Chapter 43 MB

Your page rank:

Total word count: 1450
Pages: 5

Calculate the Price

- -
275 words
Looking for Expert Opinion?
Let us have a look at your work and suggest how to improve it!
Get a Consultant

Innate immunity and acquired immunity are both _____.

A) dependent on surface secretions from sebaceous and sweat glands, which give the skin an acidic pH that is unfavorable for bacterial colonization
B) dependent on tears, saliva, and mucous secretions that contain lysozyme, an enzyme that digests bacterial cell walls
C) characteristics of all vertebrate animals
D) dependent exclusively on cell-mediated responses
E) based on the trapping of microbes by mucus


Macrophages are _____.

A) short-lived cells that self-destruct soon after engulfing foreign invaders
B) large, phagocytic cells that can leave the circulation and enter the tissues of the body
C) cells that induce the lysis of virus-infected body cells
D) antigen-presenting cells that originate from neutrophils
E) the best defense against parasites


An antigen _____.

A) induces development of white blood cells in the bone marrow
B) could be an invading bacterium
C) is a protein molecule that helps defend the body against disease
D) is a foreign molecule that evokes a specific response by a lymphocyte
E) is a protein attacked by an invading microorganism


The fact that there are about a million different antigen receptors possible in human B cells is based on _____.

A) constant changes in the splicing pattern of receptor genes after the differentiation of the B cell
B) the capacity of memory cells to produce antibodies
C) having one million different immunoglobulin genes
D) temporary changes in the ways that RNA is spliced in the B cells
E) recombination of the segments of the receptor DNA that make up the functional receptor genes of differentiated B cells


The role of active cytotoxic T cells is to attack _____.

A) circulating antibodies
B) body cells that have been infected
C) circulating proteins
D) complement proteins
E) extracellular viruses and bacteria


Cell-mediated immunity differs from humoral immunity in that _____.

A) a humoral response is mounted more quickly
B) cell-mediated immunity is longer lasting
C) clonal selection occurs only in cell-mediated immunity
D) they respond differently to invaders
E) a subsequent secondary immune response can occur in humoral immunity


A primary reason for needing a new vaccine for influenza each year is that _____.

A) mutation in the influenza virus is frequent
B) the influenza virus might proliferate in different tissues during each subsequent year, and immune memory is limited to those tissues initially infected
C) influenza is a disease that causes the apoptosis of all memory cells
D) the first infection with influenza weakens the immune system
E) immunity typically disappears one month after recovery from a disease


Which of these is not part of insect immunity?

A) production of antimicrobial peptides
B) enzyme activation of microbe-killing chemicals
C) a protective exoskeleton
D) phagocytosis by hemocytes
E) activation of natural killer cells


Tissues are immunogically "typed" before an organ transplant to make sure that the donor and recipient match as closely as possible in their _____.

A) T cells
B) MHC (major histocompatibility complex) proteins
C) B cells
D) antibodies
E) histamines


Helper T cells are part of _____.

A) a group of phagocytic white blood cells
B) cell-mediated immune responses
C) the complement system
D) innate immunity
E) the first cells to bind to antigens


Extracellular pathogens such as viruses and bacteria in body fluids are attacked by _____.

A) antibodies from plasma cells
B) cytotoxic T cells
C) antigens
D) complement proteins
E) helper T cells


An epitope associates with which part of an antigen receptor or antibody?

A) the disulfide bridge
B) the heavy-chain constant regions only
C) variable regions of a heavy chain and light chain combined
D) the light-chain constant regions only
E) the tail


Which statement best describes the difference in responses of effector B cells (plasma cells) and cytotoxic T cells?

A) B cells confer active immunity; cytotoxic T cells confer passive immunity.
B) B cells respond the first time a pathogen is present; cytotoxic T cells respond subsequent times.
C) B cells secrete antibodies against a pathogen; cytotoxic T cells kill pathogen-infected host cells.
D) B cells carry out the cell-mediated response; cytotoxic T cells carry out the humoral response.
E) B cells kill pathogens directly; cytotoxic T cells kill host cells.
Previous Answers


How does an antihistamine reduce allergy symptoms?

A) An antihistamine binds pollen antigens, preventing them from provoking an allergic reaction.
B) An antihistamine blocks receptors for inflammatory chemicals released from granules within mast cells.
C) An antihistamine kills mast cells, blocking an allergic reaction.


Select the correct statement about the immune system.

A) Adaptive immunity is characteristic of invertebrates and vertebrates.
B) Antibodies are secreted by T cells.
C) All antigen receptors produced by a single B cell or T cell are identical and bind to the same epitope.


Each person makes more than 1 million different B cell antigen receptors and more than 10 million different T cell antigen receptors. How is such diversity in antigen receptors generated?

A) Genes for individual antigen-binding sites have a very high rate of mutation, generating great diversity.
B) A large percentage of the vertebrate genome is devoted to genes for individual antigen-binding sites.
C) By combining variable elements, the immune system assembles many different receptors from a much smaller collection of parts.


Which of the following would not help a virus avoid triggering an adaptive immune response?

A) infecting cells that produce very few MHC molecules
B) infecting and killing helper T cells
C) building the viral shell from host proteins
D) producing proteins very similar to those of other viruses
E) having frequent mutations in genes for surface proteins


Vaccination increases the number of

A) MHC molecules that can present an antigen.
B) lymphocytes with receptors that can bind to the pathogen.
C) macrophages specific for a pathogen.
D) different receptors that recognize a pathogen.
E) epitopes that the immune system can recognize.


Which of the following should be the same in identical twins?

A) the set of MHC molecules produced
B) the set of immune cells eliminated as self-reactive
C) the susceptibility to a particular virus
D) the set of T cell antigen receptors produced
E) the set of antibodies produced


Select the best explanation of how a Helper T cell uses either cell-to-cell contact or chemical signaling to enhance the activities of the immune system.

A) Chemicals called cytokines are secreted from Helper T cells to signal production of antibodies by B cells.
B) The pathogen is engulfed by a helper T cell and its antigenic markers are displayed on its surface.
C) The Helper T cell stimulates the antigen-presenting cell to release chemicals called cytokines to stimulate the cytotoxic T cells.
D) The second exposure of the antigen causes the Helper T cell to activate memory Helper T cells.


In a humoral or antibody-mediated immune response, specific B cells are stimulated by Helper T cells to transform into plasma cells that secrete antibodies. What would be an important feature added to B cells In this transition process?

A) Duplication of lysosomes in order to store the antibodies before transport.
B) Duplication of specific gene sequences for the appropriate antibody.
C) Increased rough endoplasmic reticulum in order to have the surface area needed for antibody production.
D) An increased cell size with more plasma membrane to increase the surface to volume ratio of the cell.


Which of these cells is a phagocytic leukocyte that can engulf a foreign bacterium?

A) macrophage
B) B cell
C) plasma cell
D) helper T cell
E) cytotoxic T cell


_____ interact with the antigen-class II MHC complex presented by macrophages.

A) B cells
B) Helper T cells
C) Bacterial cells
D) Epithelial cells
E) Cytotoxic T cells


B cells that have been stimulated by interleukin-2 develop into _____.

A) plasma cells
B) antigens
C) helper T cells
D) macrophages
E) cytotoxic T cells


The role of cytotoxic T cells is the secretion of _____, which plays a role in the _____ immune response.

A) perforin … humoral
B) perforin … cell-mediated
C) antibodies … antibody-mediated
D) antibodies … humoral
E) interleukin-2 … humoral


Clonal selection is the division of _____ that have been stimulated by binding to an antigen, which results in the production of cloned _____.

A) B cells … plasma cells and memory cells
B) macrophages … B cells and T cells
C) helper T cells … plasma cells
D) T cells … B cells
E) B cells … macrophages


Which of these cells is responsible for the rapidity of the secondary immune response?

A) cytokines
B) memory cells
C) plasma cells
D) macrophages
E) cytotoxic T cells


Which of these cells produce and secrete antibodies?

A) macrophages
B) bacterial cells
C) helper T cells
D) cytotoxic T cells
E) plasma cells


Share This

More flashcards like this

NCLEX 10000 Integumentary Disorders

When assessing a client with partial-thickness burns over 60% of the body, which finding should the nurse report immediately? a) ...

Read more


A client with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) tells the nurse, "Sometimes I feel so frustrated. I can’t do anything without ...

Read more

NASM Flashcards

Which of the following is the process of getting oxygen from the environment to the tissues of the body? Diffusion ...

Read more

Unfinished tasks keep piling up?

Let us complete them for you. Quickly and professionally.

Check Price

Successful message