Chapter 3- Culture and Media

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The word culture derives from the Latin word colere, which means

to cultivate

Which of the following defines culture?


Culture tends to be


During the 1800s, culture was defined by Matthew Arnold as an ideal, something that is opposed to the real world in which we live. Sociologists today define culture as

the sum total of beliefs, behaviors, and practices that humans create to adapt to the environment around them.

Why did industrialization change European culture so dramatically in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries?

Expensive, handcrafted goods were now mass-produced and new social classes emerged.

Which of the following was a poet and cultural critic who defined culture as the pursuit of perfection and broad knowledge of the world, in contrast to narrow self-centeredness and material gain?

Matthew Arnold

One of the two main categories of culture that includes values, beliefs, norms, and behaviors is known as

nonmaterial culture

Everything in our constructed environment, including technology, buildings, furniture, clothing, and books, is part of our

material culture

An example of material culture is


An example of nonmaterial culture is


Acronyms such as LOL, ;-), and LMAO demonstrate that

technology itself can generate ideas and concepts

The study of culture tells us that

there are many ways to view the same symbol

According to ________, the language we speak directly influences and reflects the way we think and see the world.

the Sapir-Whorf hypotheisis

An element of nonmaterial culture known as _____ is a system of concepts and relationships sometimes used to understand cause and effect.


Galileo’s discovery that the earth revolved around the sun rather than standing at the center of the universe is an example of

shifting ideology

Ideologies are

systems that change only when massive revolutions take place in particular societies

Margaret Mead wrote Coming of Age in Samoa (1928), where she found that women in Samoa engaged and enjoyed casual sex before they were married. This finding challenged America’s

cultural scripts

Low culture, such as hip-hop music, is also known as

pop culture

Which of the following is true regarding the value of high versus low culture?

It is difficult to debate the worth of high and low culture

While they are difficult to define, ____________ are smaller subgroups within a larger dominant society united by sets of concepts, values, symbols, and shared meanings specific to the members of that group.



are hard to definitively define

The various musical genres and the groups inspired by them, such as post-punk music and goths, are examples of


Goth culture tends to exist


If you are a member of a subculture, like the goth subculture, you can be sure that the meaning of certain words and the behavior of the members

can be different within the group

Stanley Lieberson’s research on first name in the U.S. found that

it is more common for names to cross from men to women over time than vice versa.

Stanley Lieberson, a sociology professor at Harvard, studied culture using first names. He found that names

reflect cultural trends of specific times

If ____________ are abstract cultural beliefs, then ____________ are how they are put into play

values; norms

Class mobility and equal opportunity have their roots in

the feudal system in England, 600 years ago

Norms are to ____________ as values are to ____________.

behavior; attitudes

The experience of internalizing a culture’s norms, values, and the like, is known as


Although some criticize rap music for its violent lyrics, many rappers defend it by saying it emerges directly from their experiences. Those rappers who make these claims are invoking

reflection theory

Karl Marx asserted that culture

is a reflection of the means of production of a particular time

Reflection theory is limited because it

fails to take into account why some cultural products have staying power and others fall by wayside

When your friend returns from a study abroad, he reports back to you on the very different foods that people in his host country ate. He explains that to them it’s normal, that people in different cultures do things differently, and that he learned not to make value judgments. This is known as

cultural relativism

Ruth Benidict, in her Patterns of Culture (1934), coined the term cultural relativism which means

taking into account the differences across cultures without passing judgement or assigning value

Gendered behaviors, such as wearing dresses and high heels, are examples of learned behaviors that are not natural or universal, and are known as

cultural scripts

If a person judges another group by his or her own standards, he or she is being


You take a trip to Alaska and find that Inuit families sleep together naked to stay warm. You find this practice disgusting and can’t understand why they don’t consider this incestuous. You are being


Until Europeans came into contact with non-Westerners, they tended to see their culture as

the only way to live

The U.S. has laws that prohibit cockfighting. People in Bali might say that people in the U.S. are


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