Chapter 2 – Anatomy & Physiology

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Which of the following is necessary for proper conduction of nervous impulses?

A) Fe
B) I
C) P
D) Na


A phospholipid is usually ________.

A) partially polar and partially nonpolar
B) completely nonpolar
C) completely polar
D) neither polar nor nonpolar


In general, the category of lipids that we refer to as oils have ________.

A) a high water content
B) long fatty acid chains
C) a high degree of saturated bonds
D) a high degree of unsaturated bonds


The genetic information is coded in DNA by ________.

A) the regular alteration of sugar and phosphate molecules

B) the sequence of the nucleotides

C) the three-dimensional structure of the double helix

D) the arrangement of the histones


Which of the following is not true of proteins?

A) They may be denatured or coagulated by heat or acidity.

B) Some types are called enzymes.

C) They appear to be the molecular carriers of the coded hereditary information.

D) Their function depends on the three-dimensional shape.


he single most abundant protein in the body is ________.

B) hemoglobin
C) collagen
D) glucose


Carbohydrates are stored in the liver and muscles in the form of ________.

A) glucose
B) triglycerides
C) glycogen
D) cholesterol


Coenzymes are ________.

A) organic molecules derived from vitamins
B) two enzymes that perform the same function
C) metal ions
D) enzymes that work together


The speed or rate of a chemical reaction is influenced by all of the following except ________.

A) the concentration of the reactants
B) the temperature
C) the presence of catalysts or enzymes
D) the presence or absence of carbon


A chemical reaction in which bonds are broken is usually associated with ________.

A) the release of energy
B) the consumption of energy
C) a synthesis
D) forming a larger molecule


Salts are always ________.

A) ionic compounds
B) single covalent compounds
C) double covalent compounds
D) hydrogen bonded


The numbers listed represent the first, second, and third energy levels, respectively. On this basis, which of the following is an unstable or reactive atom?

A) 2, 8, 8
B) 2, 8
C) 2
D) 2, 8, 1


A solution that has a pH of 2 could best be described as being ________.

A) acidic
B) basic
C) neutral
D) slightly acidic


Which of the following is the major positive ion outside cells?

A) nitrogen
B) hydrogen
C) potassium
D) sodium


Which of the following would be regarded as an organic molecule?

A) H2O
B) NaCl
D) CH4


A chain of 25 amino acids would be called a ________.

A) polypeptide
B) nucleotide
C) protein
D) starch


A long chain of simple sugars would be a ________.

A) monosaccharide
B) polysaccharide
C) protein
D) nucleic acid


The coiling of the protein chain backbone into an alpha helix is referred to as the ________.

A) primary structure
B) secondary structure
C) tertiary structure
D) quaternary structure


Carbohydrates and proteins are built up from their basic building blocks by the ________.

A) addition of a water molecule between each two units

B) addition of a carbon atom between each two units

C) removal of a water molecule between each two units

D) removal of a nitrogen atom between each two units


Which statement about enzymes is false?

A) Enzymes raise the activation energy needed to start a reaction.

B) Enzymes are composed mostly of protein.

C) Enzymes are organic catalysts.

D) Enzymes may be damaged by high temperature.


Many plasma proteins may function as _________.

A) antibodies
B) structural proteins
C) buffers
D) oxygen transport vesicles


Which of the following is true regarding the concentration of solutions?

A) Percent solutions are parts per 1000 parts.

B) Molarity is one mole of solute per 1000 ml of solution.

C) To calculate molarity, one must know the atomic number of the solute.

D) To calculate molarity, one must know the atomic weight of the solvent.


Select the statement about mixtures that is correct.

A) A solution contains solvent in large amounts and solute in smaller quantities.

B) Solutions contain particles that settle out in time.

C) Suspensions can change reversibly from liquid to solid.

D) Suspensions are homogeneous mixtures of two or more components.


HCO3- is _________.

A) a bicarbonate ion
B) common in the liver
C) a weak acid
D) a proton donor


Select which reactions will usually be irreversible regarding chemical equilibrium in living

A) glucose to CO2 & H2O
B) ADP + Pi to make ATP
C) H2O + CO2 to make H2CO3
D) glucose molecules joined to make glycogen


In redox reactions ________.

A) both decomposition and electron exchange occur
B) the electron acceptor is oxidized
C) the electron donor is reduced
D) the reaction is always easily reversible


Fibrous proteins ________.

A) rarely exhibit secondary structure
B) are very stable and insoluble in water
C) are usually called enzymes
D) are cellular catalysts


The ATP molecule is not used in ___________.

A) chemical work
B) mechanical work
C) transport
D) pigments


Select the most correct statement regarding nucleic acids.

A) Three forms exist: DNA, RNA, and tDNA.

B) DNA is a long, double-stranded molecule made up of A, T, G, and C bases.

C) RNA is a long, single-stranded molecule made up of the bases A, T, G, and C.

D) TDNA is considered a molecular slave of DNA.


________ is a suspension.

A) Cytoplasm
B) Saltwater
C) Rubbing alcohol
D) Blood


Select the correct statement about isotopes.

A) Isotopes of the same element have the same atomic number but differ in their atomic

B) All the isotopes of an element have the same number of neutrons.

C) All the isotopes of an element are radioactive.

D) Isotopes occur only in the heavier elements.


The four elements that make up about 96% of body matter are ________.

A) carbon, oxygen, phosphorus, calcium
B) nitrogen, hydrogen, calcium, sodium
C) carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen
D) sodium, potassium, hydrogen, oxygen


An example of a coenzyme is ________.

A) copper
B) riboflavin (vitamin B2)
C) iron
D) zinc


________ is fat-soluble, produced in the skin on exposure to UV radiation, and necessary for
normal bone growth and function.

A) Vitamin K
B) Cortisol
C) Vitamin A
D) Vitamin D


In liquid XYZ, you notice that light is scattered as it passes through. There is no precipitant in
the bottom of the beaker, though it has been sitting for several days. This liquid must be a

A) solution
B) suspension
C) colloid
D) mixture


Atom X has seventeen protons. How many electrons are in its valence shell?

A) 3
B) 5
C) 7
D) 10


If an atom were to have two protons, then it would ________.

A) have a valence of 0
B) be very stable
C) be chemically active
D) have three electrons


If atom X has an atomic number of 74 it would have ________.

A) 37 protons and 37 neutrons

B) 37 electrons

C) 74 protons and no neutrons

D) 74 protons and roughly the same number of neutrons


The formula C6H12O6 means ________.

A) there are 6 calcium, 12 hydrogen, and 6 oxygen atoms

B) there are 12 hydrogen, 6 carbon, and 6 oxygen atoms

C) the molecular weight is 24

D) the substance is a colloid


Two good examples of a colloid would be Jell-O® or ________.

A) blood
B) toenails
C) urine
D) cytosol


An atom with a valance of 3 may have a total of ________ electrons.

A) 3
B) 8
C) 13
D) 17


An atom with ________ electrons could be an anion when ionically bonded.

A) 3
B) 6
C) 9
D) 15


The chemical symbol O=O means ________.

A) zero equals zero

B) both atoms are bonded and have zero electrons in the outer orbit

C) the atoms are double bonded

D) this is an ionic bond with two shared electrons


Dipole is ________.

A) a type of bond
B) a polar molecule
C) a type of reaction
D) an organic molecule


CH4 means ________.

A) there is one carbon and four hydrogen atoms
B) there are four carbon and four hydrogen atoms
C) this is an inorganic molecule
D) this was involved in a redox reaction


Amino acids joining together to make a peptide is a good example of a ________ reaction.

A) synthesis
B) decomposition
C) exchange
D) reversible


________ is not considered to be a factor in influencing a reaction.

A) Temperature
B) Concentration
C) Particle size
D) Time


Which of the following is not an electrolyte?

A) HCl
B) Ca2CO3
C) H2O


Human blood has a pH of ________.

A) 8.35-8.55
B) 7.70-8.00
C) 7.35-7.45
D) 6.80-7.00


__________ is a heavy metal normally found in the body.

A) Lead
B) Mercury
C) Arsenic
D) Iron


Sucrose is a ________.

A) monosaccharide
B) disaccharide
C) polysaccharide
D) triglyceride


Neutral fats have a ________ ratio of fatty acids to glycerol.

A) 1:1
B) 2:1
C) 3:1
D) 4:1


In a DNA molecule, the phosphate serves ________.

A) as a code
B) to hold the molecular backbone together
C) to bind the sugars to their bases
D) as nucleotides


Most fibrous proteins in the body contain all of these except:

A) keratin
B) elastin
C) eledin
D) collagen


Heat shock proteins (hsp) are a type of protein called ________.

A) coenzymes
B) cofactors
C) eicosanoids
D) chaperonins


_________ bonds often bind different parts of a molecule into a specific 3-dimensional shape.

A) Carbon
B) Hydrogen
C) Oxygen
D) Amino acid


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