Chapter 22 – The Digestive System

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Which is correct regarding smooth muscle in the digestive tract?

A smooth muscle fiber has an extensive network of T tubules.
Hormonal factors cannot alter the degree of tension in the wall of a muscular organ.
Wherever smooth muscle tissue forms layers, the cells are aligned perpendicular to one another.
Smooth muscle can contract over a range of lengths four times greater than that of skeletal muscle.

Smooth muscle can contract over a range of lengths four times greater than that of skeletal muscle

Which of the following is an accurate characteristic of the pharyngeal phase of swallowing?

It begins with the compression of the bolus against the hard palate.
It begins when tactile receptors on the palatal arches and uvula are stimulated.
It is strictly voluntary.
It begins as the contraction of pharyngeal muscles forces the bolus through the entrance to the esophagus.

It begins when tactile receptors on the palatal arches and uvula are stimulated.

Which region of the stomach is the portion that is superior to the junction between the stomach and the esophagus?

pylorus
cardia
body
fundus

Fundus

Which is the function of parietal cells?

They secrete an inactive proenzyme called pepsinogen.
They produce a variety of hormones.
They secrete a glycoprotein that facilitates the absorption of vitamin B12 across the intestinal lining.
They produce enzymes important for the digestion of milk.

They secrete a glycoprotein that facilitates the absorption of vitamin B12 across the intestinal lining.

The lining of the small intestine bears a series of transverse folds and is called which of the following?

haustra
plicae circulares
taeniae coli
rugae

Place circulares

Which digestive hormone is secreted when fats and carbohydrates, especially glucose, enter the small intestine?

secretin
vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)
gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP)
cholecystokinin (CCK)

CCK

Which of the following is a stimulus that initiates the gastric phase of gastric secretion?

chyme first enters the small intestine
when one sees, smells, tastes, or thinks of food
shrinkage of the stomach
an increase in the pH of the gastric contents

Increase in pH of the gastric contents

Which is true regarding the defecation reflex?

Stimulation of the myenteric plexus in the sigmoid colon and rectum results in decreased local peristalsis.
The short reflex stimulates mass movements that push feces toward the rectum from the descending colon and sigmoid colon.
Stimulation of sympathetic motor neurons in the sacral spinal cord results in stimulation of somatic motor neurons.
It involves two positive feedback loops.

It involves two positive feedback loops

Which characteristic of saliva is correct?

About 70 percent of the saliva originates in the sublingual salivary glands.
Parasympathetic stimulation accelerates secretion by all the salivary glands.
Collectively, the salivary glands produce 200 mL of saliva each day.
Buffers in the saliva keep the pH of the mouth near 4.0.

Parasympathetic stimulation accelerates secretion by all the salivary glands.

Which liver cells are phagocytic cells that engulf pathogens, cell debris, and damaged blood cells?

Kupffer cells
enteroendocrine cells
acinar cells
hepatocytes

Kupffer cells

The common bile duct:

is formed by the union of the cystic duct and the common hepatic duct.
is the duct that immediately leads out of the gallbladder.
is formed by the union of the right and left hepatic ducts.
produces digestive enzymes and buffers.

is formed by the union of the cystic duct and the common hepatic duct.

Cholecystitis is:

inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the stomach.
inflammation of the intestine.
inflammation of the gallbladder.
a general term referring to inflammation of the colon.

inflammation of the gallbladder

Which major layer of the digestive tract is a dense layer of irregular connective tissue that has large blood vessels and lymphatic vessels?

serosa
submucosa
muscularis externa
mucosa

submucosa

Which type of teeth, also known as canine teeth, are conical, with a sharp ridgeline and a pointed tip?

bicuspids
incisors
molars
cuspids

Cuspids

Which mesentery is comprised of adipose tissue and conforms to the shapes of the surrounding organs, providing padding and protection?

mesentery proper
greater omentum
mesocolon
lesser omentum

Greater omentum

The haustra of the large intestine:

contain numerous teardrop-shaped sacs of fat.
permit the expansion and elongation of the colon.
consist of three separate longitudinal bands of smooth muscle.
mark the end of the ascending colon.

Permit the expansion and elongation of the colon

Choose the correct statement regarding the liver.

The round ligament extends along the edges of the bare area.
It temporarily stores the bile it produces.
The porta hepatis carries bile from the gallbladder to the duodenum.
It functions in the maintenance of normal concentrations of glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids in the bloodstream.

It functions in the maintenance of normal concentrations of glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids in the bloodstream.

The parotid salivary glands:

produce a secretion containing large amounts of salivary amylase.
produce a mucous secretion that acts as a buffer and lubricant.
transport antibodies (IgA) into the saliva.
contain a mixture of secretory cells, some specialized for mucous secretion and others specialized for enzyme production

produce a secretion containing large amounts of salivary amylase.

Each of the following organs is a component of the digestive tract except the

esophagus.
bladder.
stomach.
pharynx.
colon.

Bladder

Which of the following is an accessory organ of digestion?

appendix
colon
spleen
esophagus
pancreas

Pancreas

Digestion refers to the

progressive dehydration of indigestible residue.
chemical breakdown of food.
mechanical and chemical breakdown of food.
mechanical breakdown of food.
All of the answers are correct.

mechanical and chemical breakdown of food

Which of the following is not a function of the digestive system?

ingestion
absorption
mechanical processing
filtration
secretion

filtration

Which of the following descriptions best matches the term submucosal plexus?

coordinates activity of muscularis externa
secretes a watery fluid
component of mucosa
sensory neural network
loose connective tissue layer containing blood vessels

sensory neural network

Waves of muscular contractions that propel the contents of the digestive tract are called

mastication.
churning movements.
pendular movements.
segmentation.
peristalsis.

peristalsis

activities of the digestive system are regulated by

hormones.
parasympathetic and sympathetic neurons.
the contents of the digestive tract.
intrinsic nerve plexuses.
All of the answers are correct.

all are correct

he digestive tract is also referred to as the

alimentary canal.
GI tract.
esophagus.
alimentary canal and the GI tract.
All of the answers are correct.

alimentary canal and GI tract

The lamina propria and mucous epithelium are components of the

submucosa.
mucosa.
muscularis mucosa.
adventitia.
serosa.

mucosa

Which of the following descriptions best matches the term myenteric plexus?

loose connective tissue layer containing blood vessels
sensory neural network
secretes a watery fluid
coordinates activity of muscularis externa
component of mucosa

coordinates activity of muscularis externa

Contraction of the ________ alters the shape of the intestinal lumen and moves epithelial pleats and folds.

muscularis mucosa
submucosa
submucosal plexus
mucosa
adventitia

muscularis mucosa

The ________ are double sheets of peritoneal membrane that suspend the visceral organs and carry nerves, lymphatics, and blood vessels.

serosa
fibrosa
mesenteries
adventitia
lamina propria

mesentaries

Sensory nerve cells, parasympathetic ganglia, and sympathetic postganglionic fibers can be found in the

serosa.
submucosal plexus.
adventitia.
lamina propria.
mucosa.

submucosal plexus

Sandwiched between the layer of circular and longitudinal muscle in the muscularis externa is the

mucosa.
submucosal plexus.
muscularis mucosa.
submucosa.
myenteric plexus.

mysenteric plexus

Large blood vessels and lymphatics are found in the

serosa.
adventitia.
mucosa.
submucosa.
muscularis.

Submucosa

The layer of loose connective tissue that directly supports the digestive epithelium is the

myenteric plexus.
submucosa.
lamina propria.
submucosal plexus.
muscularis mucosae.

lamina propria

A stratified squamous epithelial lining can be found in all of the following except in the

oropharynx.
oral cavity.
stomach.
esophagus.
anal canal.

stomach

A feature of the digestive tract wall that increases surface area available for absorption is the

elastic cells.
rugae.
muscularis mucosa.
transitional cells.
circular folds.

circular folds

The ________ supports all but 25 cm of the small intestine and provides stability and limited movement.

diaphragm
lesser omentum
mesentery proper
falciform ligament
greater omentum

mesentary proper

What organ absorbs the most water?

pancreas
large intestine
esophagus
stomach
small intestine

small intestine

Which of the following contains adipose tissue and provides padding for the anterior and lateral portions of the abdomen?

greater omentum
diaphragm
lesser omentum
mesentery proper
falciform ligament

greater omentum

Which layer of the digestive tract has a layer of areolar tissue that surrounds the muscularis mucosae?

digestive epithelium
lamina propria
mucosa
muscularis mucosae
submucosa

lamina propria

Which organ is responsible for dehydration and compaction of indigestible materials?

small intestine
large intestine
stomach
esophagus
anus

large intestine

The double-layer sheets of serous membrane that support the viscera are called

peritoneal sheets.
mesenteries.
the diaphragm.
the dorsal and ventral frenulums.
ascites.

mesenteries

What provides access for blood vessels entering and leaving the liver?

falciform ligament
diaphragm
greater omentum
lesser omentum
mesentery proper

lesser omentum

All of the following contain mucous cells in the epithelium except the

large intestine.
transverse colon.
stomach.
small intestine.
esophagus.

esophagus

The oral mucosa has ________ epithelium.

pseudostratified
transitional
simple squamous
stratified squamous
stratified columnar

stratified squamous

The greater omentum is

a sheet of mesentery that attaches to the liver.
the entrance to the stomach.
attached to the stomach at the lesser curvature.
important in the digestion of fats.
a fatty sheet that hangs like an apron over the abdominal viscera.

a fatty sheet that hangs like an apron over the abdominal viscera

A disease that attacks and disables the myenteric plexus would

decrease gastric secretion.
increase gastric secretion.
increase intestinal motility.
interfere with both intestinal motility and gastric secretion.
decrease intestinal motility.

decrease intestinal motility

The serous membrane that lines the peritoneal cavity

lubricates the cavity.
prevents irritation.
decreases friction.
secretes peritoneal fluid.
All of the answers are correct.

all are correct

Put the following layers of the digestive tract wall in order from the lumen to the deepest layer.
1. lamina propria 4. digestive (mucous) epithelium
2. muscularis externa 5. serosa
3. submucosa 6. muscularis mucosae

5, 2, 3, 6, 1, 4
5, 4, 2, 6, 1, 3
1, 4, 3, 6, 2, 5
4, 1, 6, 3, 2, 5
4, 6, 3, 1, 2, 5

416325

The circumferential folds that encircle the digestive tract are known as

adventitia.
rugae.
muscularis externa.
circular folds.
serosa.

circular folds

he functions of the oral cavity include all of the following except

digestion of carbohydrates.
absorption of monosaccharides.
mechanical processing of food.
lubrication.
sensory analysis of material before swallowing.

absorption of monosaccharides

________ pair(s) of salivary glands secrete into the oral cavity.

Four
Three
One
Two
Six to Ten

3

The ________ gland empties into the oral cavity at the level of the second upper molar.

parotid
sublingual
submandibular
vestibular
submaxillary

parotid

A structure that helps prevent food from entering the pharynx prematurely is the

palatoglossal arch.
pharyngeal arch.
uvula.
palatopharyngeal arch.
epiglottis.

uvula

Functions of the tongue include all of the following except

partitioning the oropharynx from the nasopharynx.
manipulation of food.
mechanical processing of food.
aiding in speech.
sensory analysis of food.

partitioning the oropharynx from the nasopharynx

The bulk of each tooth consists of a mineralized matrix similar to that of bone called

pulp.
cementum.
dentin.
periodontium.
enamel.

dentin

The part of a tooth that contains blood vessels and nerves is the

enamel.
pulp cavity.
dentin.
periodontium.
cementum.

pulp cavity

The root of a tooth is covered by

dentin.
the root canal.
cementum.
enamel.
pulp.

cementum

The crown of a tooth is covered by

periodontium.
cementum.
enamel.
pulp.
dentin.

enamel

________ are also known as canines.

Secondary teeth
Cuspids
Bicuspids
Molars
Incisors

cuspids

If the lingual frenulum is too restrictive, an individual

has difficulty eating.
cannot protract the tongue as far as most individuals.
has a condition called ankyloglossia.
cannot speak normally.
All of the answers are correct.

all are correct

A blockage of the ducts from the parotid glands would

cause mumps.
occur when too much protein is ingested.
prevent emulsification of lipids.
inhibit the secretion of saliva from other glands.
interfere with carbohydrate digestion in the mouth.

interfere with carbohydrate digestion in the mouth

ncreased secretion by all the salivary glands results from

hunger.
sympathetic stimulation.
parasympathetic stimulation.
hormonal stimulation.
myenteric reflexes.

parasympathetic stimulation

In most cases, the mumps is a viral infection of the ________ glands.

parotid
sublingual
lingual
mandibular
submandibular

parotid

The ________ salivary glands are covered by the mucous membrane in the floor of the mouth.

submandibular
parotid
mandibular
lingual
sublingual

sublingual

Which of the following is not a function of the tongue?

manipulation to assist with chewing
mechanical processing
passing food across occlusal surfaces
secretion of mucins
All of these are functions of the tongue.

secretion of mucins

Which salivary gland produces a serous secretion containing large amounts of salivary amylase?

mandibular
parotid
lingual
submandibular
sublingual

parotid

Functions of teeth include

tearing.
cutting.
crushing.
clipping.
All of the answers are correct.

all are correct

The roof of the oral cavity is formed by the

palatine processes of the maxillary bones.
palatine bones.
soft palate.
hard palate.
All of the answers are correct.

all are correct

The space between the cheeks or lips and the teeth is called the

pharynx.
dip sulcus.
larynx.
fauces.
vestibule.

vestibule

The ridge of oral mucosa that surrounds the base of a tooth is the

faux.
uvula.
alveolus.
gingiva.
vestibule.

gingiva

The connection of the anterior portion of the tongue to the underlying epithelium is the

faux.
lingual frenulum.
uvula.
labial frenulum.
glossal septum.

lingual frenulum

The uvula is located at the

base of a tooth.
margin of the vestibule.
posterior margin of the soft palate.
posterior of the tongue.
margin of the oropharynx and the laryngopharynx.

posterior margin of the soft palate

________ are blade-shaped teeth that function in cutting or clipping.

Bicuspids
Incisors
Canines
Cuspids
Molars

incisors

________ are pointed teeth that are adapted for tearing and slashing.

Molars
Bicuspids
Incisors
Cuspids
Premolars

cuspids

________ are teeth with flattened crowns and prominent ridges that are adapted for crushing and grinding.

Canines
Eye teeth
Molars
Cuspids
Dentins

molars

Within the oral cavity, both mechanical and chemical ________ begin.

deglutition
digestion
ingestion
secretions
mastication

digestion

The oral cavity performs (a) ________ prior to swallowing.

pH examination
humidity investigation
volume evaluation
taste scrutiny
sensory analysis

sensory analysis

The dangling process that aids in keeping food out of the nasopharynx is known as the

soft palate.
palatine tonsil.
uvula.
tongue.
pharyngeal tonsil.

uvula

A viral infection that often involves the parotid glands, which swell noticeably, is

gingivitis.
parotiditis.
polyps.
dysphagia.
mumps.

mumps

The oral cavity is also known as the ________ cavity.

digestive
lingual
gingivae
buccal
pharyngeal

buccal

The first teeth to appear are the ________ teeth.

transitory
provisional
temporary
transitional
deciduous

deciduous

There are normally a total of ________ primary teeth.

25
32
18
28
20

20

The secondary dentition usually comprises ________ teeth.

28
34
32
20
25

32

The technical term for chewing is

segmentation.
deglutition.
peristalsis.
mastication.
borborygmus.

mastication

The small, semisolid mass of food formed during mastication is called a

chunk.
bolus.
pill.
chime.
morsel.

bolus

Which of the following is not a pharyngeal muscle involved in swallowing?

stylopharyngeus
omohyoid
pharyngeal constrictor muscle
palatopharyngeus
They are all pharyngeal muscles involved in swallowing.

omohyoid

The epithelium lining the oropharynx is

pseudostratified squamous.
simple cuboidal.
simple squamous.
stratified squamous.
simple columnar.

statified squamous

Upon swallowing, food moves from the mouth directly into the

oral vestibule.
buccal cavity.
oropharynx.
oral mucosae.
sublingual space.

oropharynx

During deglutition,

smooth muscle contracts.
the soft palate elevates.
the lower esophageal sphincter opens.
the larynx elevates and the epiglottis closes.
All of the answers are correct.

all are correct

The esophagus has several variations from the standard plan of the GI tract. These include

muscularis externa has some skeletal muscle.
epithelium of mucosa is simple columnar.
epithelium of mucosa is stratified squamous and simple columnar.
epithelium of mucosa is simple columnar and muscularis externa may be striated muscle.
epithelium of mucosa is stratified squamous.

muscularis externa has some skeletal muscle

During deglutition, which of the following phases is not present?

buccal
pharyngeal
gastric
esophageal
They are all present during deglutition.

gastric

Muscles known as the pharyngeal constrictors function in

swallowing.
opening the cardiac sphincter.
esophageal peristalsis.
mastication.
moving the tongue.

swallowing

Functions of the stomach include all of the following except

denaturation of proteins.
mechanical breakdown of food.
storage of ingested food.
initiation of protein digestion.
absorption of triglycerides.

absorption of triglycerides

Parietal cells secrete

pepsinogen.
hydrochloric acid.
mucus.
enteropeptidase.
gastrin.

hydrochloric acid

Chief cells secrete

pepsinogen.
gastrin.
hydrochloric acid.
mucus.
intrinsic factor.

pepsinogen

G cells of the stomach secrete

cholecystokinin.
enteropeptidase.
pepsin.
secretin.
gastrin.

gastrin

To which region of the stomach does the esophagus connect?

fundus
antrum
cardia
body
pylorus

cardia

The portion of the stomach that is superior to the junction between the stomach and the esophagus is the

body.
antrum.
pylorus.
fundus.
cardia.

fundus

The part of the stomach that functions as a mixing chamber for food and secretions is the

fundus.
antrum.
pylorus.
cardia.
body.

body

The region of the stomach that empties into the duodenum is the

fundus.
cardia.
antrum.
pylorus.
body.

pylorus

The prominent ridges in the lining of the empty stomach are called

villi.
plicae.
cardia.
papillae.
rugae.

rugae

The stomach secretes the hormone ghrelin which functions to

stimulate secretion of mucus from submucosal glands.
initiate secretion of gastric juice containing enzymes and acid.
regulate the digestion of lipids.
inhibit hunger.
stimulate hunger.

stimulates hunger

Gastric pits are

involved in absorption of liquids from the stomach.
hollows where proteins are stored.
openings into gastric glands.
ridges in the body of the stomach.
acid scars in the esophagus.

openings into gastric glands

The enzyme pepsin digests

proteins.
lipids.
vitamins.
carbohydrates.
nucleic acids.

proteins

An enzyme secreted by the gastric mucosa of a newborn that coagulates milk proteins is

rennin.
trypsin.
gastrin.
pepsin.
cholecystokinin.

rennin

The pylorus empties into the

ileum.
colon.
duodenum.
cecum.
jejunum.

duodenum

Which of the following descriptions best matches the term gastrin?

causes gallbladder to contract
where pancreatic juice and bile enter duodenum
stimulates gastric secretion
carries absorbed sugars and amino acids
stimulates pancreas to secrete bicarbonate-rich fluid

stimulates gastric secretion

During the cephalic phase of gastric secretion,

the intestinal reflex inhibits gastric emptying.
increased production of gastric juice occurs.
secretin inhibits parietal and chief cells.
production of gastric juice slows down.
the stomach responds to distention.

increased production of gastric juice occurs

The gastric phase of gastric secretion is triggered by the

entry of chyme into the small intestine.
entry of chyme into the large intestine.
release of cholecystokinin and secretin by the small intestine.
sight, thought, or smell of food.
entry of food into the stomach.

entry of food into the stomach

All of the following are true of the intestinal phase of gastric digestion except that it

helps ensure that the functions of the small intestine proceed with relative efficiency.
functions to control the rate of gastric emptying.
begins when chyme enters the small intestine.
precedes the gastric phase.
involves both neural and endocrine reflexes.

preceds the gastric phase

Distension of the gastric wall leads to secretion of histamines from the lamina propria. This is an example of ________ response.

muscular
local
neural
hormonal
None of the answers is correct.

local

The hormone that stimulates secretion and contraction by the stomach is

secretin.
enteropeptidase.
cholecystokinin.
gastrin.
CCK.

gastrin

Mary had her stomach mostly removed to try to overcome obesity. As a result, you would expect Mary to be at risk for

diarrhea.
an ulcer.
protein malnutrition.
dehydration.
abnormal erythropoiesis.

abnormal erythropoiesis

All of the following are true of the lining of the stomach except that it

contains gastric pits.
recycles bile.
is covered by a thick, viscous mucus.
is constantly being replaced.
has a simple columnar epithelium.

recycles bile

The term "alkaline tide" implies that the pH of the blood in gastric veins is

greater during digestion of a large meal than following a 24-hour fast.
constant because of buffering.
greater following a 24-hour fast than during digestion of a large meal.
None of the answers are correct.

greater during digestion of a large meal than following a 24-hour fast

The stomach is able to distend a great deal as it receives food because of the presence of

rugae.
gastric pits.
an alkaline lining.
the serosa.
skeletal muscle.

rugae

The stomach is different from other digestive organs in that it

moves by peristalsis.
has three layers of muscle in the muscularis externa.
secretes digestive hormones.
has folds in the mucosa.
secretes digestive juice.

has three layers of muscle in the muscularis externa

Match the gastric phase on the left (1-3) with the correct description on the right (4-6):
1. intestinal phase 4. prepares stomach for arrival of food
2. gastric phase 5. stomach empties and decreases secretions
3. cephalic phase 6. stomach secretes juice and mixes food into chyme

1 and 6; 2 and 4; 3 and 5
1 and 5; 2 and 6; 3 and 4
1 and 6; 2 and 5; 3 and 4
1 and 4; 2 and 5; 3 and 6
1 and 5; 2 and 4; 3 and 6

1 an 5; 2 and 6; 3 and 4

Put the following steps of stomach acid production in the correct order starting with the reaction that requires an enzyme.
1. H2CO3 dissociates.
2. Chloride ion combines with H+ in the gastric lumen.
3. Water and CO2 combine to form carbonic acid.
4. H+ and bicarbonate ion are transported into the gastric lumen.
5. Cl- diffuses into the gastric lumen.

4, 5, 3, 1, 2
3, 1, 4, 5, 2
1, 3, 5, 2, 4
4, 5, 1, 2, 3
3, 1, 2, 5, 4

31452

A drug that blocks the action of carbonic anhydrase in parietal cells would result in

decreased gastrin production.
decreased production of pepsinogen by chief cells.
increased protein digestion in the stomach.
a lower pH during gastric digestion.
a higher pH during gastric digestion.

a higher pH during gastric secretion

After food and gastric juices combine, the gastric contents are referred to as

bolus.
chyme.
chunk.
segments.
feces.

chyme

Circular folds and intestinal villi

carry products of digestion that will not pass through the walls of blood capillaries.
secrete digestive enzymes.
produce new cells for the mucosa of the small intestine.
increase the surface area of the mucosa of the small intestine.
produce hormones.

increase surface area

Submucosal glands that secrete mucus are characteristic of the

pancreas.
ileum.
liver.
duodenum.
jejunum.

duodenum

The duodenal ampulla receives secretions from the

duodenum and the pancreatic duct.
duodenum and the pylorus.
duodenum and the jejunum.
duodenum and the common bile duct.
common bile duct and the pancreatic duct.

common bile duct and pancreatic duct

The villi are most developed in the

duodenum.
jejunum.
stomach.
gallbladder.
cecum.

jejunum

Peyer’s patches are characteristic of the

ileum.
jejunum.
duodenum.
stomach.
colon.

ileum

Which of the following enhance the absorptive effectiveness of the small intestine?

the microvilli
the circular folds
the villi
intestinal movements
All of the answers are correct.

all are correct

Brunner glands are characteristic of the

stomach.
ileum.
colon.
jejunum.
duodenum.

duodenum

The middle segment of the small intestine is the

jejunum.
pylorus.
cecum.
ileum.
duodenum.

jejunum

The portion of the small intestine that attaches to the cecum is the

haustrum.
duodenum.
ileum.
jejunum.
appendix.

ileum

Circular folds are

ridges in the wall of the stomach.
abnormal structures formed by excessive pressure in the small intestine.
sacculations in the colon.
pleats in the lining of the small intestine.
fingerlike projections on the surface of the mucosa of the small intestine.

pleats in the lining of the small intestine

An intestinal hormone that stimulates mucin production by the submucosal duodenal glands is

cholecystokinin.
gastrin.
secretin.
GIP.
enterocrinin.

enterocrinin

The intestinal hormone that stimulates the pancreas to release a watery, bicarbonate-rich fluid is

secretin.
cholecystokinin.
gastrin.
GIP.
enterocrinin.

secretin

An intestinal hormone that stimulates the gallbladder to release bile is

gastrin.
cholecystokinin.
GIP.
secretin.
enteropeptidase.

cholecystokinin

An intestinal hormone that stimulates the release of insulin from the pancreatic islet cells is

gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP).
enterocrinin.
secretin.
enteropeptidase.
cholecystokinin.

GIP

An intestinal hormone that stimulates gastric secretion is

gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP).
cholecystokinin.
gastrin.
secretin.
enteropeptidase.

gastrin

The human liver is composed of ________ lobe(s).

two large and four small
one
three
two
four

four

The fusion of the common hepatic duct and the cystic duct forms the

hepatic portal vein.
porta hepatis.
common pancreatic duct.
common bile duct.
bile canaliculus.

common bile duct

In the center of a liver lobule there is a

portal area.
central vein.
sinusoid.
hepatic duct.
portal vein.

central vein

The exocrine portion of the pancreas is composed of

pancreatic acini.
triads.
islets of Langerhans.
pancreatic lobules.
pancreatic crypts.

pancreatic acini

Each of the following is a function of the liver except

antibody production.
inactivation of toxins.
synthesis of plasma proteins.
storage of glycogen and iron reserves.
synthesis and secretion of bile.

antibody production

The basic functional units of the liver are the

Kupffer cells.
lobules.
hepatocytes.
bile canaliculi.
portal areas.

lobules

________ are arranged within a lobule of the liver into a series of irregular plates converging toward a central vein.

Kupffer cells
Bile canaliculi
Hepatic ducts
Hepatocytes
Portal areas

hepatocytes

The Kupffer cells of the liver

present antigens.
are phagocytic.
destroy damaged RBCs.
destroy bacteria.
All of the answers are correct.

all are correct

The pancreas produces

nucleases.
sodium bicarbonate.
lipases and amylase.
peptidases and proteinases.
All of the answers are correct.

all are correct

The structure that marks the division between the right and left lobes of the liver is the

ligamentum teres.
greater omentum.
hepatic ligament.
falciform ligament.
lesser omentum.

falciform ligament

Bile is stored in the

liver.
gallbladder.
pancreas.
appendix.
duodenum.

gallbladder

A proenzyme secreted by the pancreas is

trypsinogen.
amylase.
carboxypeptidase.
lipase.
All of the answers are correct.

trypsinogen

A surgical procedure to promote rapid weight loss is removal of most of the

ileum.
pancreas.
jejunum.
liver.
duodenum.

jejunum

Which of the following has an association with the fetal umbilical vein?

lesser omentum
diaphragm
greater omentum
mesentery proper
falciform ligament

falciform ligament

Which of the following is not a component of the portal triad found at the edges of a liver lobule?

hepatic portal vein
central vein
bile duct
hepatic artery

central vein

Enterogastric reflexes

inhibit gastric motility.
are triggered by chyme entering the duodenum.
inhibit gastric secretion.
involve the enteric nervous system.
All of the answers are correct.

all are correct

The part of the small intestine most likely to develop an ulcer from exposure to gastric juice is the

pylorus.
duodenum.
jejunum.
ileum.
caecum.

duodenum

In response to the arrival of acidic chyme in the duodenum, the

blood levels of enterocrinin fall.
liver releases enzymes for chemical digestion.
blood levels of gastrin rise.
blood levels of cholecystokinin fall.
blood levels of secretin rise.

blood levels of secretin rise

Blockage of the common hepatic duct would interfere with digestion of

proteins.
vitamins.
fats.
disaccharides.
complex carbohydrates.

fats

The essential functions of the liver include

albumin production for blood osmotic pressure.
hematological regulation.
bile production.
metabolic regulation.
All of the answers are correct.

all are correct

Match the proenzyme on the left (1-3) with the correct enzyme activator on the right (4-6)
1. pepsinogen 4. enterokinase
2. trypsinogen 5. hydrochloric acid
3. procarboxypeptidase 6. trypsin

1 and 4; 2 and 6; 3 and 5
1 and 5; 2 and 6; 3 and 4
1 and 6; 2 and 5; 3 and 4
1 and 5; 2 and 4; 3 and 6
1 and 4; 2 and 5; 3 and 6

1 and 5; 2 and 4; 3 and 6

A drug that blocks the action of the hormone cholecystokinin would affect

digestion of lipids and proteins.
the composition of pancreatic secretions.
acid production by the stomach.
the delivery of bile.
All of the answers are correct.

all are correct

An obstruction of the common bile duct often results in

hepatitis.
cirrhosis of the liver.
inability to digest protein.
a decrease in production of pancreatic juice.
undigested fat in the feces.

undigested fat in the feces

If the pancreatic duct was obstructed, you would expect to see elevated blood levels of

secretin.
amylase.
cholecystokinin.
bilirubin.
gastrin.

amylase

Tom has hepatitis, an inflammation of the liver. Which of the following symptoms would you expect to observe in Tom?

jaundice
blood in the feces
impaired digestion of protein
overproduction of blood plasma albumin
elevated levels of blood glucose

jaundice

In response to the hormone secretin, the pancreas secretes a fluid

rich in mucus.
rich in enzymes.
rich in bicarbonate ion.
that contains only amylase.
rich in bile.

rich in bicarb ion

In response to the hormone cholecystokinin, the pancreas secretes a fluid

rich in bicarbonate.
that contains only amylase.
rich in bile.
rich in mucus.
rich in enzymes.

rich in enzymes

Tony is a chronic alcoholic with cirrhosis of the liver, a condition in which liver cells die and are replaced by connective tissue. Which of the following signs would you expect to observe in Tony?

decrease in plasma protein production
increased clotting time
jaundice
portal hypertension and ascites
All of the answers are correct.

all are correct

Approximately ________ liters of fluid are secreted by the small intestine each day.

2
1
7
20
10

2

Which of the following descriptions best matches the term duodenal ampulla?

stimulates pancreas to secrete bicarbonate-rich fluid
where pancreatic juice and bile enter duodenum
causes gallbladder to contract
carries absorbed sugars and amino acids
stimulates gastric secretion

where pancreatic juice and bile enter duodenum

Hydrochloric acid from the stomach is neutralized in the small intestine by

trypsin.
enzymes from the intestinal crypts.
water that was ingested with the food.
bile from the liver.
bicarbonate from the pancreas.

bicarb from the pancreas

Which digestive juice contains enzymes that breakdown carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins?

intestinal juice
saliva
bile
gastric juice
pancreatic juice

pancreatic juice

Bile salts aid in the digestion of fats by ________ large fat droplets.

combining
binding
anabolizing
emulsifying
dehydrating

emulsifying

The ________ duct is formed by the union of the cystic duct and the common hepatic duct.

duodenal
gastric
hepatopancreatic
common bile
pancreatic

common bile

Your patient with liver failure has a firm, rounded abdomen due to accumulation of fluid. This is known clinically as

gastritis.
hepatitis C.
ascites.
hepatitis B.
cirrhosis.

ascites

Identify the incorrect pairing.

pancreas; secretes amylases
stomach; has an alkaline lining
esophagus; transports material to stomach
liver; produces intrinsic factor
gallbladder; stores bile

liver; produces intrinsic factor

The middle segment of the small intestine is called the

cecum.
jejunum.
ileum.
duodenum.
hilum.

jejunum

Pancreatic juice enters the small intestine at the

duodenal papilla.
hepatic duct.
cystic duct.
pyloric sphincter.
ileocecal valve.

duodenal papilla

The pancreas has endocrine cells that produce hormones and ________ cells that produce digestive enzymes.

mucosal
exocrine
gastric
smooth muscle
hepatic

exocrine

The gastroileal reflex

moves some chyme to the colon.
decreases peristaltic activity.
promotes gastric secretion.
empties the duodenum.
is relayed through the CNS.

moves some chyme to the colon

Powerful peristaltic contractions that occur a few times each day in the colon are called

defecation.
segmentation.
mass movements.
haustral churning.
pendular movements.

mass movements

Functions of the large intestine include

production of gas to move waste toward the rectum.
secretion of vitamins.
absorption of bile salts.
most of the chemical breakdown of food.
reabsorption of water and compaction of feces.

reabsorption of water and compaction of feces

At the hepatic flexure, the colon becomes the

descending colon.
ascending colon.
transverse colon.
rectum.
sigmoid colon.

transverse colon

Approximately the last 15 cm of the digestive tract is the

anus.
rectal column.
sigmoid colon.
rectum.
anal canal.

rectum

Haustra are

the source of colon hormones.
compact feces stored in the rectum.
expansible pouches of the colon.
glands in the large intestine that secrete mucus.
strips of muscle in the colon.

expansible pouches of the colon

The taenia coli are

longitudinal bands of smooth muscle in the colon wall.
tumors normally confined in the sigmoid colon.
polyps that obstruct the sigmoid colon.
tears of the colon.
ridges in the mucosa of the colon.

longitudinal bands of smooth muscle in the colon wall

At the splenic flexure, the colon becomes the

sigmoid colon.
ascending colon.
rectum.
transverse colon.
descending colon.

descending colon

The pouchlike structure that joins the ileum at the ileocecal valve is the

sigmoid colon.
haustra.
cecum.
rectum.
appendix.

cecum

A small, wormlike structure attached to the posteromedial surface of the cecum is the

pancreas.
haustra.
ileum.
gallbladder.
appendix.

appendix

Movements unique to the large intestine are ________ movements.

segmentation
writhing
pendular
peristaltic
mass

mass

The defecation reflex involves

relaxation of both the internal and external anal sphincters.
relaxation of the ileocecal valve to move feces into the rectum.
sympathetic nerves.
parasympathetic nerve control from sacral nerves.
conscious control of both the internal and external anal sphincters.

relaxation of both internal and external anal sphincters

Which of the following descriptions best matches the term cholecystokinin (CCK)?

stimulates pancreas to secrete bicarbonate-rich fluid
stimulates gastric secretion
where pancreatic juice and bile enter duodenum
carries absorbed sugars and amino acids
causes gallbladder to contract

causes gallbladder to contract

In the large intestine the wall has three strips of longitudinal muscle called the

taenia coli.
muscularis mucosa.
haustral bands.
muscularis externa.
muscularis interna.

taenia coli

The clinical term for the gas produced by bacteria in the colon as they metabolize indigestible carbohydrates is called

flatus.
wind.
vapors.
gust.
fumes.

flatus

The enzyme amylase digests

triglycerides.
nucleotides.
disaccharides.
peptides.
polysaccharides.

polysaccharides

An enzyme that digests proteins into peptides is

trypsin.
amylase.
nuclease.
maltase.
lipase.

trypsin

Carbohydrate digestion begins in the

esophagus.
duodenum.
stomach.
ileum.
mouth.

mouth

If digestion of a carbohydrate results in equal amounts of glucose and galactose, this carbohydrate is probably

glycogen.
maltose.
lactose.
sucrose.
cellulose.

lactose

Which of the following is false concerning the process known as cotransport?

Only neutral compounds such as sugars are transported.
ATP is not required by the transport protein.
More than one molecule or ion is moved through the cell membrane at one time.
Molecules can be moved against a concentration gradient.

only neutral compounds such as sugars are transported

Products of fat digestion are transported initially by

the arterioles.
lymphatic vessels.
veins.
capillaries.
the interstitial fluid.

lymphatic vessels

The absorption of some sugars in the small intestine involves

osmosis.
phagocytosis.
diffusion.
cotransport.
pinocytosis.

cotransport

Absorption of glucose from the gut lumen depends on

the sodium-potassium pump in the basolateral membrane of the epithelial cell.
sodium-linked cotransport.
cotransporter proteins in the apical membrane of the epithelial cell.
higher sodium ion concentration in the lumen than in the epithelial cell.
All of the answers are correct.

all are correct

Which of the following is true regarding lactose intolerance?

The person cannot digest any type of monosaccharide.
Lactose-intolerant infants cannot digest dairy fat and are at risk of starvation.
The enzyme maltase begins to digest lactose.
The intestinal crypts are not producing the enzyme lactase.
The stomach produces inadequate amounts of lactase.

the intestinal crypts are not producing the enzyme lactase

The enzyme that digests starch into disaccharides and trisaccharides is

rennin.
lipase.
amylase.
saccharase.
lactase.

amylase

Maltose is hydrolyzed into monosaccharides by the enzyme

dextrase.
lactase.
maltase.
sucrase.
galactase.

maltase

Sucrose is hydrolyzed by sucrase into glucose and

lactose.
maltose.
glucose.
fructose.
galactose.

fructose

People who lack the enzyme ________ often experience GI upset after consuming milk and other dairy products.

lactase
sucrase
maltase
galactase
lipase

lactase

Complexes of fatty acids, monoglycerides, and bile salts are called

chylomicrons.
vesicles.
countertransporters.
varicosities.
micelles.

micelles

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