Chapter 22- Musculoskeletal

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Differentiate synovial form nonsynovial joints

Synovial: freely movable because bones are separated from one another and enclosed in a join cavity. Cavity is filled with lubricant or synovial fluid. Allows sliding of opposing surfaces, cartilage covers the surface of opposing bones Nonsynovial: bones are united by fibrous tissue or cartilage and are immovable ex: structures of the skull or are slightly movable ex: vertebrae

List 4 signs that suggest acute inflammation in a joint.

Swelling, heat, redness, and pain

Differentiate the following:

Dislocation: complete loss of contact between the 2 bones in a joint Subluxation: partial dislocation, the bones in a joint stay in contact, but their alignment is off Contracture: shortening of a muscle leading to limited ROM of joint Ankylosis: stiffness or fixation of a joint

Differentiate testing of active range of motion versus passive range of motion

Active ROM is done when a person can do the exercises by themselves; passive ROM exercises are done for a person by a helper. The helper does the ROM exercises because the person cannot do them by themselves.

Explain the method for measuring leg length

For true length, measure between fixed points, from the anterior iliac spine to the medial malleaus, crossing the medial side of the knee. Normally, these measurements are equal or within 1cm, indicating no bone discrepancy.

Describe the Ortolani maneuver for checking an infant’s hips

Purpose: check infants hips for congenital dislocation (done at every physician visit until 1 yr old) Infant is supine, flex the knees holding your thumbs on the inner mid thighs and your fingers outside on the hips touching the greater trochanters. Adduct the legs until your thumbs touch, then gently life and abduct, moving the knees apart and down so their lateral aspects touch the table. Normally feels smooth with no sound

Contrast Bouchard’s nodes with Herberden’s nodes in osteoarthritis.

Bouchard’s nodes are hard, bony outgrowths or gelatinous cysts on the proximal inter-phalangeal joints, the middle joints of fingers or toes. They are a sign of either osteoarthritis or Rheumatoid arthritis. Herberden’s nodes are hard or bony swellings that can develop in the distal inter-phalangeal joints, DIP, the joints closest to the end of the fingers and toes. Heberden’s are at the end of fingers and the Bouchard and are in the middle.

What are the functions of the musculoskeletal system?

Support, movement, protest the inner vital organs, to produce RBC WBC and platelets in bone marrow, and as a reservoir for storage of essential minerals like calcium and phosphorous

What is a joint?

Place of union of two or more bones. The functional units of the musculoskeletal system because they allow for mobility

What is a ligament?

Fibrous bands running directly from oe bone to another bone that strengthen the joint and help prevent movement in undesirable directions

What is a bursa?

An enclosed sac filled with viscous synovial fluid. Locate in areas of potential friction and help muscles and tendons glue smoothy over bone

T or F: Muscles account for 40-50% of body weight


What are the three types of muscle?

Skeletal, smooth, and cardiac

Describe skeletal muscle.

Voluntary, composed of fasiculi. Attached to bone by tendon.

What is osteoporosis?

Gradual loss of bone density

What is lordosis?

Compensates for enlarging fetus

What is myalgia?

Muscle pain, may suggest intermittent claudication

What does a functional assessment do?

Screens the safety of independent living, the need for home health services, and quality of life

T or F: a screening musculoskeletal examination suffices for most people


T or F: joints are normally tender to palpate


Describe articular

Inside the joint capsule ex: arthritis

Describe extra articular

injury to specific tendon, ligament, or nerve

Describe crepitation

An audible and palpable crunching or gratin that accompanies movement

What re subcutaneous nodules?

Raised, firm, and contender, and overlying skin moves freely

What is the purpose of the Allis test?

Test for hip dislocation by comparing leg lengths

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