group 8A. Noble gases are highly unreactive nonmetals.

Although lithium and neon are both in Period 2 of the periodic table, they have very different properties, Explain how this is possible.

row to row

In a periodic table, a set of properties repeats from

the discovery of elements with predicted properties

The usefulness of Mendeleev’s periodic table was confirmed by

atomic mass unit

One-twelfth the mass of a carbon-12 atom is used to define a (an)

Take a weighted average of the masses of the isotopes present in nature

How is the atomic mass of an element determined?

sodium,chromium, copper

Which list of elements contains only metals?

Silicon is a better conductor of an electric current than sulfur is

Which statement is true about the metalloid silicon?

Most reactive metals

The column on the far left of the periodic table contains the


As you move from left to right across a period, the number of valence electrons

More Valence Electrons

Compared with Group 1A elements, Group 7A elements have

the number of valence electrons in atoms of the elements

The tendency of an element to react chemically is closely related to


Which of these Group 1A elements is the most reactive?

F (fluorine)

Which of these Group 7A elements is the most reactive?

Helium and neon

Which of the following gases emit color when an electric current is applied?


Which element is found in most of the compound in your body except for water?


Mendeleev organized elements in his periodic table in order of increasing


Mendeleev’s periodic table was useful because it enabled scientists to predict properties of unknown


Phosphorus is one block to the left of sulfur in the periodic table. The atomic # of sulfur is 16. The atomic number of phosphorus is


The atomic mass unit (amu) is defined as one-twelfth the mass of a _____-12 atom


Elements can be classified as metals, nonmetals, and


From left to right across a period in the periodic table, elements become less ______ and more _______


Element 3, lithium, has one valence electron, and element 4, beryllium, has two valence electrons. Element 5, boron, has _____ valence electrons


In general, a _____ metal will be more reactive than an alkaline earth metal in the same period.


Although they are called _____ lights, they can contain any noble gas.

Mendeleev predicted the properties of these undiscovered elements from data in his periodic table, when the elements sere discovered their actual properties were found to be a close match to those Mendeleev had predicted. Their discovery provided evidence of the usefulness of Mendeleev’s periodic.

Why were the elements gallium (Ga) scandium (Sc) and germanium (Ge) important to Mendeleev?

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