Chapter 45 Hormones and the Endocrine system

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Which of these is the second of the three stages of cell signaling?

Transduction is the second of the three stages of cell signaling.

Receptors for nonsteroid hormones are located in _____.

Since nonsteroid hormones do not cross a cell’s plasma membrane, their receptors are located in association with the plasma membrane

Which of these is a nonsteroid hormone?

Both epinephrine and oxytocin are nonsteroid hormones

How do nonsteroid hormones differ from steroid hormones?

Since they do not enter the cell, nonsteroid hormones act via signal transduction pathways.

Which of these extracellular signal molecules could diffuse through a plasma membrane and bind to an intracellular receptor?

Steroid hormones such as estrogen can diffuse through the plasma membrane and bind to intracellular receptors

The primary reason steroid hormones usually act slowly is that _____.

This is the primary reason that steroid hormones usually act slowly

Steroid hormone-receptor complexes act in _____.

Steroid hormone-receptor complexes bind to DNA, where they affect transcription.

Which of these glands secretes releasing hormones?

The hypothalamus secretes both releasing and inhibiting hormones

Which of these hormones are responsible for the "fight or flight" response to danger?

These hormones, secreted by the adrenal medulla, are responsible for the "fight or flight" response.

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) triggers the release of _____ in response to stress.

In response to stress, ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids.

_____ are the main male hormones.

Androgens, such as testosterone, are the main male hormones

What hormone promotes water retention by the kidneys?

A diuretic promotes water loss; thus it makes sense that ADH (secreted by the anterior pituitary) promotes water conservation

Which hormone opposes the action of parathyroid hormone?

Parathyroid hormone increases blood calcium levels; calcitonin lowers blood calcium levels

Which hormone stimulates hormone production by the ovaries and testes?

LH stimulates hormone production by both the ovaries and testes

Which hormone stimulates milk production?

Prolactin, secreted by the anterior pituitary, stimulates milk production by the mammary glands

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