Chapter 5 (Drugs) – Psych 1011

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Qualitative changes in conscious experience.

Psychoactive drugs are substances that, when taken into the body, produce…

Increased confidence and mood elevation.

What are some effects of cocaine?

Hallucinogen

What drug category does LSD fall in to?

Hallucinogens

Substances that create distorted perceptions of reality (ranging from mild to extreme) are called…

Increased muscle tension and increased heart rate.

What are some effects of caffeine?

Alertness and a sense of well being.

What are some effects of MDMA?

Withdrawal

_________ symptoms are the adverse effects people with physical dependence experience if they stop using a drug.

Endocannabinoids

_________ are natural, marijuana-like substances produced by the body.

Binge drinking

________ _______ is usually defined as 5-7 drinks in a row for men, and 4-6 drinks in a row for women.

Painkillers

The primary function of endorphins is to serve as natural…

Nicotine

The effects of this drug include increased heart rate/respiration and a feeling of arousal.The drug also has a calming effect according to some users. What is it?

The body’s inability to function without a drug.

Physical drug dependence is characterized by…

Paranoia, reduced anxiety, and impulsiveness.

What are some effects of alcohol?

Reducing nausea associated with chemotherapy, reducing weight loss associated with AIDS, and reducing muscle spasms in multiple sclerosis.

What are some legitimate medical uses for marijuana?

A) Cocaine

Which of the following is a stimulant? A) Cocaine B) Lithium C) Alcohol D) Marijuana

Addictive

A drug that produces dependence is said to be…

Stimulant

A _______ is a drug that has an arousal effect on the central nervous system.

The person’s belief that they cannot function without the drug.

Psychological dependence is characterized by…

Blood Alcohol Concentration

What does "BAC" stand for?

Smoking

What is linked to leukaemia, cataracts, pneumonia, and cancers of the cervix, kidney, pancreas, stomach, and lungs?

Depressants

Substances that decrease or slow down central nervous system activity (alcohol, sedatives, and opiates)…

Noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin.

Amphetamine acts by stimulating the synaptic release of…

Mood elevation, insomnia, and increased alertness.

What are some effects of amphetamines?

D) Amphetamine

Which of the following is considered a stimulant? A) Lithium B) Marijuana C) Heroin D) Amphetamine

Dopamine, serotonin, and noradrenaline.

Cocaine acts by reducing the synaptic uptake of…

Psychoactive drugs

Naturally occurring or synthesized substances that, when ingested or otherwise taken into the body, reliably produce qualitative changes in conscious experience. They can also produce profound changes in perception and consciousness (depressants are a class of them)…

A sense of well being and alertness.

What are some effects of MDMA?

Benzodiazepines

_______ are a class of drugs used to treat anxiety and insomnia.

Psychological dependence

Someone takes cocaine daily for several months and then abruptly stops. Even though this person does not feel ill, they experience very strong cravings for the drug. This is an example of ______ ______.

It increases the effect of GABA and serotonin, and decreases the effect of glutamate.

What effects does alcohol have on it’s target neurons?

D) Alcohol

Which of the following is considered a depressant? A) Marijuana B) Cocaine C) Nicotine D) Alcohol

More intense sensory experiences and euphoria.

What are some effects of marijuana?

Stimulant

What category of drug is caffeine?

Addiction

Loss of control over drug use despite negative consequences is known as…

Agonist

A drug that mimics the effect of a neurotransmitter at its receptors is a…

Antagonist

A drug that blocks the effect of a neurotransmitter at its receptors is a…

Circadian rhythm

The variations in physiological processes that cycle within approximately a 24-hour period, including the sleep-awake cycle.

Ultradian rhythm

The variations in physiological processes that repeat in a cycle of less than 24 hours; sleep stages follow this type of rhythm.

Free-running rhythm

The internally generated rhythm observed in individuals living in the absence of time cues.

Sustained attention

The ability to maintain focused awareness on a target or idea.

Selective attention

The ability to focus awareness on specific features in the environment while ignoring others.

Sleep apnea

Sleep difficulty that results from temporary blockage of the air passage.

Stroop effect

Delay in reaction time when colour of words on a test and their meaning differ.

Orexin

A neurotransmitter important for arousal; it is absent in the narcoleptic brain.

Narcolepsy

A sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and weakness in facial and limb muscles.

Manifest level

Freud’s surface level of dreams, recalled upon waking.

Latent level

Freud’s deeper, unconscious level of dreams – their meaning is found at this level.

Theta waves

Pattern of brain activity during stage 1 sleep; slower, lower-energy waves than alpha waves.

Beta waves

Pattern of brain activity when one is awake; a rapid, low-energy wave.

Vegetative state

A state of minimal consciousness in which the eyes might be open, but the person is otherwise unresponsive.

Sleepwalking

Sleep difficulty characterized by activities occurring during non-REM sleep that usually occur when one is awake, such as walking and eating.

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