Chapter 5 Study Guide

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psychologists who examine learning from a behavioral perspective define learning as

the relatively stable, observable changes in a person’s actions

___ is a theory of learning that focuses solely on observable actions and responses


your psychology assignment is to observe and list any behaviors of your relatives that indicate learning. which of the following should be included on your list?

your little brother whines whenever he wants something

which of the following is true with regard to the principles of behaviorism

understanding the causes of behavior requires looking at the environmental factors that produce them

learning that occurs when an organism makes a connection between two events is called

associative learning

in classical conditioning, organisms learn the association between two


lightning is associated with thunder and regularly precedes it. thus, when we see lightning, we often anticipate that we will hear thundering soon afterward. This is an example of

classical conditioning

Sarah feels sick every time she travels by air. She associates flying with physical illness and, as a result, hates air travel. She also finds it difficult to watch movies with airplanes or read books about airplanes because they make her
uncomfortable. This scenario illustrates the learning process of

classical conditioning

Organisms learn about the consequences of behavior through

operant conditioning

Classical and operant conditioning involve learning through _____, whereas observational learning involves learning through _____

association/watching and imitation

which of the following is true regarding learning through operant conditioning

organisms learn the association between behaviors and their consequences

Miranda is learning to play tennis. For her first lesson, her instructor models serving and backhand returns while Miranda patiently watches. Miranda then tries to imitate the sequence of swings and motions made by her instructor. Which of the following concepts best describes Miranda’s learning process?

observational learning

which of the following is true of observational learning

observational learning is one way in which human infants acquire skills

The adage "When in Rome, do as the Romans do" best reflects which of the following types of learning?

observational learning

A learning process in which neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus and acquires the capacity to elicit a similar response

classical conditioning

salivating at the presentation of food is an example of

a reflex

tina’s eyes water every time she chops onions. her response is an example of a


In Pavlov’s experiment, the dog automatically salivated to food because food is a

unconditioned stimulus

which of the following is the best example of an unconditioned response

sneezing after sniffing pepper

Dr. Meyer is known for his difficult pop quizzes. Typically, before he conducts a pop quiz for his students, he shuts the classroom door. Students soon learn to anticipate a pop quiz whenever Dr. Meyer closes the classroom door. In this case, closing the door has become a(n)

conditioned stimulus

A father takes his baby out for a walk. The baby reaches over to touch a pink flower and is stung by a bumblebee sitting on the petals. The next day, the baby’s mother brings home some pink flowers. The mother removes a flower from the arrangement and takes it over for her baby to smell. The baby cries loudly as soon as she sees it. According to the principles of classical conditioning, the conditioned stimulus in this scenario is the

pink flower

You feel fine at the picnic until a spider very similar to the one that bit you last year and made you sick starts to walk onto your picnic blanket. This reaction is most likely a(n)

conditioned response

. In classical-conditioning situations, the _____ is unlearned, but the _____ is learneD. A. unconditioned stimulus/conditioned stimulus

unconditioned response/conditioned response

before the bell was ever presented, Pavlov’s dog salivated each time food was presented. In this situation, salivation is the

unconditioned response

Pavlov’s dog salivated to the sound of a bell because

the bell had become associated with food

In Pavlov’s classic study on classical conditioning, the bell was the ___ before conditioning and the ____ after conditioning had occurred.

neutral stimulus/conditioned stimulus

____ is the initial learning of the connection between the unconditioned stimulus and the conditioned stimulus when these two stimuli are paired


which of the following is true of acquisition in classical conditioning

the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus are presented very closely together in time

____ means that the conditioned stimulus must not only precede the unconditioned stimulus closely in time, but it must also serve as a reliable indicator that the unconditioned stimulus in on its way


the extent to which the conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus occur close together in time reflects


_____ in classical conditioning is the tendency of a new stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus to elicit a response that is similar to the conditioned response.


Mark’s dog, Gus, sits whenever he says, "Sit." Mark now wants to teach Gus a new trick. He wants to teach him to bark each time he says, "Speak," but whenever Mark says, "Speak," Gus sits. The dog’s behavior is most likely an example of


____ in classical conditioning is the process of learning to respond to certain stimuli and not others.


. _____ in classical conditioning is the weakening of the conditioned response when the unconditioned stimulus is absent.


. In the context of classical conditioning, _____ occurs when the conditioned response dissipates after the anticipated
reward is withheld.


Pavlov’s dog salivates each time he hears a bell. Now, however, after several trials of salivating to the bell and not
receiving any food, the dog stops salivating. Which of the following best explains the change in the dog’s behavior?

extinction has occured

The process in classical conditioning by which a conditioned response can recur after a time delay, without further
conditioning, is called

spontaneous recovery

Marcia is no longer romantically involved with John as they broke up after a three-year relationship. They have no
interaction with each other. One day in the mall, she suddenly gets a whiff of the cologne that John always wore. All the former good feelings come pouring back. The sudden onset of good feelings triggered by the cologne is an example of

spontaneous recovery

Watson and Rayner used _____ along with an unconditional stimulus in order to condition fear in little Albert.

a white rat

In the experiment with little Albert conducted by Watson and Rayner, _____ was used as an unconditional response for conditioning Albert to fear a white rat.

conditioned stimulus

. Little Albert was conditioned by John Watson to fear a white rat. Eventually, however, Albert became fearful of any stimulus that looked white and furry. He became scared not only of rats, but also of rabbits, dogs, and even sealskin coats. This study illustrates

stimulus generalization in classical conditioning

Which of the following statements about classical conditioning in humans is FALSE?

classical conditioning is based on observing and imitating others

_____ is a classical-conditioning procedure for changing the relationship between a conditioned stimulus and its
conditioned response.


. _____ is a form of treatment that involves repeated pairings of a stimulus with a very unpleasant stimulus.

aversive conditioning

Robert drank too much tequila last night. He spent much of this morning vomiting. According to the principles of classical conditioning, how will Robert likely react today when he tastes or smells the tequila bottle that he drank out of last night?

he will find the scent and taste of tequila aversive

In aversive conditioning experiments to treat alcohol addiction, every time a person drinks an alcoholic beverage, he or she also consumes a mixture that induces nausea. In classical-conditioning terminology, the nausea-inducing agent is the

unconditioned stimulus

Miguel has been unable to sleep for the past one week. His wife gives him a vitamin pill and tells him that it will help him sleep at night. The next morning, Miguel is thrilled because he has slept better than ever before. In this scenario, Miguel’s response to the vitamin can be attributed to

the placebo effect

Classical conditioning can produce _____, which is a decrease in the production of antibodies that can lower a person’s ability to fight disease.


taste aversion is an example of

classical conditioning

Leonard is addicted to heroin, but is very careful about overdosing. He always uses a specific amount and takes it only in his apartment. On Friday, he became desperate for the drug while visiting with another drug user. This was the first time he had used heroin outside his own apartment. He injected his normal "safe" dose of heroin but almost died of an overdose. According to the principles of classical conditioning what led to Leonard’s condition?

the effect of the heroin was increased because Leonard injected it in a strange environment and his body was not prepared to take the effect under the new setting

which of the following helps to explain drug habituation

classical conditioning

Classical conditioning helps to explain _____, which refers to the decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after repeated presentations.


While watching television, you can see how advertisers cunningly apply classical-conditioning principles to consumers by showing ads that pair something pleasant with a product in hope that you, the viewer, will experience those positive feelings toward the product. In this situation, the product is the

conditioned stimulus

Which of the following is more effective in explaining voluntary behaviors

operant conditioning

Classical conditioning most effectively explains how neutral stimuli become associated with

involuntary responses

in operant conditioning

the consequences of behavior produce change in the probability of the occurrence of the behavior

Some bears kept in the zoo allow veterinarians to routinely give them total body checkups. These bears open their mouths for teeth cleaning and present their paws for nail clipping. Your friend wonders how anyone could ever get these dangerous animals to be so cooperative without anesthesia. You, however, a psychology student, quickly surmise that the bears had most likely undergone

operant conditioning

identify an accurate statement related to operant conditioning

operant conditioning is a form of associative learning

According to Thorndike’s law of effect

behaviors followed by satisfying outcomes are strengthened and behaviors followed by frustrating outcomes are weakened

Which of the following statements about B.F. Skinner is FALSE?

Skinner believed that the mechanisms of learning among humans are different than the mechanisms of learning among animals.

In operant conditioning ____ refers to rewarding successive approximations of a desired behavior


. In the Water Kingdom Amusement Park, when two sea lions throw and catch balls on their nose, they are rewarded every time with fish after they successfully complete their act. The sea lions have been trained to perform this behavior through


The process by which a stimulus or event following a particular behavior increases the probability that the behavior will happen again is called


The presentation of a stimulus following a given behavior in order to increase the frequency of that behavior is called

positive reinforcement

. The removal of a stimulus following a given behavior in order to increase the frequency of that behavior is called

negative reinforcement

Which of the following is an example of negative reinforcement

Jeff wakes up a few seconds before his alarm clock goes off in order to avoid the obnoxious alarm sound.

. Jennifer accidentally plays a radio channel that she has never heard before. She loves the music it plays and as a result, she plays only that channel whenever she wants to listen to music. In the context of operant conditioning, Jennifer’s behavior has most likely been learned through

positive reinforcement

. Liam is studying in his room for an exam but is disturbed by the loud music from his neighbor’s house. He closes the window so that he can no longer hear the loud music. In this scenario, Liam’s behavior demonstrates _____ in operant conditioning

negative reinforcement

In operant conditioning, negative reinforcement

has hardly anything to do with "good" and "bad" behavior

Jacky did not score well in her "pre-med" course at the university level. She started studying hard to improve her grades and got into medical school. Even after getting the degree of Doctor of Medicine (M.D.), she still works hard for everything and is successful in all her endeavors. Which special kind of response to negative reinforcement is evident in Jacky’s case?

avoidance learning

. Experience with unavoidable negative stimuli can lead to a particular deficit in avoidance learning called _____, in which the organism, exposed to uncontrollable aversive stimuli, learns that it has no control over negative outcomes.
A. instinctive drift

learned helplessness

Shirley repeatedly ends up receiving bad grades in algebra no matter how hard she studies. Eventually, Shirley stops studying for algebra tests and accepts that nothing she does will enable her to get good grades. In the context of operant conditioning, Shirley’s behavior exemplifies

learned helplessness

a ____ reinforce is innately satisfying and it does not take any learning on the organism’s part to make it pleasurable


which of the following is a primary reinforcer?


a ______ reinforcer is a reinforcer that acquires its positive value through an organism’s experience


____ is a secondary reinforcer


in operant conditioning, ______ means preforming a reinforced behavior in a different situation


Bubba, a very smart German shepherd, has learned that if he barks at the neighbors while they’re grilling, they will throw him a candy. However, his owner, Paul, does not want Bubba to eat candy as it is not good for his health. He does not allow Bubba to eat candies from the neighbor. When Paul is in the yard, Bubba never barks at the neighbors. According to operant-conditioning principles, Bubba is demonstrating that he can


in operant conditioning, discrimination occurs when

an organism responds appropriately to stimuli that signal that a behavior will or will not be reinforced

in operant conditioning, extinction occurs when

a behavior is no longer reinforced and decreases in frequency

in operant conditioning, continuous reinforcement

is the type of reinforcement in which organisms learn rapidly

which of the following is true of a fixed-ratio schedule in operant conditioning

it reinforces a behavior after a set number of behaviors

Carol gives her dog, Spike, a chew stick each time Spike gets the ball back at her command. Carol is using a _____
schedule to train her dog to get the ball back on command.

continuous reinforcement

Fred’s parents are very inconsistent with their childrearing rules. Most of the time Fred can climb on the furniture but sometimes he is punished. Fred’s parents can’t understand why he isn’t a well-behaved child. Fred’s parents are
reinforcing his negative behaviors on a(n)

partial-reinforcement schedule

A worker is paid $25 for every 20 wind chimes that she builds. On which schedule of reinforcement is she being paid?


Matt wants to train his dog, Buster, to sit on command. He gives Buster a biscuit each time Buster sits when commanded, but only for the first 10 trials. He then changes the rules. Buster now has to sit on command three times before he gets a biscuit. In this case, Matt used a _____ schedule first, and then a _____ schedule to train Buster.

continuous-reinforcement/fixed ratio

which of the following is true of a variable-interval schedule in operant conditioning

it reinforces a behavior after an inconsistent and unpredictable amount of time has elapsed

Which of the following is true of a fixed-interval schedule in the context of operant conditioning?

It reinforces the first behavior after a set amount of time has passed.

Which of the following is true of a variable-ratio schedule in operant conditioning?

it produces high, steady rates of behavior that are more resistant to extinction than other schedules

A hitchhiker most likely gets rides on a _____ schedule of reinforcement.


Jose’s employer pays him every other Friday. This is an example of which of the following schedules of reinforcement?


. _____ is a consequence that decreases the likelihood that a behavior will occur.


Which of the following best illustrates positive punishment in operant conditioning?

lecturing and reprimanding a child for being rude to his or her teachers

Spanking is a form of _____; time-out is a form of _____.

. positive punishment/negative punishment

Todd is scolded each time he bullies his little brother by taking away his toys. His mother notices that the frequency of bullying has decreased. Scolding Todd is an example of

positive punishment

Larry is grounded each time he hits his little brother. After a few times of being grounded, Larry’s misbehavior toward his little brother decreases. Grounding Larry is an example of

negative punishment

positive and negative punishment are meant to

decrease behaviors

Applied behavior analysis is based on the concept of

operant conditioning

Which of the following is true of observational learning?

it often takes less time than operant conditioning

Your psychology professor wants to help students learn how to write a high-quality research paper, so she posts an
example of a research paper on the course website. You use this example as a model when writing your own paper.
Which of the following concepts best describes how you learned to write your research paper?

observational learning

According to Bandura’s model of observational learning, what are the four primary processes involved in observational learning?

attention, retention, motor production, and reinforcement

In observational learning, the first process that must occur is


In the context of observational learning, retention is a process in which

a learner encodes the information to reproduce a model’s actions

. _____, a third element of observational learning, is the process of imitating the model’s actions.

motor production

According to Bandura’s model of observational learning, which final component determines whether or not an imitated or modeled act will be repeated?


Which of the following describes the reinforcement element in observational learning?

judging whether to repeat a behavior depending on the consequence of the behavior

According to E.C. Tolman

behavior is goal directed

Tolman focused on cognitive mechanisms in studying the

purposiveness of behavior

Tolman said that when classical conditioning and operant conditioning occur, an organism acquires certain


latent learning is

unreinforced learning that is not immediately reflected in behavior

One day, on the way home from work, you decide to explore a side street that you’d passed on several occasions. You are surprised to find that it runs parallel to the expressway and realize that it could be used as an alternate route to and from work. Several weeks later, there is a major accident on your usual travel route and you remember the side street alternate route. You happily take this route home. This is an example of

latent learning

Tolman demonstrated that rats can learn to run a maze correctly even though they were never reinforced for successfully running through it. This demonstrated that the rats called on their _____ to help them reach the end of the maze more quickly

latent learning

. _____ is defined as a type of learning that occurs without reinforcement. However, this learning is not demonstrated until the person or animal is reinforced to do so.

latent learning

_____ is a form of problem solving in which the organism develops a sudden understanding of a problem’s solution

insight learning

Which of the following is true with regard to insight learning?

Insight learning requires thinking "outside the box," setting aside previous expectations and assumptions.

The tendency of animals to revert intuitive behavior that interferes with learning is called

instinctive drift

Which of the following is an example of instinctive drift?

. A pig shoves an object on the ground instead of learning to carry it in his mouth.

. _____ is the species-specific biological predisposition to learn in certain ways but not others.


Ally, an athlete, believes she does not have the ability to improve her running time, despite her practicing every day. Which of the following explains Ally’s attitude?

fixed mindset

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