Chapter 5 FSHN 120

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A(n) _______________ is the simplest form of lipid; it is a carbon chain, flanked by hydrogens, with an acid group at one end and a methyl group at the other end.

fatty acid

What is the composition of the triglyceride form of fats

Fatty acids and glycerol

A saturated fatty acid contains

no double bonds

Of the macronutrients, fats are the most significant dietary factor(s) associated with

heart disease

Phospholipids are the main components of

cell membranes

After chylomicrons leave the intestinal cells, they are transported via what system?


Olive oil contains abundant amounts of which type of fatty acid


Which of the following is true about the fate of fatty acids after their absorption

Fatty acids of less than 12 carbons enter the blood and then the liver via the portal vein

The major dietary factor to be concerned about in relation to heart disease is

satrated fat

Which of the following is true about cholesterol

It is found primarily in animal products

An ___ is made up of a glycerol backbone attached to three fatty acids


Which of the following would be a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acids

Safflower oil

Which of the following is an essential fatty acid


In terms of heart disease risk, which of the following is true

As LDL cholesterol levels increase there is an increased risk

Studies of Greenland Eskimos, among others, have demonstrated a relationship between the consumption of fish and the risk for heart disease. What is the most likely mechanism for the reduction of heart disease risk when fish is consumed?

Fish supplies fatty acids that decrease blood clotting

____________ are lipid-loaded white blood cells that have surrounded large amounts of a fatty substance, usually cholesterol, on the blood vessel walls.

Foam cells

All of the following are true of lecithin except

It has sterol-like functions

The body stores excess protein as


Name an omega-3 fatty acid with 20 carbons and 5 double bonds, found in fatty fish and synthesized from alpha-linolenic acid


Which of the following does not describe a function of fat

Best source of energy for the brain

Which of the following is true about Olestra

It cannot be digested, therefore it leaves the body

Which lipoprotein is responsible for picking up cholesterol from dying cells and other sources so it can be transported back to the liver for excretion

High-density lipoprotein

Most lipids are transported in the blood as part of a structure called a


Which of the following is true about trans fatty acids found in hydrogenated fats

When consumed, they can raise serum LDL cholesterol

The major function of adipose tissue is to

store triglycerides

Sometimes phospholipids are used in commercial salad dressings to suspend vegetable oil in water. In this case, phospholipids are serving as


The main problem with the fat replacer olestra is that it can bind

the fat-soluble vitamins and reduce their absorption

The omega-6 parent fat, linoleic acid is converted by the body into the long-chain fatty acid

arachidonic acid

The major fat-digesting enzyme is

pancreatic lipase

Sterols are similar to triglycerides in which of the following ways

They do not dissolve in water

Immediately after a meal, newly absorbed dietary fats appear in the blood as


Hydrogenation produces what kinds of fat

Trans fatty acids

Which of the following contains a rich supply of omega-3 fatty acids


Which of the following is not a rich source of polyunsaturated fatty acids

Palm oil

Which of the following is true about the use of medications that lower blood cholesterol levels

They often are helpful for person who have had a heart attack or have had cardiovascular disease

Olive and canola oils contain a high percentage of __ fatty acids


After absorption, long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides inside intestinal cells are

reformed into triglycerides

All of the following are characteristic of cholesterol except

it is an essential nutrient

___ are lipoproteins made of dietary fat surrounded by a shell of cholesterol, phospholipids, and protein that act to transport absorbed fat


One fat replacer that has gained notoriety lately due to its undesirable side effects is


Phospholipids differ from triglycerides in which of the following ways

A compound containing phosphorus replaces at least one fatty acid

We need to consume only about 5% of our total calories per day from essential fatty acids, that corresponds to about _____________________ of plant oil each day.

2 to 4 tablespoons

All of the following describe the characteristics of fat cells except

the number of fat cells decrease when fat is lost from the body

Which of the following contains the greatest percentage of calories from fat (in a typical serving size)


One of the richest plant sources of omega-3 fatty acids, alpha-linolenic acid, and
also a good source of plant sterols is


Good suggestions for eating in a heart-healthy way would be to

trim fat off meat before and cooking

Cholesterol is found in all of the following except

corn oil

The three-carbon structure to which fatty acids are attached in triglycerides is called


The main regulator of blood cholesterol levels is the


Although consumption of fatty fish at least twice a week is recommended as a good source of the omega-3 fatty acids, some fish, especially swordfish, shark, king mackerel, and tile fish, can be a source of ____________, toxic in high amounts,


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