Chapter 5 Gov.

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What is the key question behind civil rights protection?

What is the proper meaning of equal rights?

When did civil rights become part of the U.S. Constitution?

Civil rights were incorporated with the ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment.

Most of the government’s positive actions associated with the civil rights issue in the United States stem from the application of

the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.

Which of the following cases helped lead to the Civil War?

Marbury v. Madison

What goal did members of the abolitionist movement pursue?

the end of slavery

Which of the following people is most associated with the abolitionist movement?

William Lloyd Garrison

What was the Seneca Falls Convention?

a meeting in upstate New York during the mid-nineteenth century regarding women’s rights

The Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution guarantees

the right to vote for African American men.

What did the Thirteenth Amendment accomplish?

It abolished slavery.

What does the term Jim Crow refer to?

the system of racial segregation in the South after Reconstruction

The Civil Rights Act of 1875 attempted to

protect African Americans from discrimination in public accommodations like hotels and theaters.

What was the Supreme Court’s response to the Civil Rights Act of 1875?

It declared the act unconstitutional because it protected against acts of private discrimination, not state discrimination.

During the late nineteenth century, the equal protection clause was

severely limited in scope by the Supreme Court.

The Supreme Court’s ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson

established the separate but equal rule.

The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) had the most success with which political strategies for combating racism?


During World War II, ______ forced the federal government to address discriminatory hiring practices by threatening massive labor marches on Washington, D.C.

A. Philip Randolph

In 1890, ______ became the first state to allow women to vote.


A 1948 report on the problem of racial discrimination, To Secure These Rights, was issued by

the White House.

What was the Supreme Court’s ruling in Shelley v. Kraemer?

Racially restrictive covenants on housing could not be enforced by courts.

What was the Supreme Court’s record in segregation cases in the years before Brown v. Board of Education?

The Court overturned forms of segregation using the separate but equal rule on factual grounds.

"Strict scrutiny" is the level of judicial review the federal courts give to all cases that involve

racial classifications.

Which area of discrimination was touched by the legal principles of Brown v. Board of Education?

public schools

Legally enforced segregation in public schools is a form of ______ discrimination.

de jure

In their response to Brown v. Board of Education, southern states did all of the following except

quickly desegregate their schools.

In the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Congress vastly expanded the role of the executive branch and the credibility of court orders by

requiring that federal grants-in-aid to state and local government for education be withheld from any school system practicing racial segregation.

One step taken toward the desegregation of public schools was

busing children from poor urban school districts to wealthier suburban ones.

Which of the following best describes the federal courts’ trend toward school desegregation in the 1990s?

The courts decreased the federal supervision of local school desegregation.

What forbade workplace discrimination based on race?

the Civil Rights Act of 1964

The right to vote was strengthened in 1975 when Congress

made literacy tests illegal and mandated bilingual ballots or other assistance for non-English-speaking Americans.

To draw voting districts so that one group or party is unfairly advantaged is called


What does the term redlining refer to?

the practice of banks refusing to make loans to people living in certain neighborhoods

It was during the tenure of Chief Justice ______ that the Supreme Court established gender discrimination as a highly visible area of civil rights law.


The attempt to ratify the Equal Rights Amendment was an important struggle for


Why did the Equal Rights Amendment fail to pass?

It was not ratified by the necessary thirty-eight states.

Title IX of the 1972 Education Act has had its greatest effect on

university athletic programs.

Under what conditions can a plaintiff successfully bring a sexual harassment charge?

the plaintiff need prove neither economic nor psychological harm

Which of the following are names of Latino civil rights organizations?


What was the purpose of California’s Proposition 187?

It barred unauthorized immigrants from receiving most public services.

What happened to California’s Proposition 187?

A federal court declared most of it a violation of the U.S. Constitution.

Which group was excluded from immigrating to the United States from the late nineteenth century until the 1940s?


United States v. Wong Kim Ark is an important case because it declared that

anyone born in the United States was entitled to be a citizen.

Before the 1920s, what was the political status of Native Americans?

They were considered to be foreigners because their tribes were regarded as separate nations.

The rights of disabled individuals to both access public businesses and not be discriminated against in employment are guaranteed by

the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990.

In dealing with the issue of gays in the military, President Bill Clinton established a

"don’t ask, don’t tell" policy.

What did the Supreme Court rule in Bowers v. Hardwick?

There was no constitutional right to privacy for consensual homosexual activity.

In Lawrence v. Texas, the Supreme Court

struck down a state law criminalizing homosexual conduct.

Who inaugurated government affirmative action programs?

Lyndon Johnson

In Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, the Supreme Court ruled that

quotas and separate admissions standards for minorities were unconstitutional but affirmative action could be used.

In the University of Michigan affirmative action cases, the Supreme Court

rejected mechanical point systems for university admissions but upheld highly individualized affirmative action policies that were designed to promote diversity.

California Proposition 209 was designed to

outlaw all affirmative action programs in state and local government.

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