Chapter 4- Social Structure and Social Interaction

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_____ is the level of analysis that sociologists use to focus on the broad features of society.


In _____, the focus is on social interaction.


Microsociology is (was) the main focus of

symbolic interactionists.

Richard had lived on the street for almost a year. His days were busy with doing things necessary to survive at a basic level-finding shelter, keeping safe, panhandling for money, getting food and drink, washing, and finding dry clothes. Richard knew that he did not have many chances. A _____ would stress that Richard is located at the bottom of the U.S. social class system, and that his low status means that most opportunities are closed to him.

conflict theorist

The typical patterns of a group of students and teachers, or of men and women, was laid out before they were born. This pattern is known as

social structure

What is the sociological significance of social structure?

it guides our behavior

Are street people influenced by a social structure?


People learn behaviors and attitudes according to their _____ the social structure.

location in

Culture has a(n) _____ effect on people’s lives.


The _____ framework that determines what kind of people we become is culture.


Social class is based on

income, education, and occupational prestige.

A billionaire and a person living on the street share

the influence of social class on their lives.

Girish is a husband, a son, an entrepreneur, and an amateur ornithologist. A sociologist would say that these statuses or positions make up Girish’s

status set.

A(n) _____ status is involuntary.


Ex-spouse, school dropout, and debarred lawyer are examples of

achieved status

A backward collar is a(n) _____ for a priest.

status symbol

Aletha had an accident in which she fell into hot cooking grease. Despite many operations and treatments, her face, neck, and hands were forever altered. Regardless of her accomplishments or occupation, Aletha’s disfigurement was viewed by many others as her

master status

A 90-year-old college student exemplifies

status inconsistency.

_____ lay(s) out what is expected of people.


When we belong to a group, who has the right to judge our behavior?

the group

Marion belonged to a group that got together once a month in group members’ houses to converse in Russian, which they had all learned in school. The Russian enthusiasts were an example of a group that wielded influence over

small segments of one’s behavior.

_____ refer(s) to the standard or usual ways that a society meets its basic needs.

social institutions

Daughter, son, father, and mother are examples of statuses associated with which social institution?

the family

A basic need addressed by _____ is to regulate reproduction.

the family

"Maximize profits" and "the customer is always right" are examples of norms associated with which social institution?


Priest, minister, rabbi, and imam are examples of statuses associated with the social institution of


The social institution of _____ would include groups or organizations such as the police, courts, and prisons.

the law

Who believes that social institutions were originally designed to meet basic survival needs?

Both conflict and order theorists

Which of the following is one of the five functional requisites that functionalists believe a society must meet in order to survive?

Replacing members

Emile Durkheim was interested in how societies united their members by shared values and other social bonds to produce

social integration

For Durkheim, _____ referred to the way that people who perform similar tasks develop a shared way of viewing life.

mechanical solidarity

One person catches a fish, a second person drives the fish to market, and a third person sells the fish. This is an example of

division of labor

The term organic solidarity is based on the way that different members of society

need each other

The Old Order Amish of the United States exemplify a(n) _____ community.


_____ is (are) the primary focus of microsociologists.

Face-to-face interaction

Our assumptions about what people are like are known as


In a self-fulfilling stereotype

the behaviors of the person change to match our expectations.

Who surrounds themselves with a personal bubble (personal space)?


One of the distance zones that Hall found North Americans use is _____ distance.


To interpret _____, we consider facial expressions, posture, and gestures.

body language

Clerks in stores smiling at customers are

not accepted in all cultures

Erving Goffman used the term _____ to mean that social life is like a drama or a stage play.


_____ refers to our efforts to manage the impressions that others receive of us.

impression management

According to Goffman’s scheme, we have _____ where we can have some privacy and let our hair down.

back stages

Role strain is

conflict within a role.

Sign-vehicles include

our manner

Ethnomethodologists explore _____ assumptions about how the world operates that underlie our behavior.


"If people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences." This statement was made by sociologist(s)

W. I. and Dorothy S. Thomas

The social construction of reality theory states that through our _____, we construct what for us is reality.

interaction with others

At a vaginal examination, male doctors _____ social reality in order to define the examination as _____.

construct; nonsexual

Distinguish the term social status from the term prestige.

People tend to think the two terms (social status and prestige) are synonymous. Sociologists use social status to refer to the position that someone occupies. Prestige is an attribute associated with a position: A lot of prestige, as with a judge. A little prestige, as with a waiter. No prestige, as with a criminal.

For the social institution of religion, name some of the basic needs addressed and some norms of the institution.

Basic needs include concerns about life after death, the meaning of suffering and loss, and the desire to connect with the Creator. Norms include attend worship services, contribute money, follow the teachings.

What do the German terms Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft mean? In which direction-toward which of the two-is society changing?

Gemeinschaft means intimate community. Gesellschaft means impersonal association. Society is changing, or has changed, from a Gemeinschaft in the direction of a Gesellschaft.

What does it mean to say that we become the roles that we play?

Dramaturgy likens social life to a drama or stage play. The roles that we play in the drama of our lives become incorporated into our self-concept. In this way, we tend to become the roles that we play.

Why are both macrosociology and microsociology necessary to understand social life?

Macrosociology and microsociology each focus on different aspects of social life. Without one or the other viewpoint, our understanding of social life would be limited.

Symbolic interactionism is paired with which form of sociology


Structural functionalism & conflict theories is paired with which form of sociology


what people do when they come together

symbolic interactionism

individual interactions are which types of sociology


focus on broad features of a society

structural functionalism & conflict theories

society as a whole is which form of sociology


What types of interaction between couples tend to load to divorce?


How does the family as an institution contribute to the overall structure of society?


The physical ability to walk may form a person’s identity. It may influence their decision on a daily basis


How walkable is your neighborhood? do you have sidewalks? crosswalks?


Macro-sociological perspective involves

social structure, culture, social class, social status, status sets, ascribed status, achieved status, status symbols, master status, status inconsistency, social institutions

framework of society that surrounds us, guides behavior, behaviors are learned because of our social location in social structure

social structure

our shared ______ make us similar to one another and makes other people seem "different"


_______ is based on income, education, occupational prestige

social class

conflict theorists of social class

Karl Marx & Max Veber

__________ was one of the founding fathers of sociology – conflict theorist of social class – understanding property, power, and prestige

Max Veber

the position someone occupies in a social group

social status

social status is based on

social class

______ ______ is varied, not fixed

social staus

_____ does not mean money


all status/positions that an individual occupies

status sets

examples of status sets

husband/wife, son/daughter, brother/sister, professor, friend, supervisor, football fan

an ________ status is involuntary while an _______ status if voluntary

ascribed; achieved

status you don’t ask for it and you cannot loose it

ascribed status

examples of ascribed status’s

race/ethnicity, sex, social class of parents, sibling

status you earn or accomplish

achieved status

examples of achieved status’s

friend/ex-friend, lawyer/debarred lawyer

indicators of status

status symbols

examples of status symbols

wedding ring, police uniform, Mercedes care, nike appeal, rolex watch

a status that cuts across the there statuses

master status

examples of master status

-Facebook founder – also dad, college dropout, son -singer – also daughter, friend -actress – also mother of twins

ranking high on some dimensions of social status and low on others

status inconsistency

examples of status inconsistency

17 year old with PHD – ranks high on education, ranks low on age

standard or usual ways a society meets its needs

social institutions

social institutions include

family, religion, education, economy, medicine, politics, law, military, science, mass media

social institutions – family

regulate reproduction; socialize and protect

social institutions – religion

life/death; meaning; connect with creator

social institutions – education

transmit knowledge & skills

social institutions – economy

produce & distribute goods and services

social institutions – medicine

heal the sick and injured; care for dying

social institutions – politics

allocate power; determine authority; order

social institutions – law

maintain social order; enforce norms

social institutions – military

provide protection from enemies

social institutions – science

understand the environment

social institutions – mass media

transmit information; report events; mold public opinion

two views of microsociology

functionalist view ; conflict view

social institutions are established ways of meeting group needs (or functional requisites)

functionalist view

social institutions are primarily a means by which the elite maintain privileged positions

conflict view

Durkheim was about?

how does society hold together?

Durkheim had 3 views

social integration ; mechanical solidarity ; organic solidarity

degree to which members of a group or society are united by shared values and other social bonds

social integration

shared consciousness that people feel as a result of performing the same or similar tasks

mechanical solidarity

interdependence that results from the division of labor; as a part of the same unit; we depend on each other to fulfill their jobs

organic solidarity

_____ is pre-modern societies
_____ is modern societies

mechanical ; organic

the splitting of group’s or a society’s task into specialties

division of labor

T or F: social culture continuously evolves as it responds to changing values, new technology, and contact with new cultures


Ferdinand Tonnies focused on?

how is society held together

Ferdinand Tonnies can up with 2 terms

Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft

intimate community; everyone known everyone else and people share a sense of togetherness (village life)


impersonal association;
a society dominated by impersonal relationships; individual accomplishments, and self-interact


in microsociology, the symbols people use to define their worlds, how people look at things, how definitions affect their behavior is

symbolic interactionism

components of symbolic interactionism

stereotypes, personal space, eye contact, smiling, body language

Dramaturgy was created by


approach to studying social life that uses the terms of drama or the stage for analysis


under dramaturgy, socialization is

preparation for the stage of life

socialization include _____ & _____ stage

front and back stage

______ gives performances

front stage

_____ rests from performances, discuss presentations, plan for the future

back stage

components of dramaturgy

impression management, role performance, role conflict, role strain

efforts to manage the impressions that others receive of her or him (competent)

impression management

the ways in which someone performs a role; showing a particular "style" or "personality"

role performance

expectations for a role are incompatible with another role

role conflict

person feels conflict within a role

role strain

the terms used by Goffman to refer to how people use social setting, appearance, and manner to communicate information about the self


the 3 sign-vehicles include

social setting, our appearance, and our manner

the collaboration of two or more people to manage impressions jointly


becoming the roles we play

Ethnomethodology was created by


the discovery of people’s background assumption (basis of reality), people’s view of the world, how people think everyone should act


examples of ethnomethodology

standing in elevators, waiting in line, cell phone etiquette

one person’s actions influencing someone else; usually refers to what people do when they are in one another’s presence, but also includes communications at a distance

social interaction

the sociological significance of __________ is that it guides our behavior

social structure

according to Weber, a large group of people who rank close to one another in poverty, power, and prestige;
according to Marx, one of two groups: capitalists who own the means of production or workers who sell their labor

social class

the position that someone occupies in a social group
-also called social status


the behaviors, obligation, and privileges attached to a status


the difference between role and statues is that you ______ a status, but you _____ a role

occupy; play

people who interact with one another and who believe that what they have in common is significant
-also called social group


Functionalist perspective include 5 functional requisites

-replacing members -socializing new members -producing and distributing goods and services -preserving order -providing a sense of purpose

______ analyzed that Americans use four different "distance zones"


the 4 different distance zones include

intimate distance personal distance social distance public distance

the ways in which people use their bodies to give messages to others

body language

techniques used to salvage a performance (interaction) that is going sour

face-saving behavior

a deeply embedded, common understanding of how the world operates and of how people out the act

William I. and Dorothy S. Thomas’ classic formulation of the definition of the situation: If people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences"

Thomas theorem

the use of background assumption and life experiences to define what is real

social construction of reality

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