Chapter 27 The Reproductive System Test (Quiz 9)

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The dartos and cremaster muscles are important to the integrity of the male reproductive system. Which of the following is true about the role they play?
A) They contract to push sperm along the ductus deferens.
B) They regulate the temperature of the testes.
C) They are responsible for penile erection.
D) They contract to allow ejaculation.

Answer: B They regulate the temperature of the testes. Page Ref: 1026

The ability of sperm cells to move along the ductus deferens is due to ________.
A) gravity
B) peristaltic contractions
C) enzymatic activity
D) hormonal action

Answer: B Page Ref: 1029-1030

The ability of a male to ejaculate is due to the action of ________.
A) parasympathetic nerves
B) the dartos muscle
C) luteinizing hormone
D) the bulbospongiosus muscles

Answer: D Page Ref: 1032

The most important risk for testicular cancer in young males is ________.
A) smoking
B) a diet high in fat
C) nondescent of the testes
D) sexually transmitted infections

Answer: C Page Ref: 1028

Which of the following glands are responsible for 60% of the synthesis of semen?
A) the seminal vesicles
B) the bulbourethral glands
C) the prostate
D) the pituitary

Answer: A Page Ref: 1030

Which of the following hormones controls the release of anterior pituitary gonadotropins?
D) testosterone

Answer: C Page Ref: 1038-1039

Development of male reproductive structures depends on which of the following events?
A) that the female hormones are suppressed during pregnancy
B) the suppression of inhibin
C) secretion of male hormones prenatally and lasting into the first few months after birth
D) that human gonadotropin be synthesized in the first week of the pregnancy

Answer: C Page Ref: 1060

The primary function of the uterus is to ________.
A) protect the ovaries
B) synthesize female hormones
C) regulate the ovarian and menstrual cycles
D) receive, retain, and nourish a fertilized ovum

Answer: D Page Ref: 1042-1043

Why is the blood-testis barrier important?
A) because spermatozoa and developing cells produce surface antigens that are recognized as foreign by the immune system
B) because some blood contents are toxic to the spermatozoa
C) because immature sperm cells lose their motility when they encounter any blood component
D) Actually, the blood-testis barrier has no function.

Answer: A Page Ref: 1038

The structures that receive the ovulated oocyte, providing a site for fertilization, are called the ________.
A) Graafian follicles
B) fallopian tubes
C) infundibula
D) fimbriae

Answer: B Page Ref: 1042

If gametes were diploid like somatic cells, how many chromosomes would the zygote contain?
A) twice the diploid number, and with every succeeding generation, the chromosome number would continue to double and normal development could not occur
B) triple the diploid number, and with every succeeding generation, the chromosome number would continue to triple and normal development would not occur
C) half the diploid number with no change in development
D) There is no relationship between gametes and somatic cells.

Answer: A Page Ref: 1033

Human egg and sperm are similar in that ________.
A) about the same number of each is produced per month
B) they have the same degree of motility
C) they have the same number of chromosomes
D) they are about the same size

Answer: C Page Ref: 1032

The constancy of the chromosome number from one cell generation to the next is maintained through ________.
A) mitosis
B) meiosis
C) cytokinesis
D) DNA synthesis

Answer: B Page Ref: 1033

Fertilization generally occurs in the ________.
A) ovary
B) uterus
C) vagina
D) fallopian tubes

Answer: D Page Ref: 1042

Spermiogenesis involves the ________.
A) formation of four haploid cells from a spermatogonium
B) movement of sperm in the female genital tract
C) formation of a functional sperm by the stripping away of superfluous cytoplasm
D) sequence of events in the rete testis

Answer: C Page Ref: 1037

All of the following can be considered male secondary sex characteristics except the ________.
A) development of body hair
B) lowering of the voice
C) development of testes as opposed to ovaries
D) increasing mass of the skeleton

Answer: C Page Ref: 1040

In humans, separation of the cells at the two-cell state following fertilization may lead to the production of twins, which in this case would be ________.
A) dizygotic
B) identical
C) fraternal
D) of different sexes

Answer: B Page Ref: 1052

Characteristics of the mature sperm include the ________.
A) presence of two X chromosomes in approximately half the sperm
B) presence of Y chromosomes in approximately half the sperm
C) absence of an acrosome
D) absence of coiled mitochondria

Answer: B Page Ref: 1037

How do the testes respond to exposure to excessive body warmth?
A) They move close to the pelvic cavity.
B) They move away from the pelvic cavity.
C) Excessive warmth has no effect on the testicles because of their location in the scrotum.
D) Excessive warmth is actually beneficial in that it speeds up the maturation of sperm.

Answer: B Page Ref: 1025-1026

Effects of estrogen include ________.
A) increased oiliness of the skin
B) deepening of the voice
C) growth of the breasts at puberty
D) growth of the larynx

Answer: C Page Ref: 1056; Tbl. 27.1

Secretion of progesterone stimulates ________.
A) contraction of uterine muscles
B) preparation of the mammary glands for lactation
C) secretory activity of the uterine myometrium
D) development of the female secondary sex characteristics

Answer: B Page Ref: 1056; Tbl. 27.1

Which of the following statements about sperm is not true?
A) They contain very little cytoplasm or stored nutrients.
B) They are sluggish in an alkaline environment.
C) The acrosome is produced by the Golgi apparatus and contains hydrolytic enzymes.
D) The sperm midpiece consists of mitochondria spiraled tightly around the contractile filaments of the tail.

Answer: D Page Ref: 1033, 1037-1038

The cells that produce testosterone in the testis are called ________.
A) spermatocytes
B) spermatogonia
C) sustentacular cells
D) interstitial cells

Answer: D Page Ref: 1026

The testicular cells that construct the blood-testis barrier are the ________.
A) spermatocytes
B) spermatogonia
C) sustentacular cells
D) interstitial cells

Answer: C Page Ref: 1037-1038

Which of the following occurs as a result of undescended testes?
A) Male sex hormones will not be circulated in the body.
B) Sperm will have no means of exit from the body.
C) Inadequate or nonviable sperm will be produced.
D) Inadequate blood supply will retard the development of the testes.

Answer: C Page Ref: 1062

**<b>Erection of the penis results from ________.</b>**
A) a sympathetic reflex
B) parasympathetic activation of the bulbourethral glands
C) dilation of the veins in the penis
D) a parasympathetic reflex

Answer: D Page Ref: 1031-1032

Which is not a part of the proliferative phase of the female menstrual cycle?
A) late in this phase, cervical mucus becomes thin and crystalline
B) vesicular follicle growth
C) corpus luteum
D) development of endometrial cells

Answer: C Page Ref: 1052, 1054

Which of the choices below is not a function of the vagina?
A) serves as a passageway for the primary oocyte
B) serves as a passageway for menstrual flow
C) is the birth canal
D) receives semen from the penis during sexual intercourse

Answer: A Page Ref: 1044-1045

Select the correct statement about male sexual response.
A) Sympathetic impulses are responsible for causing penile arteriolar dilation, resulting in erection.
B) Erection is the result of vascular spaces in the erectile tissues filling with blood.
C) Expansion of the penile tissues results in dilation of the venous outflow.
D) Ejaculation is the result of parasympathetic stimulation.

Answer: B Page Ref: 1031

Which of the choices below is not a function of testosterone?
A) stimulates the male pattern of development
B) contributes to male sexual behavior and spermatogenesis
C) stimulates protein synthesis
D) stimulates mammary gland development

Answer: D Page Ref: 1039; Tbl. 27.1

*<b>Which male hormone inhibits the secretion of FSH?</b>*
B) inhibin
D) testosterone

Answer: B Page Ref: 1038-1039

*<b>During the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle ________.</b>*
A) LH reaches its highest levels
B) progesterone levels are at their highest
C) estrogen reaches its highest levels
D) the Graafian follicle forms

Answer: B Page Ref: 1056

Select the correct statement about the uterine cycle.
A) The menstrual phase of the cycle is from day 1 to day 8.
B) During the secretory phase, estrogen levels are at their highest.
C) During the proliferative phase, levels of progesterone rise as the follicle begins to produce more hormone.
D) If fertilization occurs, the corpus luteum is maintained by a hormone secreted by the developing embryo.

Answer: D Page Ref: 1054-1056

Which of the choices below is not a part of the brain-testicular axis?
A) hypothalamus
B) anterior pituitary gland
C) thalamus
D) testes

Answer: D Page Ref: 1038

Which of the following statements is true concerning the mammary glands of both males and females?
A) Both sexes are equally prone to breast cancer.
B) All lumps identified in breast tissue are malignant.
C) The only time hormones target breast tissue is during pregnancy and lactation.
D) The mammary glands are modified sweat glands that are actually part of the integumentary system.

Answer: D Page Ref: 1047-1048

Normally menstruation occurs when ________.
A) blood levels of FSH fall off
B) blood levels of estrogen and progesterone decrease
C) blood levels of estrogen and progesterone increase
D) the corpus luteum secretes estrogen

Answer: B Page Ref: 1056

The basic difference between spermatogenesis and oogenesis is that ________.
A) during spermatogenesis two more polar bodies are produced
B) the mature ovum is n, while the sperm is 2n
C) in oogenesis, one mature ovum is produced, and in spermatogenesis four mature sperm are produced from the parent cell
D) spermatogenesis involves mitosis and meiosis, but oogenesis involves meiosis only

Answer: C Page Ref: 1049

Occasionally three polar bodies are found clinging to the mature ovum. One came from an unequal division of the ovum, but from where did the other two arise?
A) There were originally four polar bodies and one disappeared.
B) One is an undeveloped primary oocyte that failed to mature.
C) The first polar body has also divided to produce two polar bodies.
D) What you really see are two polar bodies and the sperm that will fertilize the egg.

Answer: C Page Ref: 1049

Which of the following will occur after ovulation?
A) The corpus luteum secretes estrogen only.
B) The endometrium enters its secretory phase.
C) The secretion of anterior pituitary gonadotropins is enhanced.
D) The corpus luteum prepares to become a corpus albicans.

Answer: B Page Ref: 1052

Why doesn’t semen enter the urinary bladder during ejaculation?
A) There is no common duct between the reproductive system and the urinary system.
B) There is no urge to urinate during sexual intercourse because of the suppression of LH by testosterone buildup in the blood.
C) The smooth muscle sphincter at the base of the urinary bladder closes.
D) Ejaculation is a parasympathetic reflex resulting in no response by urinary contraction muscles.

Answer: C Page Ref: 1032

Spermatogenesis ________.
A) is the process of releasing mature sperm cells into the lumen of the seminiferous tubule
B) involves a kind of cell division limited to the gametes
C) results in the formation of diploid cells
D) uses mitosis to produce gamete cells

Answer: B Page Ref: 1032-1033

Which hormone is absolutely necessary for ovulation to occur?
C) progesterone
D) estrogen

Answer: A Page Ref: 1052-1053

The brain-testicular axis ________.
A) is the tight relationship between the cortex and the control of testicular function
B) involves FSH and LH release
C) involves posterior pituitary release of regulating hormones
D) involves a positive feedback loop control of spermatogenesis

Answer: B Page Ref: 1038

Select the correct statement about testosterone control.
A) GnRH from the hypothalamus causes FSH and LH release from the anterior pituitary.
B) FSH stimulates testicular production of testosterone.
C) Inhibin and testosterone exert positive feedback on the hypothalamus and pituitary.
D) The pineal gland is believed to be the gland that exerts the most influence in testosterone control.

Answer: A Page Ref: 1039

Which of the following is a correct statement about uterine tubes?
A) The ampulla is the narrow constricted region.
B) The infundibulum is the funnel-shaped region near the ovary.
C) The isthmus is the normal site of fertilization.
D) The mesometrium supports the uterine tubes along their entire length.

Answer: B Page Ref: 1042

Select the correct statement about the hormonal events of the ovarian cycle.
A) Rising levels of estrogen start follicle development.
B) High estrogen levels result in a surge of LH release.
C) The follicle begins to secrete progesterone in response to estrogen stimulation.
D) The LH surge stimulates further development of the secondary oocyte.

Answer: B Page Ref: 1052-1054

Which of these statements about sexually transmitted infections is false?
A) Chlamydia is caused by bacteria that can often be asymptomatic or bring on a wide variety of symptoms.
B) Gonorrhea is caused by a bacterium that can bring on painful discharges in males.
C) Syphilis is caused by a virus that may lead to death if untreated.
D) Genital herpes is caused by a virus that may cause intermittent lesions.

Answer: C Page Ref: 1058-1059

Which of the following statements about spermatogenesis is not true?
A) The spermatogonium forms the primary spermatocyte.
B) The primary spermatocyte forms two secondary spermatocytes.
C) The secondary spermatocytes each form two spermatids.
D) Each spermatid forms two sperm.

Answer: D Page Ref: 1033, 1037

*<b>A boy who has not passed through puberty sustains an injury to his anterior pituitary such that FSH is no longer released, but LH is normal. After he grows to maturity, one would expect that he would ________.</b>*
A) be sterile
B) not develop secondary sex characteristics
C) be impotent (unable to have an erection)
D) have impaired function of interstitial cells

Answer: A Page Ref: 1038-1039

Which of the following statements about the female reproductive process is not true?
A) Fertilization usually occurs in the fallopian tube.
B) Ovulation usually occurs 14 days after the beginning of menses.
C) Rebuilding the endometrium is under the control of prolactin.
D) The monthly discharge of the uterus (menses) is initiated by the decrease in secretion of female hormones.

Answer: C Page Ref: 1052-1054

**<b>A low secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) in the normal male adult would cause ________.</b>**
A) decreased testosterone secretion
B) excessive beard growth
C) increased spermatogenesis
D) shrinkage of the anterior pituitary gland

Answer: A Page Ref: 1038-1039

All of the following statements referring to the uterine cycle are true except ________.
A) FSH and LH directly promote development of the uterine endometrium
B) estrogen is secreted by the developing follicle in the follicular phase of the cycle
C) the corpus luteum is formed from the ruptured follicle after ovulation
D) a decrease in the levels of ovarian hormones signals menstruation

Answer: A Page Ref: 1052-1054

Which of the following phases or processes in the monthly reproductive cycle of the female occur simultaneously?
A) maximal LH secretion and menstruation
B) maximal steroid secretion by the corpus luteum and menstruation
C) early follicular development and the secretory phase in the uterus
D) regression of the corpus luteum and a decrease in ovarian progesterone secretion

Answer: D Page Ref: 1054, 1056

The duct system of the male reproductive system includes the ________.
A) epididymis
B) urethra
C) ductus deferens
D) corpus spongiosum

Answer: D Page Ref: 1028

An ovulating oocyte is actually activated by hormones about ________ days before ovulation.
A) 14
B) 28
C) 85
D) 110

Answer: D Page Ref: 1054

Prostate cancer is _______.
A) the number-one cause of death in men
B) sometimes a slow-growing cancer that may never represent a threat to the patient
C) most common in Asians
D) often the result of a distortion of the urethra

Answer: B Page Ref: 1030-1031

**<b>What percentage of human sperm cells carry an X chromosome?</b>**

a. 10%
b. 25%
c. 50%
d. 75%

c. 50%

Why are the male testes located in the scrotum outside the body?

a. It helps to distinguish males from females.
b. Immature sperm are temperature sensitive.
c. It helps the male secondary sexual characteristics develop.
d. The testis are better protected outside the body.

b. Immature sperm are temperature sensitive.

What is the product of spermatogenesis?

a. development of the male reproductive organs
b. capacitation of spermatozoa
c. formation of haploid spermatozoa
d. formation of semen

c. formation of haploid spermatozoa

Why does only one egg, rather than four eggs, develop during oogenesis, given that spermatogenesis results in four sperm being formed from one stem cell?

a. The unequal cytoplasmic division that results in one egg and three polar bodies ensures that a fertilized egg has ample nutrients for its journey to the uterus.
b. Actually, gametogenesis (oogenesis in the female and spermatogenesis in the male) produces four eggs and four sperm.
c. Only one egg can be fertilized at a time
d. The egg does not go through the meiotic division processes that the sperm undergo.

a. The unequal cytoplasmic division that results in one egg and three polar bodies ensures that a fertilized egg has ample nutrients for its journey to the uterus.

What is the role of the corpus luteum?

a. to produce the primary oocytes
b. to produce hormones that maintain the uterine lining during the first months of pregnancy
c. ovulation
d. to stimulate the female sexual response

b. to produce hormones that maintain the uterine lining during the first months of pregnancy

Which of the following is NOT a sexually transmitted bacterial disease?

a. syphilis
b. chlamydia
c. gonorrhea
d. genital herpes

d. genital herpes

What determines the gender (sex) of a child?

a. autosomes
b. hormones produced by the mother
c. hormones produced by the father
d. sex chromosomes

d. sex chromosomes

Which of the following is considered a primary sex organ in females?

a. Vagina
b. Ovary
c. Uterus
d. Mammary glands

b. Ovary

The release of _____ encourages interstitial cells to release _____.

a. follicle-stimulating hormone; androgen-binding protein
b. luteinizing hormone; testosterone
c. inhibin; testosterone
d. luteinizing hormone; androgen-binding protein

b. luteinizing hormone; testosterone

During the secretory phase of the uterine cycle:

a. ovulation occurs.
b. the endometrium prepares for implantation.
c. the endometrium is shed.
d. the functional layer of the endometrium regenerates.

b. the endometrium prepares for implantation.

The _____ connects the uterus to the vagina.

a. round ligament
b. cervix
c. fallopian tube
d. fimbriae

b. cervix

Which of the following is false regarding the vagina of an adult female?

a. The pH of the adult vagina is alkaline.
b. The vaginal mucosa lacks glands.
c. The vagina is also called the birth canal.
d. The mucosa of the vagina is stratified squamous epithelia.

a. The pH of the adult vagina is alkaline.

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