Chapter 3 Government

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Unitary System

A centralized governmental system in which ultimate governmental authority rests in the hands of the national, or central government

Confederal System

A system consisting of a league of independent states, each having essentially sovereign powers. the central government created by such a league has only limited powers over the states

Enumerated Powers

Powers Specifically granted to the NATIONAL GOV. by the constitution. The first 17 clauses of Article 1 Section 8 specify most of the enumerated powers of the national government

Elastic Clause, or Necessary and Proper Clause

the Clause in Article I, Section 8, that grants Congress the power to do whatever necessary to execute its specifically delegated powers

Police Power

The authority to legislate for the protection of the health, morals, safety, and welfare of the people. In the U.S., most of the police power is reserved to the states

Concurrent Powers

Powers held jointly by the national and state governments

Supremacy Clause

The constitutional provision that makes the Constitution and federal law superior to all conflicting state and local laws

Interstate Compact

An agreement between two or more states. Agreements on minor matters are made without congressional consent, but any compact that tends to increase the power of the contracting states relative to other states or relative to the national government generally requires the consent of Congress

Commerce Clause

The section of the Constitution in which Congress is given power to regulate trade among the states and with foreign countries

Dual Federalism

A model of federalism in which the states and the national government each remain supreme within their own spheres. The doctrine looks on nation and state a co-equal sovereign powers. Neither the state gov. nor the national gov. should interfere in the other’s sphere. (During the Civil War time)

Cooperative Federalism

A model of federalism in which the states and the national government cooperate in solving problems

Picket-Fence Federalism

A model of federalism in which specific programs and policies (depicted as vertical pickets in a picket fence) involve all levels of government-national, state, and local (depicted by the horizontal boards in the picket fence)

Categorical Grants

Federal grants to states or local governments that are for specific programs or projects

Block Grants

Federal programs that provide funds to state and local governments for broad functional areas, such as criminal justice of mental-health programs

Federal Mandate

A requirement in federal legislation that forces states and municipalities to comply with certain rules


The transfer of powers from a national or central government to a state or local government

Which government system is used most in the world today

Unicameral system

In a unitary system of government, ultimate government authority is located

at the national or central level

All of the following are true of a confederation or confederate political system, EXCEPT that

It is the form of government used in the U.S. today

In a federal political system, authority is

Divided between the central government and regional or sub-divisional governments

Which of the following is not a defense of federalism?

The national government has all the power so states play a small role DEFENSES for: political experimentation can be used to see if policies are workable, the government is in closer contact with the people because of the role given to states governments, it allows for differences among the regions of the country, it is a better system for the U.S. than a unitary system because of the size of the U.S.

One of the arguments against federalism is

That state and local interests can block progress and impede national plans

Constitutional powers can be classified as

1. Powers of the national government 2. Powers of the states 3. Prohibited Powers

The powers that the Constitution specifically lists as belonging to the federal government are

the enumerated or expressed powers

The clause in the Constitution that grants Congress the power to do whatever necessary to execute its enumerated or expressed powers is called

the necessary and proper clause (elastic clause)

Which powers belong only to the national government

International treaties, setting up the postal service, and printing money

Inherent powers derive from the fact that the U.S. is

A sovereign power among nations

the 10th Amendment states that powers not delegated to the U.S. by the Constitution, nor prohibited to the states by it, are

reserved to the states respectively, or to the people

Powers held jointly by the national and state governments are called

Concurrent powers

In the early years, most of the disputes over the boundaries of national versus state power involved

the necessary and proper clause and the powers of the national government to regulate interstate commerce

All of the following are true about the case of McCulloch v. Maryland except that

the Supreme Court ruled the national government could only use its express powers

All of the following are true in the case of Gibbons v. Ogden except that

the commerce clause did not allow the national government to exercise its power in state jurisdictions

The section of the Constitution in which Congress is given authority to regulate trade among states and foreign countries is called the

commerce clause

All of the following are true of the cases Gibbons v. Ogden, McCulloch v. Maryland except that

Only state governments can regulate commerce

The controversy that led to the Civil War was

the dispute over states’ rights and national supremacy

All of the following are true of concurrent powers except that

they are expressly given to the national government

States may not

make treaties with foreign nations

Which 2 sets of powers do state governments have

Reserved and concurrent powers

The supremacy clause of the Constitution means that

States cannot use their reserved or concurrent powers to thwart national policies

In their dealing with each other, each state is required to do all of the following except

Refrain from making agreements that do not include all 50 states

An agreement between 2 or more states is

An interstate compact

States may enter into agreements with each other if

Congress is required to consent and does so

South Carolina tried to nullify a tariff to

Assert the power of the state governments over the national government and indicate that a state should have the ultimate authority over its citizens

Results of the Civil War included all of the following except

An increase in the South’s desire for states’ rights

The Civil War amendments

abolished slavery, sought to guarantee equal rights under state laws, gave the right to vote to African Americans, and defined who was a citizen of the United States

The doctrine of dual federalism meant

a revival of states’ rights and a reduction in national power

In the Civil War crisis, the Supreme Court

was drastically REDUCED in power

In 1895, the Supreme Court

declared the national income tax to be unconstitutional

All of the following are true of the New Deal except that

after 1937 the S.C. continued to reject New Deal legislation

The S.C. ceased to interfere with national legislation on the economy after

Roosevelt tried but failed to expand the Court by adding six new justices

All are true of federal grants except that that they

Are give by the states for national projects

Categorical grants are

federal grants to states or local governments for specific programs

Formula grants

dispense funds based on variables such as state population and need

A federal grant for a specific project or program is called a

categorical grant

Federal mandates

have requirements in federal legislation that force states to comply with certain rules

A federal grant that funds a general functional area with fewer restrictions on the states is a

Block grant

National authority has traditionally been preferred by


The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001

increased federal control over education and educational funding

In regard to federalism,

Conflicts between states and the federal government are still continuing, expansion of national authority has typically been an engine of social change, and often states’ rights has been used to support the status quo

In U.S. v. Lopez (1995), the S.C.

held that Congress exceeded its constitutional authority, said the act act attempted to regulate an area that had nothing to do with commerce, and placed a limit on national government authority under the commerce clause

the U.S. Supreme Court

has final say on constitutional issues, plays a significant role in determining the line between federal and state powers, has given increased emphasis to states power under the 10th Amendment

The S.C.

has been sending mixed signals in federalism cases, has changed some of its previous rulings about state and federal powers, and has supported both the federal government and states in different rulings

The 2007 case Massachusetts v. EPA resulted in the S.C. ruling that

EPA has the authority and responsibility to regulate carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases

______ have traditionally opposed the increasing size and scope of the federal government


Since the 1990s, the S.C.’s decisions on federalism have

been establishing limits on the national government’s powers under the commerce clause

Today, states have lotteries, which are often justified as way to raise funds for

Public Education

What was the topic of Sec. of State Hillary Clinton’s hearings on Capitol Hill

Embassy in Libya

the new White House Chief of Staff will be


What is the delaying tactic in the Senate the we discussed


A bipartisan group of senators have proposed comprehensive ___________ reform


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