Chapter 3 (InQuizitive Stuff)

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The ____ government is solely responsible for declaring war. _____ governments are created by state governments.

federal; local

During what period of time has the United States had a system of dual federalism?


How did the Great Depression influence the power of the federal government?

– the federal government took a more active role than before in providing economic security for Americans – Federal grants-in-aid became a powerful tool to redirect state governments’ policy

How is power distributed in the U.S. federal system?

powers are divided between the national and state governments

States prefer categorical grants to block grants (T/F)


Match the type of power to the correct level of government. (Powers: concurrent, expressed, implied, reserved) (Levels: state, federal, federal and state)

state: reserved federal: expressed, implied federal and state: concurrent

Why does the federal government impose regulations on money given to state governments?

federal regulations ensure that states use their money in a responsible manner

Order these eras of federalism by when they first started, from earliest to most recent (dual, cooperative, new)

dual, cooperative, new

Which Supreme Court cases granted power to the states? To the federal government?

states: United States v. Lopez, Prints v. United States federal: McCulloch v. Maryland, Gibbons v. Ogden

Describe the balance between state and federal power today.

– the Supreme Court often must intervene to resolve balance-of-power issues between the states and the federal government – Conservatives are willing to increase federal power, just as liberals are willing to expand state autonomy

Describe a situation that would violate the privileges and immunities clause.

– a state denies welfare benefits to someone who has just recently moved from another state – a state gives residents preference in obtaining work at the state’s utility provider

The federal government often works to limit state-to-state variation in how policies are enacted. How does the federal government encourage policy standardization between states?

– The federal government occasionally overrides state and local laws that are inconsistent with federal policies – The federal government uses grants-in-aid to reward states that provide policy in a manner consistent with congressional goals – The federal government sets national standards to which the states must adhere

In the early 1800s, during the era of dual federalism, what accurately describes the relationship between the powers of federal and state governments?

– Very little overlap existed between the powers of the federal and state governments – State and local governments made most of the laws that impacted daily life

What was the justification used by the Roberts court in its majority decision on the Affordable Care Act’s second challenge before the Supreme Court?

The Court upheld the administration’s actions, saying while the wording as written was problematic, the meaning was clear

In 1937, the Supreme Court made a series of significant decisions addressing federalism. How did these decisions influence the course of federalism in the United States?

The Supreme Court upheld acts of Congress that increased the power of the federal government

A strong federal government, and its influence over policy, offers some benefits that devolution to the states might not. What are potential benefits of federal control?

– Competition between different state and local governments to attract businesses to their communities can undermine other policy goals – The national interest sometimes overrides the local needs of the states

Which amendment to the Constitution is most frequently cited to bolster arguments in favor of states’ rights?

10th – Many argue that Supreme Court decisions in the 1930s weakened the force of the 10th amendment

Contrast the differences between block grants and categorical grants by matching their characteristics to the correct term. (offer more flexibility, offer more power to the federal government, federal funds to states for a general policy purpose, offer more power to states, federal funds to states for a specific purpose)

block: offer more flexibility, federal funds to states for a general policy purpose categorical: federal funds to states for a specific purpose, offer more power to the federal government

Unitary or Federal System? A central government shares power with lower levels of government.

federal system

Unitary or Federal System? Lower levels primarily implement central government decisions.

unitary system

Unitary or Federal System? This system tends to occur in states with diverse ethnic or language groupings.

federal system

Unitary or Federal System? A central government makes the most important decisions.

unitary system

Which parts of the Constitution led the Supreme Court to support the expansion of national power after 1937?

the commerce clause; the necessary and proper clause

What steps has the government taken to reduce the burden of unfunded mandates?

– Congress is required to find funding for unfunded mandates that exceed the maximum amount set by the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act. – The Congressional Budget Office must assess the cost of any particularly expensive unfunded mandates.

The state of Mississippi submits a proposal to the federal government for an overhaul o its river management system. The federal government then awards it a grant to cover the costs of the new system. This is an example of what kind of grant?

project grant

What is an example of general revenue sharing?

Every year the federal government provides $200 million in funding to a city, with no strings attached.

Full faith and credit clause or privileges and immunities clause? A marriage license granted in one state must be recognized in all the others.

full faith and credit clause

Full faith and credit clause or privileges and immunities clause? You can drive from one side of the country to the other without having to stop and get a new driver’s license in each state.

full faith and credit clause

Full faith and credit clause or privileges and immunities clause? A state cannot deny welfare benefits to new residents just because they have only recently moved to that state.

privileges and immunities clause

Full faith and credit clause or privileges and immunities clause?A state must charge all people the same sales tax rates on groceries.

privileges and immunities clause

How does the Constitution promote the idea that the states are part of a larger nation and not independent entities?

– The Constitution prohibits states from passing laws that favor their citizens over citizens of other states – The Constitution requires states to honor the public acts and judicial proceedings of each other – States need Congressional approval to enter into agreements with one another

How has federal policy regarding education evolved since 2001?

– the Obama administration used incentives to encourage states to comply with the Common Core Standards – the 2001 No Child Left Behind Act initially forced states to adhere to strict federal standards

In the 1960s, states governments began to lose power relative to the federal government. What was the primary cause of this change?

The states saw their power decline as the federal government worked to counteract state policies of racial segregation.

In cases such as McCulloch v. Maryland and Gibbons v. Ogden, the early Supreme Court tended to favor the ____ government(s). This changed in the mid-1800s, and from then until the 1930s the Supreme Court tended to favor the ____ government(s).

national; state

Which of the following is an example of preemption?
A. The federal government offers Louisiana $500 million in grants-in-aid with the stipulation that the state uses the money to update its levees.
B. Maine’s minimum wage is lower than the federal minimum wage. Main is allowed to keep its minimum wage because the needs of the states preempt federal laws.
C. Oregon passes an environmental protection policy aimed at reducing water pollution before the federal government does.
D. The federal government raises accessibility standards for the disabled. Any state with less stringent standards than the federal minimum must raise them.


Which political party most favors devolution?


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