chapter 4-8 test review

If a diet does not provide adequate carbohydrate to meet immediate energy needs, the body compensates by altering its metabolism of other nutrients. Insufficient dietary carbohydrate can lead to elevated levels of ketone bodies. Ketone bodies are the byproducts of partial breakdown of:

Fat

Recommended Dietary Allowances differ for various stages of life and gender. While adult needs for most nutrients are generally greater than those of children, this is not the case for carbohydrate. Because their bodies are developing so quickly, children aged 1-3 have very high carbohydrate needs that equals the same number of grams of carbohydrate an adult should have each day. What is the RDA for carbohydrate for both children aged 1-3 and adults?

130 grams

Match the activity of dietary fiber that is related to its health benefit.

1. Fiber increases satiety Helps promote weight loss correct 2. Fiber reduces cholesterol absorption and increases cholesterol excretion Reduces Cardiovascular disease risk correct 3. Soluble fiber slows down digestion and blood glucose spikes Improves diabetes management correct 4. Insoluble fiber increases stool bulk and increases regularity Promotes colon health correct

Brandy's seven-year-old daughter was recently diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and research indicates that Brandy should not feed her daughter any refined sugar products because sugar intake causes hyperactivity in children.

False

Contrary to popular belief, all of the alternative sweeteners approved for sale in the U.S. are safe for human consumption and have never been proven to be carcinogenic (cancer-causing) in humans. Of the following alternative sweeteners, which one is banned for sale in the U.S. because of controversial research that indicated the substance caused cancer in mice?

Cyclamate

Glucose, galactose, and fructose ________.

are monosaccharides

Another name for glucose is ________.

dextrose

Three important disaccharides are ________

maltose, sucrose, and lactose

Which of the following is a noncarbohydrate component of dietary fibers?

lignin

The three elements in simple sugar are ________.

carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

The enzyme sucrase breaks down sucrose into ________.

glucose + fructose

A sugar not commonly found free in nature that combines with glucose to form the disaccharide lactose is ________.

galactose

Humans can digest a carbohydrate if the glucose bond is ________.

an alpha bond

Sorbitol is ________.

a sugar alcohol absorbed and metabolized more slowly than glucose and other sugars used in candies and gums All of these choices are correct

The sugar alcohol commonly used to sweeten chewing gum and candy is ________.

sorbitol

The principal sugar found in milk is ________.

lactose

In the production of alcoholic beverages, maltose is formed from cereal grains because of the ________.

germination of grains

Once absorbed, the majority of glucose is transported to ________.

the liver

The principal function of dietary carbohydrate is to provide ________.

energy

If no glucose is available from dietary carbohydrate, glucose in the blood may be derived from ________.

muscle glycogen and liver glycogen

Dietary sugars and starches are called "protein sparing," which means ________.

dietary protein can be used for protein synthesis and other vital processes, rather than being used as a source of energy

The body is capable of making glucose from non-carbohydrate nutrients, such as protein, by a process referred to as ________.

gluconeogenesis

The human brain and other nerve tissues use mostly _________________ as fuel.

glucose

After digestion and absorption, dietary carbohydrates may be ________.

used for energy converted to glycogen and stored in liver and muscle tissue synthesized into fat correct All of these choices are correct

The energy value of dietary carbohydrates is _____ kcal per gram.

4

Individuals with lactose maldigestion can usually tolerate small amounts of ________.

yogurt nonfat milk cheddar cheese correct all of these are often tolerated in small amounts

Primary lactose maldigestion results from ________.

lactase insufficiency

An example of an oligosaccharide is ________.

raffinose

Much of the galactose in our diet is found in ________

dairy products

Ketosis may result from ________.

starvation a diet of less than 50-100 grams of carbohydrate per day untreated diabetes mellitus correct All of these choices are correct

Insulin is made in the ________.

pancreas

While _________ suppresses gluconeogenesis, ____________ increases glycogen breakdown.

insulin; glucagon

Normal blood glucose levels range between ________.

70 and 100 mg/dL

Low blood glucose is called ____________, whereas high blood glucose is called ____________.

hypoglycemia; hyperglycemia

Which combination of foods would be highest in complex carbohydrates?

Spaghetti with marinara sauce, broccoli, dinner roll, milk

Food processors and manufacturers use amylopectins to produce sauces and gravies for frozen foods because they ________.

form a stable starch gel

Raffinose and stachyose are indigestible oligosaccharides found in foods such as ________.

beans and other legumes

The storage form of carbohydrates in plants is ________.

starch

Amylose and amylopectin contain ___________ bonds, which are responsible for the digestibility of these starches.

alpha

The best type of fiber to eat for reducing constipation is _____

insoluble fiber

Which of the following is classified as an insoluble fiber?

cellulose

Which of the following dietary fibers are classified as soluble fibers?

Pectins and mucilages

______ is defined as fiber that is added to foods and provides health benefits.

Functional fiber

When increasing fiber intake, always ________.

increase fluids

Pouches that form in the walls of the large intestine due to excessive exertion during defecation are called ________.

diverticula

During the inflammatory phase of diverticulitis, treatment includes antibiotics and a diet that is ________

low in fiber

The AI for fiber for women is ________.

25 g/day

An increased fiber intake within recommended guidelines may ________.

decrease risk of diabetes lower blood lipid levels decrease risk of certain cancers All of these choices are correct

Which of the following combinations of foods would provide the most dietary fiber?
correct

Kidney bean salad, turkey sandwich on whole wheat bread, fresh apple, milk

Of the total day's energy intake, most dietary guidelines recommend that carbohydrates provide _____________ of energy.

45-65%

Why is excess sugar consumption discouraged?

may cause dental caries. It may cause weight gain. It lacks dietary fiber. All of these choices are correct.

According the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine, consumers should limit their intake of added sugars to ____________ percent of total energy.

25

Consuming more than 60 grams of fiber per day poses some health risks, such as ________.

decreased mineral absorption due to chemical binding by the fiber blockage of the intestinal tract decreased appetite in some individuals All of these choices are accurate

A trade name for aspartame is ________.

Equal

A person diagnosed with phenylketonuria (PKU) should avoid products containing ________.

aspartame

All persons with diabetes ________.

need to eat a diet that will control their blood sugar

Which of the following is the best source of starch?

whole-grain oats

Which of the following is classified as a non-nutritive sweetener

aspartame

Which of the following population groups is at lowest risk of diabetes?

college students

Usual symptoms of diabetes mellitus include __

weight change excessive thirst and urination blurred vision All of these choices are correct

Which condition is NOT usually associated with type 2 diabetes?

Autoimmune destruction of beta cells of the pancreas

The most common type of diabetes mellitus is ________.

type 2 diabetes

Which of the following foods has the highest glycemic index?

baked potato

Treatment for reactive hypoglycemia includes ________.

eating regular meals and snacks of protein and complex carbohydrates and avoiding excess simple sugar

The focus on low-glycemic load foods can aid in the control of diabetes.

→ True

Soluble dietary fibers have been shown to reduce serum cholesterol.

→ True

Diabetic exchanges and carbohydrate counting are effective ways for diabetics to monitor daily carbohydrate intake.

→ True

Persons with diabetes can never eat sugar.

False

The Adequate Intake for dietary fiber is set at 14g/1000kcal.

True

Individuals with lactose intolerance have difficulty digesting milk products because they lack the enzyme needed to break apart the alpha bond linkages.

false

High fiber diets can impair the absorption of trace minerals.

true

The glycemic index is a ratio of the blood glucose response of a given food compared with a standard.

→ True

Metabolic syndrome is characterized by insulin resistance, obesity, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia

True

The RDA for carbohydrate intake is 300 g/day.

False

Sucralose is a nutritive sweetener that is approximately the same sweetness as honey.

FALSE

The Atkin's diet promotes a high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet pattern.

FALSE

Sucrose is made up of glucose + glucose.

FALSE

Raffinose and stachyose are examples of polysaccharides.

FALSE

Maintaining one's ideal body weight is a good means of decreasing risk of type 2 diabetes.

TRUE

Scientists have shown that eating a high sugar diet causes diabetes.

False

Glycogen is made of glucose units linked by beta bonds.
incorrect

False

Sorbitol, mannitol, and xylitol are nutritive sweeteners used in sugarless gum and candies.

true

An adequate carbohydrate intake is important in preventing ketosis and sparing protein from use as an energy source.

true

Indigestible carbohydrates play a role in promoting bowel health and preventing obesity.

true

Indigestible carbohydrates play a role in enhancing blood glucose control.

true

Saliva contains an enzyme called maltase that aids in the breakdown of maltose in the mouth.

false

Monosaccharides are absorbed by an active absorption process.

TRUE

Insoluble fiber is readily metabolized into acids and gases by bacteria in the large intestine.

False

Fructose is taken up by the absorptive cells of the small intestine via facilitated diffusion.

true

Match each type of carbohydrate with its description.
1. Lactose Glucose + glucose
correct
2. Sucrose Fructose + glucose
correct
3. Maltose Glucose + galactose
correct
4. Amylose Many glucose molecules
correct

...

Regina is trying to cut back on her fat intake to help reduce total calorie intake and promote gradual weight loss. If she follows an 1,800-calorie meal plan and wants to achieve the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range recommendation of total fat being between 20-35% of calories, how many grams of fat per day should she be eating?

40-70 grams of fat per day

Regina's pregnant sister is interested in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), two essential fatty acids that can be made from alpha-linolenic (omega-3) acid. She has heard that EPA and DHA are important for cancer prevention, brain health, cardiovascular disease prevention, and immune function. Which food is the best source of EPA + DHA?

Fatty fish

Cardiologists and other healthcare professionals recommend that people who are at elevated risk for developing cardiovascular disease adopt an "anti-atherosclerotic" lifestyle to help prevent atherosclerosis. Which of the following is a component of an anti-atherosclerotic lifestyle?

Smoking cessation Low saturated fat and trans fat diet Consumption of fruits and vegetables high in antioxidants correct All of these are components of an anti-atherosclerotic lifestyle.

Regina's dad and grandfather have both had heart attacks and she is concerned about her own heart health. In addition to increasing her fruit and vegetable intake, Regina is considering taking antioxidant supplements to help reduce cardiovascular disease risk. What does the American Heart Association recommend regarding the use of antioxidant supplements such as vitamin E to help reduce cardiovascular disease risk?

People at elevated risk for cardiovascular disease should not take antioxidant supplements; vitamin E provides no overall benefit for major cardiovascular events.

Lipids are a unique nutrient group, differing significantly from carbohydrates and proteins. Which of the following statements are true? Check all that apply:

Lipids do not dissolve readily in water. correct Lipids are components of the plasma membrane that surround each human cell.

Alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid are classified as _________ fatty acids.

essential

Which is correct regarding trans fatty acids?

They raise LDL and lower HDL cholesterol

Which of the following correctly characterizes lipids?

They do not dissolve in water.

The main difference between fats and oils is that fats are ________.

solid at room temperature

In what form is most body fat stored?

triglycerides.

The functions of fat include all of the following EXCEPT ________.
correct

build and repair tissue

Some fat is necessary in our diets ________.

to increase the palatability of foods as a carrier of fat-soluble vitamins to provide essential fatty acids All of these responses are correct

All of the following are ways in which fatty acids can differ from one another EXCEPT ________.

average number of calories per gram

Phospholipids consist of ________.

glycerol, two fatty acids, and phosphate

Lipids with high saturated fatty acid content are ____________ at room temperature.
correct

solid

Arachadonic acid is associated with ________.

omega-6 fatty acid metabolism

Which of the following lipids is a precursor for estrogen and bile?

Cholesterol

Recommendations suggest that we consume approximately 20% of our fat as monounsaturated fats. All of the following would be appropriate to use to achieve this goal EXCEPT ________.

sunflower oil

Lard, butter, and cream are rich sources of ________.

saturated fatty acids

The chief contributors of saturated fatty acids in the U.S. diet include ________.

animal products

Saturated fatty acids predominate in which of the following lipids?

butter

Which of the following groups of foods would contribute a substantial amount of monounsaturated fatty acids to the diet?

olive oil, peanuts and almonds

Monounsaturated fatty acids ________.

are liquid at room temperature have one double bond in the fatty acid chain lower cholesterol All of these responses are correct

Fats that are liquid at room temperature can be made more solid by the process of ________.

hydrogenation

Which of the following fats and oils provides the most polyunsaturated fatty acids?

soybean oil

Which essential fatty acid is responsible for lowering the risk of coronary heart disease?

alpha-linolenic

Lecithin is classified as a ________.

phospholipid

Ergosterol is a type of sterol found in ___

plants

Cholesterol is ________.

not essential in the diet; the human body can synthesize it not found in foods of plant origin an important part of human cell membranes and is necessary to make some hormones All of these choices are correct

Mike has been told to reduce his fat intake to less than 30% of his total calories. It has been recommended to him that he consume an average of 2000 calories per day. How many grams of fat should he consume per day?

67 grams

The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that total fat intake should not exceed __________ of total calories and saturated fat intake be limited to _______ of total calories.

35%; 10%

In the Mediterranean Diet, the majority of fat in the diet is supplied by ________.

olive oil and olives

According to guidelines from the American Heart Association for the general population, saturated fats ________.

should constitute no more than 7% of total energy in the diet

Individuals with bleeding disorders taking anticoagulants or scheduling surgery should be cautious about which supplement?

correct Omega 3 fatty acids

All the following are good sources of omega 3 fatty acids EXCEPT ________.

correct avocados

Most experts agree that dietary cholesterol intake should be limited to _______mg per day.

300

Fat digestion begins in the ________.

mouth

Lingual lipase breaks down ________.

triglycerides

Which lipoprotein is responsible for transporting cholesterol from the liver to tissues?

low density lipoprotein (LDL)

A fatty acid with 10 carbons will be absorbed via the ________.

the portal system

High levels of ______ in the blood are associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease.

correct HDL

Lipoproteins are important for ________.

transport of fats in the blood and lymphatic system

Which of the following lipoproteins contains the highest proportion of protein?

HDL

Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) are the principal transport vehicle for _______ in the blood.

cholesterol

LDL clearance in the plasma is mediated via the ______ receptor.

B-100

Oxidized LDL in the blood is picked up by ________.

scavenger pathway

Lipoprotein lipase functions to ________.

break down triglycerides from lipoproteins for transfer into cells

Why are nuts a heart healthy food?

They are rich in antioxidants. Most nuts are good sources of monounsaturated fatty acids. They contain no cholesterol. All of these choices are correct.

The ____ pathway for LDL uptake is a means by which LDL contributes to plaque formation in blood vessels.

scavenger

High-density lipoproteins function in lipid transport by ________.

picking up cholesterol from dying cells and other sources for delivery to other lipoproteins and the liver for disposal

Immediately after a meal, newly digested and absorbed dietary fats appear in the lymph, and then the blood, as a part of which of the following?

chylomicrons

Which apolipoprotein is responsible for activating lipoprotein lipase?

Apo C-II

Excessive intakes of saturated fatty acids tend to ________.

increase cholesterol deposited in arteries

Excessive amounts of omega-3 fatty acids can ________.

impair the immune system cause excessive bleeding cause hemorrhagic stroke All of these choices are correct

Blockage of a major artery is caused by a blood clot. These clots may form when ________.

cholesterol plaques build up in artery walls

Which of the following is considered a desirable blood level for total cholesterol?

correct 200 mg/dl or less

Which of the following blood levels of LDL cholesterol would increase risk for cardiovascular disease?

over 160 mg/dl

Which of the following is a risk factor for heart disease?

Total blood cholesterol level greater than 200 mg/dl

All of the following are uncontrollable risk factors for heart disease EXCEPT ________.

hypertension

A stroke ________.

blocks blood flow in the brain

A diet designed to reduce elevated serum LDL cholesterol levels ________.

is low in saturated fats is reduced in dietary cholesterol provides adequate amounts of soluble fiber All of these choices are correct

Trans fatty acids are now considered more atherogenic than saturated fatty acids because they ________

elevate LDL levels, while decreasing HDL

Margarine is usually made by a process called ________, in which hydrogen atoms are added to double covalent bonds in the polyunsaturated fatty acids found in vegetable oils.

hydrogenation

Since monounsaturated fats are healthier consuming them in excessive amounts is always considered good.

false

All fat-free foods are healthy for you.

false

The decrease in HDL due to the decrease of estrogen in postmenopausal women plays a part in the increased risk of heart disease that occurs in older women.
correct

true

High blood levels of HDL are protective against heart disease.

true

Americans eat more omega-3 fatty acids than omega-6 fatty acids.

false

Trans fatty acids raise HDL and lower LDL.

false

Plants contain cholesterol.

false

Dietary cholesterol should not exceed 300 milligrams per day.

true

Lecithin and bile are examples of emulsifiers.

true

Lipids with high polyunsaturatd fatty acid content are ____________ at room temperature.

liquid

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is associated with

omega-3 fatty acid metabolism.

Eicosanoids are

substances that produce diverse hormone-like effects on the body.

substances that produce diverse hormone-like effects on the body.

butter

Tomas is a 24-year-old male trying to calculate his protein needs. The Food and Nutrition Board recommends that 10-35% of calories come from protein. If Tomas follows a 2,300-calorie diet, how many grams of protein per day should he be consuming?

correct 58-201 grams of protein per day

All of the following statements about the role of protein in the body are correct EXCEPT:

correct Protein is the only macronutrient that is not energy yielding.

Tomas is studying his family's genealogy for an anthropology class. He interviews an uncle about the family's health history and learns that a number of family members have sickle cell anemia. It is safe to assume that:

Tomas' family members with sickle cell anemia have a defect in the structure of the protein chains of hemoglobin.

Tomas is babysitting his neighbor's seven-month-old child who has just begun to eat solid foods. He knows that the protein in certain types of foods is particularly allergenic and should not be introduced early into a child's diet. Which food is the safest option for Tomas to offer the baby if he wants to minimize any potential problems with food allergies?

Iron-fortified cereal made with rice and water

A child living in a developing country with high rates of malnutrition is at risk for developing protein-calorie malnutrition. If this child consumes insufficient dietary protein, what is the physiological consequence?

Insufficient dietary protein intake inhibits the body's ability to make immune antibodies, some hormones, and enzymes.

A person who consumes inadequate dietary protein may be expected to experience:

Decreased immune function Fluid imbalance Loss of lean body mass correct All of these are potential consequences of inadequate dietary protein intake.

Tomas has taken up bodybuilding and is starting to become more interested in a diet to improve athletic performance. He read an article in a bodybuilding magazine that said he should dramatically increase his dietary protein intake. What happens to excessive dietary protein intake?

With excessive protein intake, amino acids may be used to meet energy needs or converted to and stored as fat.

If Tomas is a healthy 24-year-old male who weighs 166 pounds, how many grams of protein per day should he have to promote protein equilibrium? (One kilogram = 2.2 pounds.)

60 grams of protein per day

A vegetarian diet differs from a traditional animal-based diet in that a vegetarian diet is:

higher in dietary fiber than a traditional animal-based diet is.

The amino acid profile of a protein in a food helps determine whether that food is a complete or incomplete protein. Which of the following contains incomplete protein?

A handful of peanuts

The process that allows interconversion of non-essential amino acids is called:

transamination

When two or more plant proteins are combined to compensate for deficiencies in essential amino acid content in each protein, the proteins involved are called:

complementary proteins

Select from the following list the different methods of measuring protein quality in food.

Biological value Protein efficiency ratio

The basic building blocks of protein are ________.

amino acids

The presence of ___________ chemically distinguishes protein from carbohydrate and fat.

nitrogen

Dietary proteins supply ______ kcal per gram.
correct

t 4

Which bodily function is not associated with protein?

sparing glucose for energy use.

Over time, if protein intake does not meet the body's protein needs for building and repair of tissues, ________

skeletal muscle, heart muscle, and the liver decrease in size excessive body fluid begins to accumulate in the extracellular spaces the immune system fails to function properly All of these choices are accurate

Which of the following foods provides all of the essential amino acids?

milk

The side chain, or R portion, of an amino acid ________.

determines the name of the amino acid

Which of the following amino acids is classified as a "conditionally essential" amino acid?

tyrosine

Foods containing all essential amino acids in the proportion needed by the body are designated as ________.

complete foods

Good sources of high-quality (complete) protein include all of the following except _______

whole wheat

When over 10 amino acids are chemically linked by peptide bonds, the resulting product is known as ________.

a polypeptide

Cooking an egg destroys its physiological property by ________.

denaturation

When 2 or more plant proteins are combined to compensate for deficiencies in essential amino acid content in each protein, the proteins are called ________.

complementary proteins

DNA-coded instructions for protein synthesis consist of a sequence of ___ nucleotides per unit.

3

The nucleotide units that represent a specific amino acid in protein synthesis are called ________.

codons

The genetic disorder sickle-cell anemia produces a profound change in ___________ structure.

hemoglobin

The sequential order of the amino acids in the polypeptide chain is called the ________.

primary structure

Worldwide, approximately _______ of protein comes from animal sources.

35%

Protein quality is determined by all of the following EXCEPT ________.

the food's cost

Which of the following conditions would result in negative nitrogen balance?

kwashiorkor

Nitrogen makes up approximately _____ of the weight of an amino acid.

16%

The RDA for protein for most healthy adults is ______

correct 0.8 g/kg of body weight

When food proteins reach the stomach, HCl ________ the protein.

denatures

Which of the following enzymes aids in digesting polypeptides into shorter peptides and amino acids?

trypsin

The functions of protein include ________.

providing structural support to body cells producing antibodies to fight infection contributing to acid-base balance All of these are functions of protein

Edema in the lower extremities may appear when there is a severe lack of dietary protein because ________.

blood protein levels drop and fluid shifts into interstitial spaces

Amino acids are required for the synthesis of ________.

enzymes neurotransmitters some hormones All of the choices are accurate

A diet that is deficient in carbohydrate will ultimately force the liver and, to a lesser extent, the kidneys to ________.

produce glucose from amino acids

Proteins help regulate blood pH by ________.

accepting and releasing hydrogen ions

_______ are compounds that help to maintain acid-base balance within a narrow range.

Buffers

The proteins that inactivate foreign bacteria and viruses to help prevent infections are called ________.

antibodies

The lack of an immune response to foreign compounds entering the body is called ________.

anergy

A high-quality protein used as a standard for measuring the quality of other proteins is ________.

egg white

The biological value of a food protein is a measure of ________.

how closely it meets amino acid needs

A growing child who is consuming adequate protein but only 50% of his or her energy needs, will likely be in ________.

negative nitrogen balance

What would be the recommended amount of protein for a 121-pound female?

44 g/day

Judy's dietary intake provides 90 grams of protein. Her total energy intake is 2000 kcal. Approximately what percentage of her energy comes from protein?

correct 18%

Most Americans consume ________ dietary protein compared to the RDA.

correct excessive amounts of

To meet basic protein needs, an athlete needs to ________.

consume a variety of foods to meet energy needs

A high-protein diet is discouraged for patients with ________.

kidney disease

A vegan diet may be low in ________.

vitamin B-12 iron calcium All of these choices are correct

When plant proteins are compared to animal proteins, they ________.

are usually deficient in one or more essential amino acids

The recommended amount of protein as a percentage of total energy intake is ________.

10% to 35%

The major symptoms of kwashiorkor in children are ________.

edema and growth failure

Kwashiorkor ________.

is a disease of severely deficient protein intake

Protein-energy malnutrition is also known as _______

marasmus

Signs of protein deficiency may include ________.

edema mild to moderate weight loss poor resistance to infection All of these choices are accurate

After major surgery, hospital patients may be at risk of PEM due to ________.

poor prior health low dietary intakes increased needs for recovery All of these choices are correct

An example of two incomplete protein foods eaten together to produce a complete protein meal are ________.

correct red beans and rice

A vegan will eat ________.

only foods from plant sources

A process involved in the synthesis of nonessential amino acids is called ________.

transamination

Which of the following is not a means of determining the protein quality of a food?

complementary score

Marasmus is characterized by ________.

extreme weight loss and fat loss

An antibody is ________.

a substance that inactivates foreign proteins in the body

Anergy is ________.

the lack of an immune response to foreign substances entering the body

Excess protein intake can result in ________.

loss of calcium

The body needs 18 different amino acids to function properly.

false

The 9 amino acids that the body cannot make are known as nonessential amino acids

false

An individual with the genetic disease PKU has a limited ability to metabolize the essential amino acid phenylalanine.

True

Nonessential amino acids can be synthesized through a process called transamination.
correct True

...

Each strand of DNA is composed of the nucleotides adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine.

true

Vegans need to plan their diets carefully to include adequate complementary proteins that provide the needed essential amino acids.
→ True

...

Individuals who are attempting to build up their muscles need 3 times as much protein as those who are not building muscles.

False

Legumes are an excellent source of vegetable protein.
correct True

...

The Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PCDAAS) is the score derived by multiplying a food's chemical score by its digestibility.
→ True

...

For the average North American, protein needs can be easily met through our typical diets without the need for supplementation.
→ True

...

During times of recovery from illness or injury, protein needs may range from 0.8 to 2.0 g/kg body weight.
correct True

...

Proteins in cow's milk and egg white should not be given to infants prior to 12 months of age as they may predispose the infant to allergies.
correct True

...

High-protein diets are often associated with increased intake of saturated fat and cholesterol in the diet.
correct True

...

Marasmus in infants commonly occurs in poverty-stricken countries.
correct True

...

An excess intake of protein, especially from protein supplements, can increase the risk of amino acid toxicity.
correct True

...

Peanuts, cow's milk, and shellfish are among foods considered to be highly allergenic.
correct True

...

Once a food allergy has developed, it persists throughout life.
correct False

...

Vegetarian diets are often low in dietary fiber.

correct False

...

Lacto-ovo-vegetarians exclude meat, poultry, fish, and eggs from their diet.
incorrect

false

Protein digestion begins in the stomach, where proteins are broken down into shorter polypeptide chains of amino acids.
correct True

...

Protein intakes above 35% of energy intake are associated with dehydration, amino acid imbalance, and increased risk of certain cancers.
→ True

...

Vegetarian diets are most often low in calcium, vitamin D, vitamin B-12, iron, and zinc.
correct True

...

Most animal proteins have a high biological value as their tissue amino acid composition is similar to that of human tissues.
→ True

...

Proteins comprise about 17% of body weight.
→ True

...

Regina knows that moderate alcohol consumption can be cardio-protective, meaning that it somewhat reduces cardiovascular disease risk. Moderate alcohol consumption translates to one drink per day for women and two drinks per day for men. Match the type of alcohol with its serving size that constitutes one drink:

Beer: 12 oz is one serving correct Wine: 5 oz is one serving correct Liquor: 1.5 oz is one serving correct

Alcohol is removed from the liver at a rate of ________ g of alcohol per hour or ________ standard-size drink.

5-7, half of a

Alcohol abuse can lead directly to all of the following, EXCEPT

correct lung cancer.

Which of the following statements about the metabolizing of alcohol is TRUE?

Alcohol that is not immediately metabolized circulates throughout the body.

Death can result from alcohol intoxication beginning at a blood alcohol content level of about _________.

correct 0.30

A 150-pound lean person will have a lower blood alcohol content (BAC) than a 150-pound fat person who drinks the same amount of alcohol.

true

Alcoholics Anonymous® (AA),a 12-step program, was developed in 1987 to treat alcoholism. The highly successful program was originally developed as a democratic sponsored program to help economically distressed communities. There are specific rules, regulations, and dues required to participate in the program unless an individual is court ordered to attend the program.

false

To celebrate her recent weight loss, Lisa's friends decide to take her out for a healthy dinner. Lisa doesn't drink alcohol because she knows the empty calories will contribute to weight gain. One girlfriend at the dinner has four margaritas and an extra shot of tequila before the food arrives. Is this friend's behavior considered binge drinking?

correct Yes, because consuming four drinks or more for women is considered binge drinking, and she had 5.

How many calories does alcohol provide?

7 kcal/g

An alcoholic beverage with 15 g alcohol provides ______ kcal from alcohol.
correct

105

The highest concentration of ethanol is found in ________.

distilled spirits

The alcohol content of an 80-proof tequila is ________.

40%

Wine generally contains ________ alcohol.

5 - 14%

The process of fermentation involves all of the following EXCEPT ________.

bacteria

A standard drink is defined as ________.

correct 5 oz wine

A standard drink contains _____ grams of alcohol.

15

Alcohol is absorbed in the small intestine by __

simple diffusion

Alcohol absorption occurs in the ________.

stomach and small intestine

The ADH pathway of alcohol metabolism converts ethanol into ________.

acetyl-CoA

The main organ responsible for ethanol metabolism is the ________.

liver

When consumed in low to moderate amounts, alcohol is primarily metabolized by the ________________ pathway.

alcohol dehydrogenase

When the MEOS pathway is induced, alcohol tolerance _______ because the rate of alcohol metabolism __________.

increases; increases

The symptoms of acetaldehyde buildup during alcohol metabolism include ________.

flushing rapid heartbeat hyperventilation All of these symptoms can occur

Women absorb 30-35% more ethanol directly from the stomach than men because women ________.

have lower amounts of alcohol dehydrogenase in the cells lining the stomach

A typical rate of alcohol metabolism for a social drinker is ________.
correct ½ drink per hour

...

Binge drinking for a male is defined as having _______ or more drinks on a single occasion.

5

A blood alcohol level of _____ is defined as legal intoxication in the U.S. and Canada.

0.08

What percent of North Americans consume alcohol?

62%

Binge drinking on college campuses is associated with _______

academic problems auto accidents sexual abuse All of these responses are correct

The population group with the highest rate of alcohol consumption is ________.

correct college students

Moderate drinking is most accurately defined as ________.

up to 1 drink per day for women and 2 drinks per day for men

Benefits of moderate alcohol consumption include lower rates of ________.

cardiovascular disease

Detrimental effects of excessive alcohol consumption include higher rates of ________

high blood pressure and stroke cancers of the mouth and throat liver disease and liver failure All of these responses are correct

An early sign of alcohol-induced liver damage is ________.

steatosis

Liver cirrhosis is characterized by _

decreased synthesis of proteins made in the liver abnormal retention of fluid in the abdomen poor nutritional status All of these answers are correct

Alcoholism is associated with all of the following EXCEPT ________.

type I diabete

Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome is the _______ deficiency disease that results from severe alcohol abuse.

correct thiamin

Alcoholics often have trouble with night blindness. This results from ________.

impaired absorption and transport of vitamin A

The recommendation for alcohol consumption during pregnancy is ________.

no alcohol at all

The problems of alcohol abuse and alcohol dependency ________.

affect nearly 1 in 3 Americans over a lifetime

Which of the following is not a common nutritional concern in alcoholics?

correct vitamin A toxicity

Medications used to treat alcohol dependence act on ________.

correct both the brain to reduce alcohol cravings and the liver to block complete metabolism of alcohol

The risk of developing a problem with alcohol is higher in those _____

with a biological parent with alcohol problems

When the rate of alcohol consumption exceeds the liver's metabolic capacity, blood alcohol levels increase and symptoms of intoxication develop.
correct True

...

Guidelines for safe drinking recommend that women should have no more than 2-3 drinks per day.

false

Alcohol requires no digestion.
→ True

...

Excess consumption of some alcoholic beverages can lead to deficiencies of iron and zinc.
correct True

...

Moderate alcohol intake has been associated with increased HDL cholesterol levels.
correct True

...

Excessive alcohol intake can lead to deficiencies of niacin, thiamin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and folate.
correct True

...

Compared with men, women produce more alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme in the stomach.

correct False

...

Compared to men, women absorb approximately 30-35% more unaltered alcohol from the stomach into the bloodstream.
correct True

...

Extremely high blood alcohol levels can lead to respiratory failure.
correct True

...

Signs of alcohol poisoning include hypoglycemia and severe dehydration.
correct True

...

Binge drinking is associated with vandalism and suicide.
correct True

...

An 80-proof vodka or gin is 80% alcohol.

correct False

...

Because alcohol cannot be stored in the body, it has priority in metabolism over other energy sources.
correct True

...

The small intestine is the primary site for alcohol metabolism.

correct False

...

Moderate alcohol consumption is most accurately defined as no more than 7 or 14 drinks per week for women and men, respectively.

→ False

...

The euphoria that arises from alcohol use is likely due to the release of serotonin in the brain which is thought to cause characteristics high associated with alcohol use

...

Antabuse causes physical reaction to alcohol such as vomiting

...

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If a diet does not provide adequate carbohydrate to meet immediate energy needs, the body compensates by altering its metabolism of other nutrients. Insufficient dietary carbohydrate can lead to elevated levels of ketone bodies. Ketone bodies are the byproducts of partial breakdown of:

Fat

Recommended Dietary Allowances differ for various stages of life and gender. While adult needs for most nutrients are generally greater than those of children, this is not the case for carbohydrate. Because their bodies are developing so quickly, children aged 1-3 have very high carbohydrate needs that equals the same number of grams of carbohydrate an adult should have each day. What is the RDA for carbohydrate for both children aged 1-3 and adults?

130 grams

Match the activity of dietary fiber that is related to its health benefit.

1. Fiber increases satiety Helps promote weight loss correct 2. Fiber reduces cholesterol absorption and increases cholesterol excretion Reduces Cardiovascular disease risk correct 3. Soluble fiber slows down digestion and blood glucose spikes Improves diabetes management correct 4. Insoluble fiber increases stool bulk and increases regularity Promotes colon health correct

Brandy’s seven-year-old daughter was recently diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and research indicates that Brandy should not feed her daughter any refined sugar products because sugar intake causes hyperactivity in children.

False

Contrary to popular belief, all of the alternative sweeteners approved for sale in the U.S. are safe for human consumption and have never been proven to be carcinogenic (cancer-causing) in humans. Of the following alternative sweeteners, which one is banned for sale in the U.S. because of controversial research that indicated the substance caused cancer in mice?

Cyclamate

Glucose, galactose, and fructose ________.

are monosaccharides

Another name for glucose is ________.

dextrose

Three important disaccharides are ________

maltose, sucrose, and lactose

Which of the following is a noncarbohydrate component of dietary fibers?

lignin

The three elements in simple sugar are ________.

carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

The enzyme sucrase breaks down sucrose into ________.

glucose + fructose

A sugar not commonly found free in nature that combines with glucose to form the disaccharide lactose is ________.

galactose

Humans can digest a carbohydrate if the glucose bond is ________.

an alpha bond

Sorbitol is ________.

a sugar alcohol absorbed and metabolized more slowly than glucose and other sugars used in candies and gums All of these choices are correct

The sugar alcohol commonly used to sweeten chewing gum and candy is ________.

sorbitol

The principal sugar found in milk is ________.

lactose

In the production of alcoholic beverages, maltose is formed from cereal grains because of the ________.

germination of grains

Once absorbed, the majority of glucose is transported to ________.

the liver

The principal function of dietary carbohydrate is to provide ________.

energy

If no glucose is available from dietary carbohydrate, glucose in the blood may be derived from ________.

muscle glycogen and liver glycogen

Dietary sugars and starches are called "protein sparing," which means ________.

dietary protein can be used for protein synthesis and other vital processes, rather than being used as a source of energy

The body is capable of making glucose from non-carbohydrate nutrients, such as protein, by a process referred to as ________.

gluconeogenesis

The human brain and other nerve tissues use mostly _________________ as fuel.

glucose

After digestion and absorption, dietary carbohydrates may be ________.

used for energy converted to glycogen and stored in liver and muscle tissue synthesized into fat correct All of these choices are correct

The energy value of dietary carbohydrates is _____ kcal per gram.

4

Individuals with lactose maldigestion can usually tolerate small amounts of ________.

yogurt nonfat milk cheddar cheese correct all of these are often tolerated in small amounts

Primary lactose maldigestion results from ________.

lactase insufficiency

An example of an oligosaccharide is ________.

raffinose

Much of the galactose in our diet is found in ________

dairy products

Ketosis may result from ________.

starvation a diet of less than 50-100 grams of carbohydrate per day untreated diabetes mellitus correct All of these choices are correct

Insulin is made in the ________.

pancreas

While _________ suppresses gluconeogenesis, ____________ increases glycogen breakdown.

insulin; glucagon

Normal blood glucose levels range between ________.

70 and 100 mg/dL

Low blood glucose is called ____________, whereas high blood glucose is called ____________.

hypoglycemia; hyperglycemia

Which combination of foods would be highest in complex carbohydrates?

Spaghetti with marinara sauce, broccoli, dinner roll, milk

Food processors and manufacturers use amylopectins to produce sauces and gravies for frozen foods because they ________.

form a stable starch gel

Raffinose and stachyose are indigestible oligosaccharides found in foods such as ________.

beans and other legumes

The storage form of carbohydrates in plants is ________.

starch

Amylose and amylopectin contain ___________ bonds, which are responsible for the digestibility of these starches.

alpha

The best type of fiber to eat for reducing constipation is _____

insoluble fiber

Which of the following is classified as an insoluble fiber?

cellulose

Which of the following dietary fibers are classified as soluble fibers?

Pectins and mucilages

______ is defined as fiber that is added to foods and provides health benefits.

Functional fiber

When increasing fiber intake, always ________.

increase fluids

Pouches that form in the walls of the large intestine due to excessive exertion during defecation are called ________.

diverticula

During the inflammatory phase of diverticulitis, treatment includes antibiotics and a diet that is ________

low in fiber

The AI for fiber for women is ________.

25 g/day

An increased fiber intake within recommended guidelines may ________.

decrease risk of diabetes lower blood lipid levels decrease risk of certain cancers All of these choices are correct

Which of the following combinations of foods would provide the most dietary fiber?
correct

Kidney bean salad, turkey sandwich on whole wheat bread, fresh apple, milk

Of the total day’s energy intake, most dietary guidelines recommend that carbohydrates provide _____________ of energy.

45-65%

Why is excess sugar consumption discouraged?

may cause dental caries. It may cause weight gain. It lacks dietary fiber. All of these choices are correct.

According the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine, consumers should limit their intake of added sugars to ____________ percent of total energy.

25

Consuming more than 60 grams of fiber per day poses some health risks, such as ________.

decreased mineral absorption due to chemical binding by the fiber blockage of the intestinal tract decreased appetite in some individuals All of these choices are accurate

A trade name for aspartame is ________.

Equal

A person diagnosed with phenylketonuria (PKU) should avoid products containing ________.

aspartame

All persons with diabetes ________.

need to eat a diet that will control their blood sugar

Which of the following is the best source of starch?

whole-grain oats

Which of the following is classified as a non-nutritive sweetener

aspartame

Which of the following population groups is at lowest risk of diabetes?

college students

Usual symptoms of diabetes mellitus include __

weight change excessive thirst and urination blurred vision All of these choices are correct

Which condition is NOT usually associated with type 2 diabetes?

Autoimmune destruction of beta cells of the pancreas

The most common type of diabetes mellitus is ________.

type 2 diabetes

Which of the following foods has the highest glycemic index?

baked potato

Treatment for reactive hypoglycemia includes ________.

eating regular meals and snacks of protein and complex carbohydrates and avoiding excess simple sugar

The focus on low-glycemic load foods can aid in the control of diabetes.

→ True

Soluble dietary fibers have been shown to reduce serum cholesterol.

→ True

Diabetic exchanges and carbohydrate counting are effective ways for diabetics to monitor daily carbohydrate intake.

→ True

Persons with diabetes can never eat sugar.

False

The Adequate Intake for dietary fiber is set at 14g/1000kcal.

True

Individuals with lactose intolerance have difficulty digesting milk products because they lack the enzyme needed to break apart the alpha bond linkages.

false

High fiber diets can impair the absorption of trace minerals.

true

The glycemic index is a ratio of the blood glucose response of a given food compared with a standard.

→ True

Metabolic syndrome is characterized by insulin resistance, obesity, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia

True

The RDA for carbohydrate intake is 300 g/day.

False

Sucralose is a nutritive sweetener that is approximately the same sweetness as honey.

FALSE

The Atkin’s diet promotes a high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet pattern.

FALSE

Sucrose is made up of glucose + glucose.

FALSE

Raffinose and stachyose are examples of polysaccharides.

FALSE

Maintaining one’s ideal body weight is a good means of decreasing risk of type 2 diabetes.

TRUE

Scientists have shown that eating a high sugar diet causes diabetes.

False

Glycogen is made of glucose units linked by beta bonds.
incorrect

False

Sorbitol, mannitol, and xylitol are nutritive sweeteners used in sugarless gum and candies.

true

An adequate carbohydrate intake is important in preventing ketosis and sparing protein from use as an energy source.

true

Indigestible carbohydrates play a role in promoting bowel health and preventing obesity.

true

Indigestible carbohydrates play a role in enhancing blood glucose control.

true

Saliva contains an enzyme called maltase that aids in the breakdown of maltose in the mouth.

false

Monosaccharides are absorbed by an active absorption process.

TRUE

Insoluble fiber is readily metabolized into acids and gases by bacteria in the large intestine.

False

Fructose is taken up by the absorptive cells of the small intestine via facilitated diffusion.

true

Match each type of carbohydrate with its description.
1. Lactose Glucose + glucose
correct
2. Sucrose Fructose + glucose
correct
3. Maltose Glucose + galactose
correct
4. Amylose Many glucose molecules
correct

Regina is trying to cut back on her fat intake to help reduce total calorie intake and promote gradual weight loss. If she follows an 1,800-calorie meal plan and wants to achieve the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range recommendation of total fat being between 20-35% of calories, how many grams of fat per day should she be eating?

40-70 grams of fat per day

Regina’s pregnant sister is interested in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), two essential fatty acids that can be made from alpha-linolenic (omega-3) acid. She has heard that EPA and DHA are important for cancer prevention, brain health, cardiovascular disease prevention, and immune function. Which food is the best source of EPA + DHA?

Fatty fish

Cardiologists and other healthcare professionals recommend that people who are at elevated risk for developing cardiovascular disease adopt an "anti-atherosclerotic" lifestyle to help prevent atherosclerosis. Which of the following is a component of an anti-atherosclerotic lifestyle?

Smoking cessation Low saturated fat and trans fat diet Consumption of fruits and vegetables high in antioxidants correct All of these are components of an anti-atherosclerotic lifestyle.

Regina’s dad and grandfather have both had heart attacks and she is concerned about her own heart health. In addition to increasing her fruit and vegetable intake, Regina is considering taking antioxidant supplements to help reduce cardiovascular disease risk. What does the American Heart Association recommend regarding the use of antioxidant supplements such as vitamin E to help reduce cardiovascular disease risk?

People at elevated risk for cardiovascular disease should not take antioxidant supplements; vitamin E provides no overall benefit for major cardiovascular events.

Lipids are a unique nutrient group, differing significantly from carbohydrates and proteins. Which of the following statements are true? Check all that apply:

Lipids do not dissolve readily in water. correct Lipids are components of the plasma membrane that surround each human cell.

Alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid are classified as _________ fatty acids.

essential

Which is correct regarding trans fatty acids?

They raise LDL and lower HDL cholesterol

Which of the following correctly characterizes lipids?

They do not dissolve in water.

The main difference between fats and oils is that fats are ________.

solid at room temperature

In what form is most body fat stored?

triglycerides.

The functions of fat include all of the following EXCEPT ________.
correct

build and repair tissue

Some fat is necessary in our diets ________.

to increase the palatability of foods as a carrier of fat-soluble vitamins to provide essential fatty acids All of these responses are correct

All of the following are ways in which fatty acids can differ from one another EXCEPT ________.

average number of calories per gram

Phospholipids consist of ________.

glycerol, two fatty acids, and phosphate

Lipids with high saturated fatty acid content are ____________ at room temperature.
correct

solid

Arachadonic acid is associated with ________.

omega-6 fatty acid metabolism

Which of the following lipids is a precursor for estrogen and bile?

Cholesterol

Recommendations suggest that we consume approximately 20% of our fat as monounsaturated fats. All of the following would be appropriate to use to achieve this goal EXCEPT ________.

sunflower oil

Lard, butter, and cream are rich sources of ________.

saturated fatty acids

The chief contributors of saturated fatty acids in the U.S. diet include ________.

animal products

Saturated fatty acids predominate in which of the following lipids?

butter

Which of the following groups of foods would contribute a substantial amount of monounsaturated fatty acids to the diet?

olive oil, peanuts and almonds

Monounsaturated fatty acids ________.

are liquid at room temperature have one double bond in the fatty acid chain lower cholesterol All of these responses are correct

Fats that are liquid at room temperature can be made more solid by the process of ________.

hydrogenation

Which of the following fats and oils provides the most polyunsaturated fatty acids?

soybean oil

Which essential fatty acid is responsible for lowering the risk of coronary heart disease?

alpha-linolenic

Lecithin is classified as a ________.

phospholipid

Ergosterol is a type of sterol found in ___

plants

Cholesterol is ________.

not essential in the diet; the human body can synthesize it not found in foods of plant origin an important part of human cell membranes and is necessary to make some hormones All of these choices are correct

Mike has been told to reduce his fat intake to less than 30% of his total calories. It has been recommended to him that he consume an average of 2000 calories per day. How many grams of fat should he consume per day?

67 grams

The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that total fat intake should not exceed __________ of total calories and saturated fat intake be limited to _______ of total calories.

35%; 10%

In the Mediterranean Diet, the majority of fat in the diet is supplied by ________.

olive oil and olives

According to guidelines from the American Heart Association for the general population, saturated fats ________.

should constitute no more than 7% of total energy in the diet

Individuals with bleeding disorders taking anticoagulants or scheduling surgery should be cautious about which supplement?

correct Omega 3 fatty acids

All the following are good sources of omega 3 fatty acids EXCEPT ________.

correct avocados

Most experts agree that dietary cholesterol intake should be limited to _______mg per day.

300

Fat digestion begins in the ________.

mouth

Lingual lipase breaks down ________.

triglycerides

Which lipoprotein is responsible for transporting cholesterol from the liver to tissues?

low density lipoprotein (LDL)

A fatty acid with 10 carbons will be absorbed via the ________.

the portal system

High levels of ______ in the blood are associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease.

correct HDL

Lipoproteins are important for ________.

transport of fats in the blood and lymphatic system

Which of the following lipoproteins contains the highest proportion of protein?

HDL

Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) are the principal transport vehicle for _______ in the blood.

cholesterol

LDL clearance in the plasma is mediated via the ______ receptor.

B-100

Oxidized LDL in the blood is picked up by ________.

scavenger pathway

Lipoprotein lipase functions to ________.

break down triglycerides from lipoproteins for transfer into cells

Why are nuts a heart healthy food?

They are rich in antioxidants. Most nuts are good sources of monounsaturated fatty acids. They contain no cholesterol. All of these choices are correct.

The ____ pathway for LDL uptake is a means by which LDL contributes to plaque formation in blood vessels.

scavenger

High-density lipoproteins function in lipid transport by ________.

picking up cholesterol from dying cells and other sources for delivery to other lipoproteins and the liver for disposal

Immediately after a meal, newly digested and absorbed dietary fats appear in the lymph, and then the blood, as a part of which of the following?

chylomicrons

Which apolipoprotein is responsible for activating lipoprotein lipase?

Apo C-II

Excessive intakes of saturated fatty acids tend to ________.

increase cholesterol deposited in arteries

Excessive amounts of omega-3 fatty acids can ________.

impair the immune system cause excessive bleeding cause hemorrhagic stroke All of these choices are correct

Blockage of a major artery is caused by a blood clot. These clots may form when ________.

cholesterol plaques build up in artery walls

Which of the following is considered a desirable blood level for total cholesterol?

correct 200 mg/dl or less

Which of the following blood levels of LDL cholesterol would increase risk for cardiovascular disease?

over 160 mg/dl

Which of the following is a risk factor for heart disease?

Total blood cholesterol level greater than 200 mg/dl

All of the following are uncontrollable risk factors for heart disease EXCEPT ________.

hypertension

A stroke ________.

blocks blood flow in the brain

A diet designed to reduce elevated serum LDL cholesterol levels ________.

is low in saturated fats is reduced in dietary cholesterol provides adequate amounts of soluble fiber All of these choices are correct

Trans fatty acids are now considered more atherogenic than saturated fatty acids because they ________

elevate LDL levels, while decreasing HDL

Margarine is usually made by a process called ________, in which hydrogen atoms are added to double covalent bonds in the polyunsaturated fatty acids found in vegetable oils.

hydrogenation

Since monounsaturated fats are healthier consuming them in excessive amounts is always considered good.

false

All fat-free foods are healthy for you.

false

The decrease in HDL due to the decrease of estrogen in postmenopausal women plays a part in the increased risk of heart disease that occurs in older women.
correct

true

High blood levels of HDL are protective against heart disease.

true

Americans eat more omega-3 fatty acids than omega-6 fatty acids.

false

Trans fatty acids raise HDL and lower LDL.

false

Plants contain cholesterol.

false

Dietary cholesterol should not exceed 300 milligrams per day.

true

Lecithin and bile are examples of emulsifiers.

true

Lipids with high polyunsaturatd fatty acid content are ____________ at room temperature.

liquid

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is associated with

omega-3 fatty acid metabolism.

Eicosanoids are

substances that produce diverse hormone-like effects on the body.

substances that produce diverse hormone-like effects on the body.

butter

Tomas is a 24-year-old male trying to calculate his protein needs. The Food and Nutrition Board recommends that 10-35% of calories come from protein. If Tomas follows a 2,300-calorie diet, how many grams of protein per day should he be consuming?

correct 58-201 grams of protein per day

All of the following statements about the role of protein in the body are correct EXCEPT:

correct Protein is the only macronutrient that is not energy yielding.

Tomas is studying his family’s genealogy for an anthropology class. He interviews an uncle about the family’s health history and learns that a number of family members have sickle cell anemia. It is safe to assume that:

Tomas’ family members with sickle cell anemia have a defect in the structure of the protein chains of hemoglobin.

Tomas is babysitting his neighbor’s seven-month-old child who has just begun to eat solid foods. He knows that the protein in certain types of foods is particularly allergenic and should not be introduced early into a child’s diet. Which food is the safest option for Tomas to offer the baby if he wants to minimize any potential problems with food allergies?

Iron-fortified cereal made with rice and water

A child living in a developing country with high rates of malnutrition is at risk for developing protein-calorie malnutrition. If this child consumes insufficient dietary protein, what is the physiological consequence?

Insufficient dietary protein intake inhibits the body’s ability to make immune antibodies, some hormones, and enzymes.

A person who consumes inadequate dietary protein may be expected to experience:

Decreased immune function Fluid imbalance Loss of lean body mass correct All of these are potential consequences of inadequate dietary protein intake.

Tomas has taken up bodybuilding and is starting to become more interested in a diet to improve athletic performance. He read an article in a bodybuilding magazine that said he should dramatically increase his dietary protein intake. What happens to excessive dietary protein intake?

With excessive protein intake, amino acids may be used to meet energy needs or converted to and stored as fat.

If Tomas is a healthy 24-year-old male who weighs 166 pounds, how many grams of protein per day should he have to promote protein equilibrium? (One kilogram = 2.2 pounds.)

60 grams of protein per day

A vegetarian diet differs from a traditional animal-based diet in that a vegetarian diet is:

higher in dietary fiber than a traditional animal-based diet is.

The amino acid profile of a protein in a food helps determine whether that food is a complete or incomplete protein. Which of the following contains incomplete protein?

A handful of peanuts

The process that allows interconversion of non-essential amino acids is called:

transamination

When two or more plant proteins are combined to compensate for deficiencies in essential amino acid content in each protein, the proteins involved are called:

complementary proteins

Select from the following list the different methods of measuring protein quality in food.

Biological value Protein efficiency ratio

The basic building blocks of protein are ________.

amino acids

The presence of ___________ chemically distinguishes protein from carbohydrate and fat.

nitrogen

Dietary proteins supply ______ kcal per gram.
correct

t 4

Which bodily function is not associated with protein?

sparing glucose for energy use.

Over time, if protein intake does not meet the body’s protein needs for building and repair of tissues, ________

skeletal muscle, heart muscle, and the liver decrease in size excessive body fluid begins to accumulate in the extracellular spaces the immune system fails to function properly All of these choices are accurate

Which of the following foods provides all of the essential amino acids?

milk

The side chain, or R portion, of an amino acid ________.

determines the name of the amino acid

Which of the following amino acids is classified as a "conditionally essential" amino acid?

tyrosine

Foods containing all essential amino acids in the proportion needed by the body are designated as ________.

complete foods

Good sources of high-quality (complete) protein include all of the following except _______

whole wheat

When over 10 amino acids are chemically linked by peptide bonds, the resulting product is known as ________.

a polypeptide

Cooking an egg destroys its physiological property by ________.

denaturation

When 2 or more plant proteins are combined to compensate for deficiencies in essential amino acid content in each protein, the proteins are called ________.

complementary proteins

DNA-coded instructions for protein synthesis consist of a sequence of ___ nucleotides per unit.

3

The nucleotide units that represent a specific amino acid in protein synthesis are called ________.

codons

The genetic disorder sickle-cell anemia produces a profound change in ___________ structure.

hemoglobin

The sequential order of the amino acids in the polypeptide chain is called the ________.

primary structure

Worldwide, approximately _______ of protein comes from animal sources.

35%

Protein quality is determined by all of the following EXCEPT ________.

the food’s cost

Which of the following conditions would result in negative nitrogen balance?

kwashiorkor

Nitrogen makes up approximately _____ of the weight of an amino acid.

16%

The RDA for protein for most healthy adults is ______

correct 0.8 g/kg of body weight

When food proteins reach the stomach, HCl ________ the protein.

denatures

Which of the following enzymes aids in digesting polypeptides into shorter peptides and amino acids?

trypsin

The functions of protein include ________.

providing structural support to body cells producing antibodies to fight infection contributing to acid-base balance All of these are functions of protein

Edema in the lower extremities may appear when there is a severe lack of dietary protein because ________.

blood protein levels drop and fluid shifts into interstitial spaces

Amino acids are required for the synthesis of ________.

enzymes neurotransmitters some hormones All of the choices are accurate

A diet that is deficient in carbohydrate will ultimately force the liver and, to a lesser extent, the kidneys to ________.

produce glucose from amino acids

Proteins help regulate blood pH by ________.

accepting and releasing hydrogen ions

_______ are compounds that help to maintain acid-base balance within a narrow range.

Buffers

The proteins that inactivate foreign bacteria and viruses to help prevent infections are called ________.

antibodies

The lack of an immune response to foreign compounds entering the body is called ________.

anergy

A high-quality protein used as a standard for measuring the quality of other proteins is ________.

egg white

The biological value of a food protein is a measure of ________.

how closely it meets amino acid needs

A growing child who is consuming adequate protein but only 50% of his or her energy needs, will likely be in ________.

negative nitrogen balance

What would be the recommended amount of protein for a 121-pound female?

44 g/day

Judy’s dietary intake provides 90 grams of protein. Her total energy intake is 2000 kcal. Approximately what percentage of her energy comes from protein?

correct 18%

Most Americans consume ________ dietary protein compared to the RDA.

correct excessive amounts of

To meet basic protein needs, an athlete needs to ________.

consume a variety of foods to meet energy needs

A high-protein diet is discouraged for patients with ________.

kidney disease

A vegan diet may be low in ________.

vitamin B-12 iron calcium All of these choices are correct

When plant proteins are compared to animal proteins, they ________.

are usually deficient in one or more essential amino acids

The recommended amount of protein as a percentage of total energy intake is ________.

10% to 35%

The major symptoms of kwashiorkor in children are ________.

edema and growth failure

Kwashiorkor ________.

is a disease of severely deficient protein intake

Protein-energy malnutrition is also known as _______

marasmus

Signs of protein deficiency may include ________.

edema mild to moderate weight loss poor resistance to infection All of these choices are accurate

After major surgery, hospital patients may be at risk of PEM due to ________.

poor prior health low dietary intakes increased needs for recovery All of these choices are correct

An example of two incomplete protein foods eaten together to produce a complete protein meal are ________.

correct red beans and rice

A vegan will eat ________.

only foods from plant sources

A process involved in the synthesis of nonessential amino acids is called ________.

transamination

Which of the following is not a means of determining the protein quality of a food?

complementary score

Marasmus is characterized by ________.

extreme weight loss and fat loss

An antibody is ________.

a substance that inactivates foreign proteins in the body

Anergy is ________.

the lack of an immune response to foreign substances entering the body

Excess protein intake can result in ________.

loss of calcium

The body needs 18 different amino acids to function properly.

false

The 9 amino acids that the body cannot make are known as nonessential amino acids

false

An individual with the genetic disease PKU has a limited ability to metabolize the essential amino acid phenylalanine.

True

Nonessential amino acids can be synthesized through a process called transamination.
correct True

Each strand of DNA is composed of the nucleotides adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine.

true

Vegans need to plan their diets carefully to include adequate complementary proteins that provide the needed essential amino acids.
→ True

Individuals who are attempting to build up their muscles need 3 times as much protein as those who are not building muscles.

False

Legumes are an excellent source of vegetable protein.
correct True

The Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PCDAAS) is the score derived by multiplying a food’s chemical score by its digestibility.
→ True

For the average North American, protein needs can be easily met through our typical diets without the need for supplementation.
→ True

During times of recovery from illness or injury, protein needs may range from 0.8 to 2.0 g/kg body weight.
correct True

Proteins in cow’s milk and egg white should not be given to infants prior to 12 months of age as they may predispose the infant to allergies.
correct True

High-protein diets are often associated with increased intake of saturated fat and cholesterol in the diet.
correct True

Marasmus in infants commonly occurs in poverty-stricken countries.
correct True

An excess intake of protein, especially from protein supplements, can increase the risk of amino acid toxicity.
correct True

Peanuts, cow’s milk, and shellfish are among foods considered to be highly allergenic.
correct True

Once a food allergy has developed, it persists throughout life.
correct False

Vegetarian diets are often low in dietary fiber.

correct False

Lacto-ovo-vegetarians exclude meat, poultry, fish, and eggs from their diet.
incorrect

false

Protein digestion begins in the stomach, where proteins are broken down into shorter polypeptide chains of amino acids.
correct True

Protein intakes above 35% of energy intake are associated with dehydration, amino acid imbalance, and increased risk of certain cancers.
→ True

Vegetarian diets are most often low in calcium, vitamin D, vitamin B-12, iron, and zinc.
correct True

Most animal proteins have a high biological value as their tissue amino acid composition is similar to that of human tissues.
→ True

Proteins comprise about 17% of body weight.
→ True

Regina knows that moderate alcohol consumption can be cardio-protective, meaning that it somewhat reduces cardiovascular disease risk. Moderate alcohol consumption translates to one drink per day for women and two drinks per day for men. Match the type of alcohol with its serving size that constitutes one drink:

Beer: 12 oz is one serving correct Wine: 5 oz is one serving correct Liquor: 1.5 oz is one serving correct

Alcohol is removed from the liver at a rate of ________ g of alcohol per hour or ________ standard-size drink.

5-7, half of a

Alcohol abuse can lead directly to all of the following, EXCEPT

correct lung cancer.

Which of the following statements about the metabolizing of alcohol is TRUE?

Alcohol that is not immediately metabolized circulates throughout the body.

Death can result from alcohol intoxication beginning at a blood alcohol content level of about _________.

correct 0.30

A 150-pound lean person will have a lower blood alcohol content (BAC) than a 150-pound fat person who drinks the same amount of alcohol.

true

Alcoholics Anonymous® (AA),a 12-step program, was developed in 1987 to treat alcoholism. The highly successful program was originally developed as a democratic sponsored program to help economically distressed communities. There are specific rules, regulations, and dues required to participate in the program unless an individual is court ordered to attend the program.

false

To celebrate her recent weight loss, Lisa’s friends decide to take her out for a healthy dinner. Lisa doesn’t drink alcohol because she knows the empty calories will contribute to weight gain. One girlfriend at the dinner has four margaritas and an extra shot of tequila before the food arrives. Is this friend’s behavior considered binge drinking?

correct Yes, because consuming four drinks or more for women is considered binge drinking, and she had 5.

How many calories does alcohol provide?

7 kcal/g

An alcoholic beverage with 15 g alcohol provides ______ kcal from alcohol.
correct

105

The highest concentration of ethanol is found in ________.

distilled spirits

The alcohol content of an 80-proof tequila is ________.

40%

Wine generally contains ________ alcohol.

5 – 14%

The process of fermentation involves all of the following EXCEPT ________.

bacteria

A standard drink is defined as ________.

correct 5 oz wine

A standard drink contains _____ grams of alcohol.

15

Alcohol is absorbed in the small intestine by __

simple diffusion

Alcohol absorption occurs in the ________.

stomach and small intestine

The ADH pathway of alcohol metabolism converts ethanol into ________.

acetyl-CoA

The main organ responsible for ethanol metabolism is the ________.

liver

When consumed in low to moderate amounts, alcohol is primarily metabolized by the ________________ pathway.

alcohol dehydrogenase

When the MEOS pathway is induced, alcohol tolerance _______ because the rate of alcohol metabolism __________.

increases; increases

The symptoms of acetaldehyde buildup during alcohol metabolism include ________.

flushing rapid heartbeat hyperventilation All of these symptoms can occur

Women absorb 30-35% more ethanol directly from the stomach than men because women ________.

have lower amounts of alcohol dehydrogenase in the cells lining the stomach

A typical rate of alcohol metabolism for a social drinker is ________.
correct ½ drink per hour

Binge drinking for a male is defined as having _______ or more drinks on a single occasion.

5

A blood alcohol level of _____ is defined as legal intoxication in the U.S. and Canada.

0.08

What percent of North Americans consume alcohol?

62%

Binge drinking on college campuses is associated with _______

academic problems auto accidents sexual abuse All of these responses are correct

The population group with the highest rate of alcohol consumption is ________.

correct college students

Moderate drinking is most accurately defined as ________.

up to 1 drink per day for women and 2 drinks per day for men

Benefits of moderate alcohol consumption include lower rates of ________.

cardiovascular disease

Detrimental effects of excessive alcohol consumption include higher rates of ________

high blood pressure and stroke cancers of the mouth and throat liver disease and liver failure All of these responses are correct

An early sign of alcohol-induced liver damage is ________.

steatosis

Liver cirrhosis is characterized by _

decreased synthesis of proteins made in the liver abnormal retention of fluid in the abdomen poor nutritional status All of these answers are correct

Alcoholism is associated with all of the following EXCEPT ________.

type I diabete

Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome is the _______ deficiency disease that results from severe alcohol abuse.

correct thiamin

Alcoholics often have trouble with night blindness. This results from ________.

impaired absorption and transport of vitamin A

The recommendation for alcohol consumption during pregnancy is ________.

no alcohol at all

The problems of alcohol abuse and alcohol dependency ________.

affect nearly 1 in 3 Americans over a lifetime

Which of the following is not a common nutritional concern in alcoholics?

correct vitamin A toxicity

Medications used to treat alcohol dependence act on ________.

correct both the brain to reduce alcohol cravings and the liver to block complete metabolism of alcohol

The risk of developing a problem with alcohol is higher in those _____

with a biological parent with alcohol problems

When the rate of alcohol consumption exceeds the liver’s metabolic capacity, blood alcohol levels increase and symptoms of intoxication develop.
correct True

Guidelines for safe drinking recommend that women should have no more than 2-3 drinks per day.

false

Alcohol requires no digestion.
→ True

Excess consumption of some alcoholic beverages can lead to deficiencies of iron and zinc.
correct True

Moderate alcohol intake has been associated with increased HDL cholesterol levels.
correct True

Excessive alcohol intake can lead to deficiencies of niacin, thiamin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and folate.
correct True

Compared with men, women produce more alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme in the stomach.

correct False

Compared to men, women absorb approximately 30-35% more unaltered alcohol from the stomach into the bloodstream.
correct True

Extremely high blood alcohol levels can lead to respiratory failure.
correct True

Signs of alcohol poisoning include hypoglycemia and severe dehydration.
correct True

Binge drinking is associated with vandalism and suicide.
correct True

An 80-proof vodka or gin is 80% alcohol.

correct False

Because alcohol cannot be stored in the body, it has priority in metabolism over other energy sources.
correct True

The small intestine is the primary site for alcohol metabolism.

correct False

Moderate alcohol consumption is most accurately defined as no more than 7 or 14 drinks per week for women and men, respectively.

→ False

The euphoria that arises from alcohol use is likely due to the release of serotonin in the brain which is thought to cause characteristics high associated with alcohol use

Antabuse causes physical reaction to alcohol such as vomiting

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