Chapter 5- Biomolecules (MasteringBiology- Pearson) Part 1

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Which polymers are composed of amino acids?


Which of the following is not attached to the central carbon atom in an amino acid?

An oxygen

Which part of an amino acid is always acidic?

Carboxyl functional group

Which monomers make up RNA?


Which of the following statements about the formation of polypeptides from amino acids is true?

A bond forms between the carboxyl functional group of one amino acid and the amino functional group of the other amino acid.

True or false? Enzymes in the digestive tract catalyze hydrolysis reactions.


What is another name for a condensation reaction?


What is the name of the process during which a bond between two monomers is broken?


Protein polymers are made up of ______ monomers.

amino acids

Carbohydrate polymers are made up of ______ monomers.

simple sugars

Nucleic acid polymers are made up of ______ monomers.


A dehydration reaction (or condensation reaction) is the process in which _____.

water molecules are produced as a polymer is formed from monomers.

The four main categories of large biological molecules present in living systems are _____.

proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids

Molecules with which functional groups may form polymers via dehydration reactions?

either hydroxyl or carboxyl groups.

In animal metabolism, most of the monomers released by digestion of food macromolecules are metabolized to provide energy. Only a small portion of these monomers are used for synthesis of new macromolecules. The net result is that ______.

water is consumed by animal metabolism.

How many molecules of water are needed to completely hydrolyze a polymer that is 11 monomers long?


Which of the following best summarizes the relationship between dehydration reactions and hydrolysis?

Dehydration reactions assemble polymers, and hydrolysis reactions break down polymers.


the chemical breakdown of a compound due to reaction with water.


the loss or removal of water from something.

Polysaccharides, triacylglycerides, and proteins are similar in that they ______.

are synthesized from monomers by dehydration reactions.

DNAase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the covalent bonds that join nucleotides together. What would first happen to DNA molecules treated with DNAase?

The phosphodiester bonds between deoxyribose sugars would be broken.

This statement is incorrect.

All carbohydrates have the general formula Cn(H2O)n.

A simple sugar is composed of equal parts carbon and water, which gave rise to the general name of any sugar as a _____.


A carbohydrate that yields many monosaccharides when hydrolyzed is a _____.


A ______ cannot be hydrolyzed any further.


Lactose, the sugar in milk, is a ______, because it can be split into two monosaccharides.


Which molecule is not a carbohydrate?


Which of the following statements about monosaccharide structure is true?

Monosaccharides can be classified according to the spatial arrangement of their atoms.

True or false? Peptidoglycan is a polysaccharide found only in bacteria.


Which complex carbohydrate contains only a-1,4-glycosidic linkages?


Which of the following complex carbohydrates is listed with its correct function?

Cellulose: structural component of plant cell walls.

Which polysaccharide contains a modified monosaccharide?


Glycogen is _____.

a polysaccharide found in animals.

Glucose + Glucose –> ______ by ______.

Maltose + Water … dehydration synthesis.

Which of these is a source of lactose?
1) milk
2) sugar cane
3) potatoes
4) starch
5) sugar beets


Which of these is a polysaccharide?
1) glucose
2) lactose
3) galactose
4) sucrose
5) cellulose


_____ is the most abundant organic compound on Earth.


The molecular formula for glucose is C6H12O6. What would be the molecular formula for a molecule made by linking three glucose molecules together by dehydration reactions?


A molecule with the chemical formula C6H12O6 is probably a _____.

carbohydrate and monosaccharide only.

Lactose, a sugar in milk, is composed of one glucose molecule joined by a glycosidic linkage to one galactose molecule. How is lactose classified?

As a disaccharide.

Humans can digest starch but not cellulose because _____.

humans have enzymes that can hydrolyze the α glycosidic linkages of starch but not the β glycosidic linkages of cellulose.

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