Chapter 20- The Lymphatic System-Lymphoid Organs & Tissues

Lymph is most similar to __________.

A. water
B. interstitial fluid
C. saliva
D. blood plasma

B. interstitial fluid Interstitial fluid and lymph are the same in composition. Interstitial fluid is renamed lymph as soon as it enters a lymphatic vessel.

Once collected, lymph is returned to __________.

A. the liver for detoxification
B. venous circulation
C. arterial circulation
D. the kidneys for filtration

B. venous circulation From the terminal lymphatic ducts, lymph rejoins venous circulation via the subclavian veins.

What is the role of the mini-valves in lymph capillaries?

A. speed transport
B. reduce pressure in the lymphatic capillary
C. increase permeability
D. connect to blood capillaries

C. increase permeability The lymph capillaries owe their permeability to the mini-valves formed by the lack of tight junctions between the endothelial cells and the collagen filaments anchoring the endothelial cells to surrounding structures.

Which of the following lymphoid tissues/organs does NOT contain reticular connective tissue?

A. tonsils
B. thymus
C. spleen
D. lymph nodes

B. thymus

Which of the following is NOT a lymphoid cell?

A. eosinophil
B. reticular cell
C. macrophage
D. dendritic cell

A. eosinophil Eosinophils are granular WBCs that destroy parasitic worms. They are not lymphoid cells.

Which of the following is a role of lymph nodes?

A. They return lymph to circulation.
B. They filter lymph.
C. They produce lymph.
D. They produce red blood cells.

B. They filter lymph. Lymph nodes are rich with macrophages, B cells, and T cells; therefore, the lymph nodes are primed for activating the immune system. Structurally, lymph nodes have a capsule and medullary chords and sinuses that serve to filter lymph fluid.

Which lymphoid organ serves in immune surveillance and in filtering lymph?

A. tonsils
B. the spleen
C. the thymus
D. lymph nodes

D. lymph nodes Lymph nodes function as lymph filters and immune surveillance units. They exist in large numbers and are located everywhere in the body, with the exception of the bones, teeth, bone marrow, and the entire central nervous system.

Which lymphoid organ serves as the site where T lymphocytes become immunocompetent T cells?

A. thymus gland
B. tonsils
C. thyroid gland
D. spleen

A. thymus gland

Which of the following is NOT a part of MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue)?

A. lymph nodes
B. tonsils
C. appendix
D. Peyer's patches

A. lymph nodes Lymph nodes are scattered through the interior of the body. They are not a component of MALT as they are not associated with mucous membranes.

Which lymphoid organ provides a site for lymphocyte proliferation and immune surveillance and response and provides blood-cleansing functions?

A. tonsil
B. thymus
C. lymph node
D. spleen

D. spleen The spleen provides a site for lymphocyte proliferation and immune surveillance and response, and blood-cleansing functions such as storing some of the breakdown products of erythrocytes and storage of platelets.

Lymphedema may be treated by all EXCEPT which of the following?

A. manual compression of the affected area
B. movements of the affected area
C. treatments that promote growth of lymphatic vessels
D. bed rest to allow enhanced blood flow and therefore healing of the affected area

D. bed rest to allow enhanced blood flow and therefore healing of the affected area Lymphedema is swelling that occurs when normal lymphatic drainage is blocked. If a person remains stationary, it decreases skeletal muscle contraction, which facilitates lymph drainage.

Within buboes, bacteria are directly attacked by ______.

A. dendritic cells
B. B cells
C. macrophages
D. None of the listed responses is correct.

C. macrophages Macrophages are large phagocytic cells (macro = big; phage = to eat). They are capable of directly destroying invading bacteria by engulfing and breaking them down using lysosomal enzymes. Buboes are lymph nodes that are inflamed due to a bacterial infection.

After surgical removal of the spleen (i.e., a splenectomy), some other organs take over most of its functions. Which of the following spleen functions in the adult can be performed by bone marrow?

A. immune surveillance
B. erythropoiesis
C. removal of aged and damaged red blood cells from the blood
D. storage of platelets

C. removal of aged and damaged red blood cells from the blood. The bone marrow lacks mature macrophages. Macrophages are essential in the destruction of red blood cells in the spleen.

Which of the following is NOT a part of the lymphatic system?

A. lymph nodes
B. blood vessels
C. lymphatic vessels
D. lymph

B. blood vessels

Lymphangitis is caused by ______.
A. an infection
B. inflammation of the vasa vasorum
C. increased formation of interstitial fluid from blood flowing through the congested vasa vasorum
D. All of the listed responses are correct.

A. an infection The suffix -itis indicates an infection of the tissue or structure within the root word. In this case, it is an infection of the lymph vessels.

The lymphatic capillaries function to absorb the excess protein-containing interstitial fluid and return it to the bloodstream.

TRUE

Lymphatic capillaries are permeable to proteins.

TRUE

Digested fats are absorbed from the intestine by the lymph capillaries.

TRUE

Chyle is delivered to the blood via the lymphatic system.

TRUE

About 3 liters of fluid are lost to the tissue spaces every 24 hours and are returned to the bloodstream as lymph.

TRUE

Because lymph vessels are very low-pressure conduits, movements of adjacent tissues are important in propelling lymph through the lymphatics.

TRUE

When tissues are inflamed, lymphatic capillaries develop openings that permit uptake of large particles such as cell debris, pathogens, and cancer cells.

TRUE

The cisterna chyli collects lymph from the lumbar trunks draining the upper limbs and from the intestinal trunk draining the digestive organs.

FALSE

Which lymphatic structure drains lymph from the right upper limb and the right side of the head and thorax?

A. lumbar trunk
B. cisterna chyli
C. thoracic duct
D. right lymphatic duct

D. right lymphatic duct

The lymphatic capillaries are ________.

A. as permeable as blood capillaries
B. more permeable than blood capillaries
C. completely impermeable
D. less permeable than blood capillaries

B. more permeable than blood capillaries

Select the correct statement about lymph transport.

A. Lymph transport is only necessary when illness causes tissue swelling.
B. Lymph transport is faster than that occurring in veins.
C. Under normal conditions, lymph vessels are very high-pressure conduits.
D. Lymph transport depends on the movement of adjacent tissues, such as skeletal muscles.

D. Lymph transport depends on the movement of adjacent tissues, such as skeletal muscles.

Which of the following is not a normal component of lymph?

A. water
B. red blood cells
C. ions
D. plasma proteins

B. red blood cells

Which of the following is not a function of the lymphatic system?

A. carrying out immune responses
B. draining excess interstitial fluid
C. transporting respiratory gases
D. transporting dietary fats

C. transporting respiratory gases

Lymph capillary permeability is due to minivalves and protein filaments.

TRUE

Like blood, lymph flows both to and from the heart.

FALSE

Lymph transport involves all but which of the following?

A. lymph capillary minivalve action
B. milking action of active muscle fibers
C. thorax pressure changes during breathing
D. smooth muscle contraction in the lymph capillary walls

D. smooth muscle contraction in the lymph capillary walls

Which of the following is not a part of the lymphatic system?

A. lymphatic vessels
B. erythrocytes
C. lymph nodes
D. lymph

B. erythrocytes

When the lymphatic structures of a limb are blocked due to tumors, the result is ________.

A. increased pressure in the lymphatics proximal in the limb to the blockage
B. severe localized edema distal to the blockage of that limb
C. abnormally high lymph drainage from the distal region
D. shrinkage of tissues distal in the limb to the blockage due to inadequate delivery of lymph

B. severe localized edema distal to the blockage of that limb

Lymph capillaries are absent in all except which of the following?

A. bone marrow
B. CNS
C. digestive organs
D. bones and teeth

C. digestive organs

Large clusters of lymph nodes occur in all of the following locations except the ________.

A. cervical region
B. lower extremities
C. axillary region
D. inguinal region

B. lower extremities

Which of the following is not a method that maintains lymph flow?

A. skeletal muscle contraction
B. valves in lymph vessel walls
C. breathing
D. capillary smooth muscle contraction

D. capillary smooth muscle contraction

Lymphatic collecting vessels are most closely associated with __________.

A. bone marrow
B. arterioles
C. the heart
D. capillary beds

D. capillary beds

Which of the following statements is true regarding veins versus lymphatic collecting vessels?

A. Veins and lymphatic vessels have a different number of tunics.
B. Veins tend to form more branches (anastamoses) than do lymphatic vessels.
C. Veins have fewer internal valves than do lymphatic vessels.
D. Veins have thinner walls than do lymphatic vessels.

C. Veins have fewer internal valves than do lymphatic vessels. Veins and lymphatic collecting vessels both have valves, but lymphatic vessels have more valves than do veins. Veins also have specialized endothelial flap valves, which allow them to more readily collect fluid from the interstitial space.

Lymphatic vessels __________.

A. supply nutrients to tissues
B. deliver oxygen to tissues
C. return tissue fluid to the bloodstream
D. collect blood from tissues

C. return tissue fluid to the bloodstream Lymphatic vessels have a role in transporting tissue fluid, leaked proteins, and absorbed fats to the blood. They do not deliver nutrients nor gases to the tissues; that is the role of blood vessels.

Adjacent cells in lymphatic capillaries overlap each other loosely. These cells form a unique structural modification that increases their permeability that is known as the __________.

A. chyle
B. lacteals
C. lymph nodes
D. minivalves

D. minivalves

Which of the following promotes closure of the minivalves associated with lymph capillaries?

A. anchoring of endothelial cells to adjacent structures by collagen fibers
B. inflammation of tissues surrounding lymphatic capillaries
C. increasing pressure in the interstitial space
D. increasing pressure inside the lymph capillary

D. increasing pressure inside the lymph capillary

To what organ do the lymphatic vessels return protein-rich escaped fluids to rejoin circulation?

A. lymph nodes
B. heart
C. thymus
D. spleen

B. heart

What do collecting lymphatic vessels NOT share in common with veins of the cardiovascular system?

A. fluids transported toward the heart
B. three tunics or layers
C. thickness of the walls
D. presence of valves

C. thickness of the walls

What is the main function of the lymphatic system?

A. The lymphatic system pumps and transports blood throughout the body.
B. The lymphatic system makes blood cells through a process known as hematopoiesis.
C. The lymphatic system regulates blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism.
D. The lymphatic system returns leaked fluid and plasma proteins that escape from the bloodstream to the blood.

D. The lymphatic system returns leaked fluid and plasma proteins that escape from the bloodstream to the blood.

Which of the following lacks lymph capillaries?

A. bones and teeth
B. small intestine
C. skin
D. loose connective tissues

A. bones and teeth

Lymph from the right leg ultimately is delivered to which duct in the thoracic region?

A. right lymphatic duct
B. jugular trunk
C. subclavian trunk
D. thoracic duct

D. thoracic duct

Lymph from what regions of the body is drained into the right lymphatic duct?

A. right upper limb, right side of the head and thorax
B. digestive organs and lower limbs
C. right upper limb, right side of the head and thorax, and the right lower limb
D. left upper limb, left side of the head and thorax, and both lower limbs

A. right upper limb, right side of the head and thorax

What is the name of the enlarged sac to which the lumbar trunks and the intestinal trunk returns lymph?

A. thoracic duct
B. lacteals
C. cisterna chyli
D. right lymphatic duct

C. cisterna chyli

Which of the following returns lymph to the right lymphatic duct?

A. left arm
B. right side of the head
C. left side of the head
D. cisterna chyli

B. right side of the head

Which of the following delivers lymph into the junction of the internal jugular vein and the subclavian vein?

A. subclavian trunk
B. jugular trunk
C. thoracic duct
D. cisterna chyli

C. thoracic duct

Lymphoid tissue is mainly reticular connective tissue.

TRUE

Lymphocytes reside temporarily in lymphoid tissue, then move to other parts of the body.

TRUE

The simplest lymphoid organs are the lymph nodes.

FALSE

Antibodies that act against a particular foreign substance are released by ________.

A. T lymphocytes
B. plasma cells
C. medullary cords
D. lymph nodes

B. plasma cells

Select the correct statement about lymphocytes.

A. T cells are the only form of lymphocyte found in lymphoid tissue.
B. The two main types are T cells and macrophages.
C. B cells produce plasma cells, which secrete antibodies into the blood.
D. T cells are the precursors of B cells.

C. B cells produce plasma cells, which secrete antibodies into the blood.

Select the correct statement about lymphoid tissue.

A. Lymphoid tissue is predominantly reticular connective tissue.
B. T lymphocytes act by ingesting foreign substances.
C. Lymphoid macrophages secrete antibodies into the blood.
D. Once a lymphocyte enters the lymphoid tissue, it resides there permanently.

A. Lymphoid tissue is predominantly reticular connective tissue.

Which of the following are functions of lymphoid tissue?

A. furnish an ideal surveillance vantage point for lymphocytes and macrophages
B. house and provide a proliferation site for neutrophils
C. house and provide a proliferation site for lymphocytes
D. A and C

D. Both A and C

Which of the following lymphoid cells secrete antibodies?

A. dendritic cells
B. macrophages
C. T lymphocytes
D. plasma cells

D. plasma cells

Antibodies are produced by __________.

A. dendritic cells
B. plasma cells
C. reticular cells
D. macrophages

B. plasma cells

What type of tissue is commonly found in all lymphoid organs and tissues (except the thymus)?

A. reticular connective tissue
B. elastic connective tissue
C. elastic cartilage connective tissue
D. areolar connective tissue

A. reticular connective tissue

What is the role of the B lymphocytes (B cells) in lymphoid tissue?

A. capture antigens and bring them back to the lymph nodes
B. phagocytize foreign substances
C. manage the immune response
D. produce plasma cells that secrete antibodies

D. produce plasma cells that secrete antibodies

What is the role of dendritic cells in lymphoid tissue?

A. manage the immune response
B. capture antigens and bring them back to lymph nodes
C. phagocytize foreign substances
D. help activate T cells

B. capture antigens and bring them back to lymph nodes

What is a bubo?

A. an infected Peyer's patch
B. a wall in a lymph node
C. an infected lymph node
D. a lobe of the spleen

C. an infected lymph node

Which of the following is not a function of lymph nodes?

A. act as lymph filters and activate the immune system
B. produce lymph fluid and cerebro-spinal fluid
C. produce lymphoid cells and granular WBCs
D. serve as antigen surveillance areas

B. produce lymph fluid and cerebro-spinal fluid

While passing through a village on safari you notice a man with one enormous leg and one normal-sized leg. What is the most likely reason for the increased size of the swollen leg?

A. The man has cancer that is blocking his lymph vessels, causing edema.
B. The man had mononucleosis, which is a viral disease that causes swelling of the lymph nodes and localized edema.
C. The man had surgery on his leg, which removed the local lymph vessels and lymph nodes, causing edema.
D. The man has elephantiasis, which is caused by parasitic worms that get in the lymph system and reproduce to levels that block the vessels. The swelling is due to edema.

D. The man has elephantiasis, which is caused by parasitic worms that get in the lymph system and reproduce to levels that block the vessels. The swelling is due to edema.

Why might lymphedema occur as a complication after a radical mastectomy, in which lymph nodes have been removed?

A. Anything that prevents the normal return of lymph to the blood results in severe localized edema.
B. Lymphedema will not occur, as the blood vessels will carry away the excess accumulated fluid in the area.
C. Lymphedema will not occur: the lymph vessels will still be able to transport the lymph away from the area without the lymph nodes being present.
D. Removal of any lymph nodes results in systemic edema, as lymph is not returned to the circulatory system.

A. Anything that prevents the normal return of lymph to the blood results in severe localized edema.

There are more efferent lymphatic vessels leaving a lymph node than there are afferent vessels entering a lymph node.

FALSE

Small organs associated with lymphatic vessels are termed ________.

A. lymph follicles
B. lymphatics
C. lacteals
D. lymph nodes

D. lymph nodes

Lymph leaves a lymph node via ________.

A. the cortical sinus
B. the subcapsular sinus
C. afferent lymphatic vessels
D. efferent lymphatic vessels

D. efferent lymphatic vessels

Which of the following is NOT a lymphoid tissue/organ?

A. spleen
B. bone marrow
C. Peyer's patches
D. tonsils

B. bone marrow

Where are the three large clusters of superficial lymph nodes?

A. cervical, acromial, and mammary regions
B. lumbar, inguinal, and femoral regions
C. axillary, brachial, and subclavian regions
D. cervical, inguinal, and axillary regions

D. cervical, inguinal, and axillary regions

The filtration of lymph and immune system activation are the two basic functions of the __________.

A. spleen
B. tonsils
C. lymph nodes
D. Peyer's patches

C. lymph nodes

Lymph nodes are surrounded by a capsule from which connective tissue strands extend inward to divide the node into compartments. What is the name of these strands?

A. hilum
B. trabeculae
C. lymph sinuses
D. medullary cords

B. trabeculae

What region of the lymph node contains densely packed follicles with dividing B cells?

A. capsule
B. cortex
C. medulla
D. trabeculae

B. cortex

Peyer's patches are clusters of lymphoid tissue found primarily in the large intestine.

FALSE

If even a small part of the spleen is left in a ten-year-old child, it will most likely regenerate itself.

TRUE

The most important role of the spleen is to provide a site for lymphocyte proliferation and immune surveillance and response.

FALSE

Which of the following would not be classified as a lymphatic structure?

A. Peyer's patches of the intestine
B. spleen
C. tonsils
D. pancreas

D. pancreas

The thymus is most active during ________.

A. middle age
B. childhood
C. fetal development
D. old age

B. childhood

Which cells become immunocompetent due to thymic hormones?

A. macrophages
B. basophils
C. monocytes
D. lymphocytes

D. lymphocytes

Functions of the spleen include all of those below except ________.

A. storage of iron
B. removal of old or defective blood cells from the blood
C. storage of blood platelets
D. forming crypts that trap bacteria

D. forming crypts that trap bacteria

Lymphoid tissue that appears as a swelling of the mucosa in the oral cavity is called a(n) ________.

A. appendix
B. thymus
C. Peyer's patch
D. tonsil

D. tonsil

Peyer's patches are found in the ________.

A. duodenum of the small intestine
B. large intestine
C. ileum of the small intestine
D. jejunum of the small intestine

C. ileum of the small intestine

The thymus is the only lymphoid organ that does not:

A. produce hormones
B. have lymphocytes
C. have a cortex and medulla
D. directly fight antigens

D. directly fight antigens

Digestive tract-associated lymphatic tissue includes all of the following except ________.

A. palatine tonsils
B. lingual tonsils
C. Peyer's patches
D. islets of Langerhans

D. islets of Langerhans

The tonsils located at the base of the tongue are the ________.

A. palatine tonsils
B. pharyngeal tonsils
C. Peyer's tonsils
D. lingual tonsils

D. lingual tonsils

In the spleen, red pulp is involved in the immune functions and white pulp is involved in disposing of worn-out RBCs.

FALSE

Which of the following statements regarding the thymus is not true?

A. It functions strictly in T lymphocyte maturation.
B. It has follicles similar to those in the spleen.
C. It does not fight antigens.
D. Its stroma consists of epithelial tissue.

B. It has follicles similar to those in the spleen.

Which of the following does not contain a mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue?

A. Peyer's patch
B. tonsil
C. thymus
D. appendix

C. thymus

Of the following lymphoid organs, which is (are) structurally simplest and lack(s) a complete capsule?

A. tonsils
B. lymph nodes
C. thymus gland
D. spleen

A. tonsils Tonsils lack a complete capsule. The epithelium overlying tonsils invaginates deeply into their interior to form crypts where bacteria and particulate matter are trapped to be destroyed in the lymphoid tissue of the tonsils.

Where are Peyer's patches located?

A. proximal portion of the small intestine
B. distal portion of the small intestine
C. appendix
D. large intestine

B. distal portion of the small intestine

The __________ is (are) the most likely to become infected.

A. tubal tonsil
B. lingual tonsil
C. palatine tonsils
D. pharyngeal tonsil

C. palatine tonsils

Peyer's patches are located __________.

A. in the liver
B. in the spleen
C. in the wall of the colon
D. in the wall of the small intestine

D. in the wall of the small intestine

The first lymphoid organ(s) to appear during fetal development is (are) the __________.

A. thymus
B. appendix
C. tonsils
D. lymph nodes

A. thymus Although the thymus is the first lymphoid organ to appear in the developing fetus, only the tonsils and the spleen are well developed by birth.

Lymph arrives to the lymph nodes via efferent lymphatic vessels.

FALSE

Which part of the spleen is the site of immune function?

A. splenic cords
B. red pulp
C. white pulp
D. splenic sinusoids

C. white pulp

Where are worn-out erythrocytes found in the spleen?

A. red pulp
B. splenic cords
C. capsule
D. white pulp

A. red pulp

Where is the spleen located?

A. inferior neck and extending into the superior thorax, partially overlying the heart deep to the sternum
B. clusters of lymphoid follicles located in the wall of the distal portion of the small intestines
C. left side of the abdominal cavity just beneath the diaphragm and curled around the anterior aspect of the stomach
D. forming a ring of lymphoid tissue around the entrance to the pharynx (throat)

C. left side of the abdominal cavity just beneath the diaphragm and curled around the anterior aspect of the stomach

Where is the lingual tonsil located?

A. base of the tongue
B. posterior wall of the nasopharynx
C. surrounding the openings of the auditory tubes into the pharynx
D. either side at the posterior end of the oral cavity

A. base of the tongue

Tonsillar crypts are invaginations deep into the interior of the tonsil. What is missing from the tonsil that allows for the presence of tonsillar crypts?

A. lymphocytes
B. lymphoid follicles
C. capsule
D. germinal centers

C. capsule

Which tonsil is located in the posterior wall of the nasopharynx and is referred to as the adenoids if it is enlarged?

A. tubal tonsils
B. palatine tonsils
C. pharyngeal tonsil
D. lingual tonsil

C. pharyngeal tonsil

All the lymphoid organs are well developed before birth.

FALSE

A sentinel node is ________.

A. the first node at the junction of all the lumbar trunks
B. a lymph node found in the intestinal lamina propria
C. the first node to receive lymph from an area suspected to be cancerous
D. a small node in the spleen

C. the first node to receive lymph from an area suspected to be cancerous

The thymus functions strictly in maturation of T cells.

TRUE The thymus is prominent in newborns and it continues to increase in size until the child is about a year old. After puberty, the thymus begins to diminish in size. Unlike the other lymphoid tissues/organs, the thymus does not directly combat foreign antigens. Rather, the exclusive role of the thymus is to foster T cell maturation (not B cell maturation). Structurally, the thymus is the only lymphoid tissue/organ that lacks reticular fibers.

Chapter 20- The Lymphatic System-Lymphoid Organs & Tissues - Subjecto.com

Chapter 20- The Lymphatic System-Lymphoid Organs & Tissues

Your page rank:

Total word count: 4052
Pages: 15

Calculate the Price

- -
275 words
Looking for Expert Opinion?
Let us have a look at your work and suggest how to improve it!
Get a Consultant

Lymph is most similar to __________.

A. water
B. interstitial fluid
C. saliva
D. blood plasma

B. interstitial fluid Interstitial fluid and lymph are the same in composition. Interstitial fluid is renamed lymph as soon as it enters a lymphatic vessel.

Once collected, lymph is returned to __________.

A. the liver for detoxification
B. venous circulation
C. arterial circulation
D. the kidneys for filtration

B. venous circulation From the terminal lymphatic ducts, lymph rejoins venous circulation via the subclavian veins.

What is the role of the mini-valves in lymph capillaries?

A. speed transport
B. reduce pressure in the lymphatic capillary
C. increase permeability
D. connect to blood capillaries

C. increase permeability The lymph capillaries owe their permeability to the mini-valves formed by the lack of tight junctions between the endothelial cells and the collagen filaments anchoring the endothelial cells to surrounding structures.

Which of the following lymphoid tissues/organs does NOT contain reticular connective tissue?

A. tonsils
B. thymus
C. spleen
D. lymph nodes

B. thymus

Which of the following is NOT a lymphoid cell?

A. eosinophil
B. reticular cell
C. macrophage
D. dendritic cell

A. eosinophil Eosinophils are granular WBCs that destroy parasitic worms. They are not lymphoid cells.

Which of the following is a role of lymph nodes?

A. They return lymph to circulation.
B. They filter lymph.
C. They produce lymph.
D. They produce red blood cells.

B. They filter lymph. Lymph nodes are rich with macrophages, B cells, and T cells; therefore, the lymph nodes are primed for activating the immune system. Structurally, lymph nodes have a capsule and medullary chords and sinuses that serve to filter lymph fluid.

Which lymphoid organ serves in immune surveillance and in filtering lymph?

A. tonsils
B. the spleen
C. the thymus
D. lymph nodes

D. lymph nodes Lymph nodes function as lymph filters and immune surveillance units. They exist in large numbers and are located everywhere in the body, with the exception of the bones, teeth, bone marrow, and the entire central nervous system.

Which lymphoid organ serves as the site where T lymphocytes become immunocompetent T cells?

A. thymus gland
B. tonsils
C. thyroid gland
D. spleen

A. thymus gland

Which of the following is NOT a part of MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue)?

A. lymph nodes
B. tonsils
C. appendix
D. Peyer’s patches

A. lymph nodes Lymph nodes are scattered through the interior of the body. They are not a component of MALT as they are not associated with mucous membranes.

Which lymphoid organ provides a site for lymphocyte proliferation and immune surveillance and response and provides blood-cleansing functions?

A. tonsil
B. thymus
C. lymph node
D. spleen

D. spleen The spleen provides a site for lymphocyte proliferation and immune surveillance and response, and blood-cleansing functions such as storing some of the breakdown products of erythrocytes and storage of platelets.

Lymphedema may be treated by all EXCEPT which of the following?

A. manual compression of the affected area
B. movements of the affected area
C. treatments that promote growth of lymphatic vessels
D. bed rest to allow enhanced blood flow and therefore healing of the affected area

D. bed rest to allow enhanced blood flow and therefore healing of the affected area Lymphedema is swelling that occurs when normal lymphatic drainage is blocked. If a person remains stationary, it decreases skeletal muscle contraction, which facilitates lymph drainage.

Within buboes, bacteria are directly attacked by ______.

A. dendritic cells
B. B cells
C. macrophages
D. None of the listed responses is correct.

C. macrophages Macrophages are large phagocytic cells (macro = big; phage = to eat). They are capable of directly destroying invading bacteria by engulfing and breaking them down using lysosomal enzymes. Buboes are lymph nodes that are inflamed due to a bacterial infection.

After surgical removal of the spleen (i.e., a splenectomy), some other organs take over most of its functions. Which of the following spleen functions in the adult can be performed by bone marrow?

A. immune surveillance
B. erythropoiesis
C. removal of aged and damaged red blood cells from the blood
D. storage of platelets

C. removal of aged and damaged red blood cells from the blood. The bone marrow lacks mature macrophages. Macrophages are essential in the destruction of red blood cells in the spleen.

Which of the following is NOT a part of the lymphatic system?

A. lymph nodes
B. blood vessels
C. lymphatic vessels
D. lymph

B. blood vessels

Lymphangitis is caused by ______.
A. an infection
B. inflammation of the vasa vasorum
C. increased formation of interstitial fluid from blood flowing through the congested vasa vasorum
D. All of the listed responses are correct.

A. an infection The suffix -itis indicates an infection of the tissue or structure within the root word. In this case, it is an infection of the lymph vessels.

[T/F] The lymphatic capillaries function to absorb the excess protein-containing interstitial fluid and return it to the bloodstream.

TRUE

[T/F] Lymphatic capillaries are permeable to proteins.

TRUE

[T/F] Digested fats are absorbed from the intestine by the lymph capillaries.

TRUE

[T/F] Chyle is delivered to the blood via the lymphatic system.

TRUE

[T/F] About 3 liters of fluid are lost to the tissue spaces every 24 hours and are returned to the bloodstream as lymph.

TRUE

[T/F] Because lymph vessels are very low-pressure conduits, movements of adjacent tissues are important in propelling lymph through the lymphatics.

TRUE

[T/F] When tissues are inflamed, lymphatic capillaries develop openings that permit uptake of large particles such as cell debris, pathogens, and cancer cells.

TRUE

[T/F] The cisterna chyli collects lymph from the lumbar trunks draining the upper limbs and from the intestinal trunk draining the digestive organs.

FALSE

Which lymphatic structure drains lymph from the right upper limb and the right side of the head and thorax?

A. lumbar trunk
B. cisterna chyli
C. thoracic duct
D. right lymphatic duct

D. right lymphatic duct

The lymphatic capillaries are ________.

A. as permeable as blood capillaries
B. more permeable than blood capillaries
C. completely impermeable
D. less permeable than blood capillaries

B. more permeable than blood capillaries

Select the correct statement about lymph transport.

A. Lymph transport is only necessary when illness causes tissue swelling.
B. Lymph transport is faster than that occurring in veins.
C. Under normal conditions, lymph vessels are very high-pressure conduits.
D. Lymph transport depends on the movement of adjacent tissues, such as skeletal muscles.

D. Lymph transport depends on the movement of adjacent tissues, such as skeletal muscles.

Which of the following is not a normal component of lymph?

A. water
B. red blood cells
C. ions
D. plasma proteins

B. red blood cells

Which of the following is not a function of the lymphatic system?

A. carrying out immune responses
B. draining excess interstitial fluid
C. transporting respiratory gases
D. transporting dietary fats

C. transporting respiratory gases

[T/F] Lymph capillary permeability is due to minivalves and protein filaments.

TRUE

[T/F] Like blood, lymph flows both to and from the heart.

FALSE

Lymph transport involves all but which of the following?

A. lymph capillary minivalve action
B. milking action of active muscle fibers
C. thorax pressure changes during breathing
D. smooth muscle contraction in the lymph capillary walls

D. smooth muscle contraction in the lymph capillary walls

Which of the following is not a part of the lymphatic system?

A. lymphatic vessels
B. erythrocytes
C. lymph nodes
D. lymph

B. erythrocytes

When the lymphatic structures of a limb are blocked due to tumors, the result is ________.

A. increased pressure in the lymphatics proximal in the limb to the blockage
B. severe localized edema distal to the blockage of that limb
C. abnormally high lymph drainage from the distal region
D. shrinkage of tissues distal in the limb to the blockage due to inadequate delivery of lymph

B. severe localized edema distal to the blockage of that limb

Lymph capillaries are absent in all except which of the following?

A. bone marrow
B. CNS
C. digestive organs
D. bones and teeth

C. digestive organs

Large clusters of lymph nodes occur in all of the following locations except the ________.

A. cervical region
B. lower extremities
C. axillary region
D. inguinal region

B. lower extremities

Which of the following is not a method that maintains lymph flow?

A. skeletal muscle contraction
B. valves in lymph vessel walls
C. breathing
D. capillary smooth muscle contraction

D. capillary smooth muscle contraction

Lymphatic collecting vessels are most closely associated with __________.

A. bone marrow
B. arterioles
C. the heart
D. capillary beds

D. capillary beds

Which of the following statements is true regarding veins versus lymphatic collecting vessels?

A. Veins and lymphatic vessels have a different number of tunics.
B. Veins tend to form more branches (anastamoses) than do lymphatic vessels.
C. Veins have fewer internal valves than do lymphatic vessels.
D. Veins have thinner walls than do lymphatic vessels.

C. Veins have fewer internal valves than do lymphatic vessels. Veins and lymphatic collecting vessels both have valves, but lymphatic vessels have more valves than do veins. Veins also have specialized endothelial flap valves, which allow them to more readily collect fluid from the interstitial space.

Lymphatic vessels __________.

A. supply nutrients to tissues
B. deliver oxygen to tissues
C. return tissue fluid to the bloodstream
D. collect blood from tissues

C. return tissue fluid to the bloodstream Lymphatic vessels have a role in transporting tissue fluid, leaked proteins, and absorbed fats to the blood. They do not deliver nutrients nor gases to the tissues; that is the role of blood vessels.

Adjacent cells in lymphatic capillaries overlap each other loosely. These cells form a unique structural modification that increases their permeability that is known as the __________.

A. chyle
B. lacteals
C. lymph nodes
D. minivalves

D. minivalves

Which of the following promotes closure of the minivalves associated with lymph capillaries?

A. anchoring of endothelial cells to adjacent structures by collagen fibers
B. inflammation of tissues surrounding lymphatic capillaries
C. increasing pressure in the interstitial space
D. increasing pressure inside the lymph capillary

D. increasing pressure inside the lymph capillary

To what organ do the lymphatic vessels return protein-rich escaped fluids to rejoin circulation?

A. lymph nodes
B. heart
C. thymus
D. spleen

B. heart

What do collecting lymphatic vessels NOT share in common with veins of the cardiovascular system?

A. fluids transported toward the heart
B. three tunics or layers
C. thickness of the walls
D. presence of valves

C. thickness of the walls

What is the main function of the lymphatic system?

A. The lymphatic system pumps and transports blood throughout the body.
B. The lymphatic system makes blood cells through a process known as hematopoiesis.
C. The lymphatic system regulates blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism.
D. The lymphatic system returns leaked fluid and plasma proteins that escape from the bloodstream to the blood.

D. The lymphatic system returns leaked fluid and plasma proteins that escape from the bloodstream to the blood.

Which of the following lacks lymph capillaries?

A. bones and teeth
B. small intestine
C. skin
D. loose connective tissues

A. bones and teeth

Lymph from the right leg ultimately is delivered to which duct in the thoracic region?

A. right lymphatic duct
B. jugular trunk
C. subclavian trunk
D. thoracic duct

D. thoracic duct

Lymph from what regions of the body is drained into the right lymphatic duct?

A. right upper limb, right side of the head and thorax
B. digestive organs and lower limbs
C. right upper limb, right side of the head and thorax, and the right lower limb
D. left upper limb, left side of the head and thorax, and both lower limbs

A. right upper limb, right side of the head and thorax

What is the name of the enlarged sac to which the lumbar trunks and the intestinal trunk returns lymph?

A. thoracic duct
B. lacteals
C. cisterna chyli
D. right lymphatic duct

C. cisterna chyli

Which of the following returns lymph to the right lymphatic duct?

A. left arm
B. right side of the head
C. left side of the head
D. cisterna chyli

B. right side of the head

Which of the following delivers lymph into the junction of the internal jugular vein and the subclavian vein?

A. subclavian trunk
B. jugular trunk
C. thoracic duct
D. cisterna chyli

C. thoracic duct

[T/F] Lymphoid tissue is mainly reticular connective tissue.

TRUE

[T/F] Lymphocytes reside temporarily in lymphoid tissue, then move to other parts of the body.

TRUE

[T/F] The simplest lymphoid organs are the lymph nodes.

FALSE

Antibodies that act against a particular foreign substance are released by ________.

A. T lymphocytes
B. plasma cells
C. medullary cords
D. lymph nodes

B. plasma cells

Select the correct statement about lymphocytes.

A. T cells are the only form of lymphocyte found in lymphoid tissue.
B. The two main types are T cells and macrophages.
C. B cells produce plasma cells, which secrete antibodies into the blood.
D. T cells are the precursors of B cells.

C. B cells produce plasma cells, which secrete antibodies into the blood.

Select the correct statement about lymphoid tissue.

A. Lymphoid tissue is predominantly reticular connective tissue.
B. T lymphocytes act by ingesting foreign substances.
C. Lymphoid macrophages secrete antibodies into the blood.
D. Once a lymphocyte enters the lymphoid tissue, it resides there permanently.

A. Lymphoid tissue is predominantly reticular connective tissue.

Which of the following are functions of lymphoid tissue?

A. furnish an ideal surveillance vantage point for lymphocytes and macrophages
B. house and provide a proliferation site for neutrophils
C. house and provide a proliferation site for lymphocytes
D. A and C

D. Both A and C

Which of the following lymphoid cells secrete antibodies?

A. dendritic cells
B. macrophages
C. T lymphocytes
D. plasma cells

D. plasma cells

Antibodies are produced by __________.

A. dendritic cells
B. plasma cells
C. reticular cells
D. macrophages

B. plasma cells

What type of tissue is commonly found in all lymphoid organs and tissues (except the thymus)?

A. reticular connective tissue
B. elastic connective tissue
C. elastic cartilage connective tissue
D. areolar connective tissue

A. reticular connective tissue

What is the role of the B lymphocytes (B cells) in lymphoid tissue?

A. capture antigens and bring them back to the lymph nodes
B. phagocytize foreign substances
C. manage the immune response
D. produce plasma cells that secrete antibodies

D. produce plasma cells that secrete antibodies

What is the role of dendritic cells in lymphoid tissue?

A. manage the immune response
B. capture antigens and bring them back to lymph nodes
C. phagocytize foreign substances
D. help activate T cells

B. capture antigens and bring them back to lymph nodes

What is a bubo?

A. an infected Peyer’s patch
B. a wall in a lymph node
C. an infected lymph node
D. a lobe of the spleen

C. an infected lymph node

Which of the following is not a function of lymph nodes?

A. act as lymph filters and activate the immune system
B. produce lymph fluid and cerebro-spinal fluid
C. produce lymphoid cells and granular WBCs
D. serve as antigen surveillance areas

B. produce lymph fluid and cerebro-spinal fluid

While passing through a village on safari you notice a man with one enormous leg and one normal-sized leg. What is the most likely reason for the increased size of the swollen leg?

A. The man has cancer that is blocking his lymph vessels, causing edema.
B. The man had mononucleosis, which is a viral disease that causes swelling of the lymph nodes and localized edema.
C. The man had surgery on his leg, which removed the local lymph vessels and lymph nodes, causing edema.
D. The man has elephantiasis, which is caused by parasitic worms that get in the lymph system and reproduce to levels that block the vessels. The swelling is due to edema.

D. The man has elephantiasis, which is caused by parasitic worms that get in the lymph system and reproduce to levels that block the vessels. The swelling is due to edema.

Why might lymphedema occur as a complication after a radical mastectomy, in which lymph nodes have been removed?

A. Anything that prevents the normal return of lymph to the blood results in severe localized edema.
B. Lymphedema will not occur, as the blood vessels will carry away the excess accumulated fluid in the area.
C. Lymphedema will not occur: the lymph vessels will still be able to transport the lymph away from the area without the lymph nodes being present.
D. Removal of any lymph nodes results in systemic edema, as lymph is not returned to the circulatory system.

A. Anything that prevents the normal return of lymph to the blood results in severe localized edema.

[T/F] There are more efferent lymphatic vessels leaving a lymph node than there are afferent vessels entering a lymph node.

FALSE

Small organs associated with lymphatic vessels are termed ________.

A. lymph follicles
B. lymphatics
C. lacteals
D. lymph nodes

D. lymph nodes

Lymph leaves a lymph node via ________.

A. the cortical sinus
B. the subcapsular sinus
C. afferent lymphatic vessels
D. efferent lymphatic vessels

D. efferent lymphatic vessels

Which of the following is NOT a lymphoid tissue/organ?

A. spleen
B. bone marrow
C. Peyer’s patches
D. tonsils

B. bone marrow

Where are the three large clusters of superficial lymph nodes?

A. cervical, acromial, and mammary regions
B. lumbar, inguinal, and femoral regions
C. axillary, brachial, and subclavian regions
D. cervical, inguinal, and axillary regions

D. cervical, inguinal, and axillary regions

The filtration of lymph and immune system activation are the two basic functions of the __________.

A. spleen
B. tonsils
C. lymph nodes
D. Peyer’s patches

C. lymph nodes

Lymph nodes are surrounded by a capsule from which connective tissue strands extend inward to divide the node into compartments. What is the name of these strands?

A. hilum
B. trabeculae
C. lymph sinuses
D. medullary cords

B. trabeculae

What region of the lymph node contains densely packed follicles with dividing B cells?

A. capsule
B. cortex
C. medulla
D. trabeculae

B. cortex

[T/F] Peyer’s patches are clusters of lymphoid tissue found primarily in the large intestine.

FALSE

[T/F] If even a small part of the spleen is left in a ten-year-old child, it will most likely regenerate itself.

TRUE

[T/F] The most important role of the spleen is to provide a site for lymphocyte proliferation and immune surveillance and response.

FALSE

Which of the following would not be classified as a lymphatic structure?

A. Peyer’s patches of the intestine
B. spleen
C. tonsils
D. pancreas

D. pancreas

The thymus is most active during ________.

A. middle age
B. childhood
C. fetal development
D. old age

B. childhood

Which cells become immunocompetent due to thymic hormones?

A. macrophages
B. basophils
C. monocytes
D. lymphocytes

D. lymphocytes

Functions of the spleen include all of those below except ________.

A. storage of iron
B. removal of old or defective blood cells from the blood
C. storage of blood platelets
D. forming crypts that trap bacteria

D. forming crypts that trap bacteria

Lymphoid tissue that appears as a swelling of the mucosa in the oral cavity is called a(n) ________.

A. appendix
B. thymus
C. Peyer’s patch
D. tonsil

D. tonsil

Peyer’s patches are found in the ________.

A. duodenum of the small intestine
B. large intestine
C. ileum of the small intestine
D. jejunum of the small intestine

C. ileum of the small intestine

The thymus is the only lymphoid organ that does not:

A. produce hormones
B. have lymphocytes
C. have a cortex and medulla
D. directly fight antigens

D. directly fight antigens

Digestive tract-associated lymphatic tissue includes all of the following except ________.

A. palatine tonsils
B. lingual tonsils
C. Peyer’s patches
D. islets of Langerhans

D. islets of Langerhans

The tonsils located at the base of the tongue are the ________.

A. palatine tonsils
B. pharyngeal tonsils
C. Peyer’s tonsils
D. lingual tonsils

D. lingual tonsils

[T/F] In the spleen, red pulp is involved in the immune functions and white pulp is involved in disposing of worn-out RBCs.

FALSE

Which of the following statements regarding the thymus is not true?

A. It functions strictly in T lymphocyte maturation.
B. It has follicles similar to those in the spleen.
C. It does not fight antigens.
D. Its stroma consists of epithelial tissue.

B. It has follicles similar to those in the spleen.

Which of the following does not contain a mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue?

A. Peyer’s patch
B. tonsil
C. thymus
D. appendix

C. thymus

Of the following lymphoid organs, which is (are) structurally simplest and lack(s) a complete capsule?

A. tonsils
B. lymph nodes
C. thymus gland
D. spleen

A. tonsils Tonsils lack a complete capsule. The epithelium overlying tonsils invaginates deeply into their interior to form crypts where bacteria and particulate matter are trapped to be destroyed in the lymphoid tissue of the tonsils.

Where are Peyer’s patches located?

A. proximal portion of the small intestine
B. distal portion of the small intestine
C. appendix
D. large intestine

B. distal portion of the small intestine

The __________ is (are) the most likely to become infected.

A. tubal tonsil
B. lingual tonsil
C. palatine tonsils
D. pharyngeal tonsil

C. palatine tonsils

Peyer’s patches are located __________.

A. in the liver
B. in the spleen
C. in the wall of the colon
D. in the wall of the small intestine

D. in the wall of the small intestine

The first lymphoid organ(s) to appear during fetal development is (are) the __________.

A. thymus
B. appendix
C. tonsils
D. lymph nodes

A. thymus Although the thymus is the first lymphoid organ to appear in the developing fetus, only the tonsils and the spleen are well developed by birth.

[T/F] Lymph arrives to the lymph nodes via efferent lymphatic vessels.

FALSE

Which part of the spleen is the site of immune function?

A. splenic cords
B. red pulp
C. white pulp
D. splenic sinusoids

C. white pulp

Where are worn-out erythrocytes found in the spleen?

A. red pulp
B. splenic cords
C. capsule
D. white pulp

A. red pulp

Where is the spleen located?

A. inferior neck and extending into the superior thorax, partially overlying the heart deep to the sternum
B. clusters of lymphoid follicles located in the wall of the distal portion of the small intestines
C. left side of the abdominal cavity just beneath the diaphragm and curled around the anterior aspect of the stomach
D. forming a ring of lymphoid tissue around the entrance to the pharynx (throat)

C. left side of the abdominal cavity just beneath the diaphragm and curled around the anterior aspect of the stomach

Where is the lingual tonsil located?

A. base of the tongue
B. posterior wall of the nasopharynx
C. surrounding the openings of the auditory tubes into the pharynx
D. either side at the posterior end of the oral cavity

A. base of the tongue

Tonsillar crypts are invaginations deep into the interior of the tonsil. What is missing from the tonsil that allows for the presence of tonsillar crypts?

A. lymphocytes
B. lymphoid follicles
C. capsule
D. germinal centers

C. capsule

Which tonsil is located in the posterior wall of the nasopharynx and is referred to as the adenoids if it is enlarged?

A. tubal tonsils
B. palatine tonsils
C. pharyngeal tonsil
D. lingual tonsil

C. pharyngeal tonsil

[T/F] All the lymphoid organs are well developed before birth.

FALSE

A sentinel node is ________.

A. the first node at the junction of all the lumbar trunks
B. a lymph node found in the intestinal lamina propria
C. the first node to receive lymph from an area suspected to be cancerous
D. a small node in the spleen

C. the first node to receive lymph from an area suspected to be cancerous

[T/F] The thymus functions strictly in maturation of T cells.

TRUE The thymus is prominent in newborns and it continues to increase in size until the child is about a year old. After puberty, the thymus begins to diminish in size. Unlike the other lymphoid tissues/organs, the thymus does not directly combat foreign antigens. Rather, the exclusive role of the thymus is to foster T cell maturation (not B cell maturation). Structurally, the thymus is the only lymphoid tissue/organ that lacks reticular fibers.

Share This
Flashcard

More flashcards like this

NCLEX 10000 Integumentary Disorders

When assessing a client with partial-thickness burns over 60% of the body, which finding should the nurse report immediately? a) ...

Read more

NCLEX 300-NEURO

A client with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) tells the nurse, "Sometimes I feel so frustrated. I can’t do anything without ...

Read more

NASM Flashcards

Which of the following is the process of getting oxygen from the environment to the tissues of the body? Diffusion ...

Read more

Unfinished tasks keep piling up?

Let us complete them for you. Quickly and professionally.

Check Price

Successful message
sending