Chapter 19 Respiratory System

1. Respiration is
A. breathing. B. making ATP. C. gas exchange between the atmosphere and cells. D. circulating blood to tissues. E. extracting energy from glucose.

C. gas exchange between the atmosphere and cells.

2. The events of respiration are A. inhaling and exhaling. B. ventilation, external and internal respiration, and cellular respiration. C. inflating and deflating alveoli. D. delivering carbon dioxide to cells and removing oxygen from cells. E. digesting and excreting.

B. ventilation, external and internal respiration, and cellular respiration.

3. The ultimate function of breathing is to A. deliver oxygen to cells, where it takes part in the reactions of cellular respiration that liberate energy from nutrient molecules and get rid of carbon dioxide, which maintains the pH of the internal environment. B. inflate the lungs, which forces oxygen molecules into the bloodstream. C. deliver carbon dioxide to cells, where it takes part in the reactions of cellular respiration that liberate energy from nutrient molecules and get rid of oxygen, which maintains the pH of the internal environment. D. deliver oxygen to cells, where it takes part in the reactions of cellular respiration that liberate energy from waste molecules. E. deliver oxygen to cells during the day and deliver carbon dioxide at night.

A. deliver oxygen to cells, where it takes part in the reactions of cellular respiration that liberate energy from nutrient molecules and get rid of carbon dioxide, which maintains the pH of the internal environment.

4. Which of the following bones does not house a sinus? A. Maxillary B. Frontal C. Sphenoid D. Zygomatic E. Ethmoid

D. Zygomatic

5. Which of these laryngeal cartilages is single? A. Cricoid B. Arytenoid C. Corniculate D. Cuneiform E. Marbular

A. Cricoid

6. The pitch of a vocal sound is controlled by changing the A. force of the air. B. tension on the vocal cord. C. size of the laryngeal cartilages. D. oral opening. E. shape of the laryngeal cartilages.

B. tension on the vocal cord.

7. Arielle is an 8-year-old with cystic fibrosis. For 30 minutes each morning and evening, a parent holds her body in various positions and massages and kneads the areas over her lungs to dislodge the abundant, sticky mucus, which Arielle spits into a jar. She also takes medication - an enzyme - that thins the mucus. If she didn't take these measures, the mucus in her lungs would most likely increase her risk of A. cancer. B. emphysema. C. infection. D. asthma. E. mutation.

C. infection

8. The vocal cords are in the A. pharynx. B. larynx. C. trachea. D. oral cavity. E. nasal cavity.

B. larynx.

9. Which of the following is not a function of the mucus-covered nasal passages? A. Warming inspired air. B. Moistening inspired air. C. Entrapping small particles. D. Entrapping dust. E. Cooling exhaled air.

E. Cooling exhaled air.

10. The intensity (volume) of a vocal sound is a result of the A. force of air passing over the vocal cords. B. tension on the vocal cords. C. size of the laryngeal cartilage. D. shape of the laryngeal cartilage. E. shape of the oral cavity.

A. force of air passing over the vocal cords.

11. A flashlight placed just below the eyebrow in a darkened room illuminates the A. frontal sinus. B. maxillary sinus. C. sphenoid sinus. D. ethmoid sinus. E. posterior sinus.

A. frontal sinus.

12. Laryngitis is a potentially dangerous condition because it may A. obstruct the esophagus. B. obstruct the airway. C. press on the thyroid gland. D. cause inner ear infection. E. cause mucus buildup in the lungs.

B. obstruct the airway.

13. The procedure used to directly examine the trachea and bronchial tree is called A. bronchoscopy. B. tracheostomy. C. tracheotomy. D. laryngectomy. E. lingualectomy.

A. bronchoscopy.

14. The mucous membrane lining the nasal cavity A. warms incoming air. B. moistens incoming air. C. entraps dust D. entraps other small particles. E. all of the above.

E. all of the above.

15. The pharynx functions as a ______, whereas the larynx functions as a ______. A. common passage for air and food; passageway for food only B. passageway for air only; passageway for air and food C. common passageway for air and food; passageway for air only D. site to prevent objects from entering the trachea; site to prevent objects from entering the larynx E. block to bacteria; conduit for air and food

C. common passageway for air and food; passageway for air only

16. The trachea A. is lined with a ciliated mucous membrane. B. includes 20 C-shaped cartilage rings. C. is a passageway for air. D. is also called the windpipe. E. is all of the above

E. is all of the above

17. As the respiratory tube branches become finer, A. it has increased cartilage. B. it has less muscle. C. it has fewer elastic fibers. D. the epithelial lining changes from pseudostratified ciliated columnar to cuboidal and simple squamous epithelium. E. the epithelial lining changes to connective tissue.

D. the epithelial lining changes from pseudostratified ciliated columnar to cuboidal and simple squamous epithelium.

18. The right lung has ______ lobes; the left lung has ______ lobes. A. superior, middle, and inferior; superior and inferior B. superior and inferior; superior; middle, and inferior C. anterior, posterior, and lateral; superior and inferior D. superior, middle, and inferior; anterior and posterior E. superior, middle, and inferior; superior, medial, and inferior

A. superior, middle, and inferior; superior and inferior

19. The force that moves air into the lungs during inspiration comes from the A. diaphragm. B. external intercostal muscles. C. abdominal wall muscles. D. atmospheric pressure. E. cerebral cortex.

D. atmospheric pressure.

20. The force responsible for normal expiration is supplied by the A. diaphragm. B. external intercostal muscles. C. elastic recoil of tissues and surface tension. D. contraction of smooth muscles in air passages. E. none of the above.

C. elastic recoil of tissues and surface tension.

21. The volume of air that enters or leaves the lungs during a normal respiratory cycle is the A. tidal volume. B. residual volume. C. vital capacity. D. total lung capacity. E. vital volume.

A. tidal volume.

22. Of the respiratory air volumes listed, which one has the largest volume? A. Expiratory reserve volume B. Inspiratory reserve volume C. Vital capacity D. Tidal volume E. Vital volume

C. Vital capacity

23. Respiratory distress syndrome in newborns is caused by A. lack of surfactant. B. lack of a respiratory membrane. C. low oxygen concentration. D. high oxygen concentration. E. a bacterial infection.

A. lack of surfactant.

24. The visceral and parietal pleural membranes are normally held together by A. loose connective tissue. B. dense connective tissue. C. a thin film of serous fluid. D. surfactant. E. mucus.

C. a thin film of serous fluid.

25. Air entering the potential space of the pleural cavity is called A. pneumonia. B. pneumothorax. C. pulmonary ventilation. D. internal respiration. E. a pleural infusion.

B. pneumothorax.

26. A simple spirometer cannot measure which of the following air volumes? A. Tidal volume B. Vital capacity C. Residual volume D. Expiratory reserve volume E. Inspiratory capacity

C. Residual volume

27. The most sensitive areas of the air passages are in the A. larynx and bronchi. B. bronchioles. C. alveolar ducts. D. alveoli. E. pharynx.

A. larynx and bronchi.

28. The volume of air that enters (or leaves) during a single respiratory cycle is the A. inspiratory reserve volume. B. vital capacity. C. tidal volume. D. expiratory reserve volume. E. tidal wave.

C. tidal volume.

29. The first event in inspiration is A. the diaphragm moves downward and the external intercostal muscles contract. B. atmospheric pressure forces air into the respiratory tract. C. decreased intra-alveolar pressure. D. lung inflation. E. holding one's breath.

A. the diaphragm moves downward and the external intercostal muscles contract.

30. The first event in expiration is A. inter-alveolar pressure increases. B. elastic tissues of the lungs, thoracic cage, and abdominal organs recoil. C. air is squeezed out of the lungs. D. the diaphragm and external intercostal respiratory muscles relax. E. inter-alveolar pressure decreases.

D. the diaphragm and external intercostal respiratory muscles relax

31. The inverse relationship between pressure and volume is known as A. Dalton's law. B. Newton's law. C. Boyle's law. D. Hering-Breuer reflex E. Clinton's law.

C. Boyle's law.

32. The probable function of yawning A. is to release extra oxygen. B. is to release extra carbon dioxide C. is to alert people that you are bored. D. was to signal aggression in our ancient ancestors. E. is poorly understood.

E. is poorly understood.

33. The respiratory areas are in the A. cerebral cortex. B. pons and medulla oblongata. C. alveoli. D. hypothalamus and hippocampus. E. hippocampus.

B. pons and medulla oblongata.

34. "I'm going to hold my breath until I turn blue and stop breathing and die and it will be all your fault!" shrieked the 6-year-old at her father. The child was unable to carry out her threat because A. she never stopped talking long enough to try to hold her breath. B. increased CO2 and hydrogen ion concentration and decreased oxygen concentration stimulate chemoreceptors. C. decreased CO2 and hydrogen ion concentration and increased oxygen concentration stimulate chemoreceptors. D. she could not take in enough oxygen. E. none of the above.

B. increased CO2 and hydrogen ion concentration and decreased oxygen concentration stimulate chemoreceptors.

35. Baby Timothy suffers from apnea and is hooked up to a monitor to warn his parents when he stops breathing. Timothy's dad snores very loudly. Timothy's condition differs from his father's in that infant apnea is A. due to airway obstruction. B. a result of decreased surfactant. C. a central problem of respiratory control. D. due to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) E. inherited.

C. a central problem of respiratory control.

36. Emily is winded from running to her car from the supermarket. It is late at night and she thinks she is being followed. Which of the following receptors would not be involved in regulating her breathing rate? A. Baroreceptors B. Mechanoreceptors C. Central chemoreceptors D. Peripheral chemoreceptors E. None of the above.

A. Baroreceptors

37. The ventral part of the medulla oblongata near the origin of the vagus nerve has A. baroreceptors B. mechanoreceptors C. central chemoreceptors D. peripheral chemoreceptors E. vagoreceptors

C. central chemoreceptors

38. Which of the following factors does not directly affect breathing rate? A. Partial pressure of oxygen in body fluids. B. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide in body fluids. C. Degree of lung tissue stretch D. pH E. level of physical activity.

D. pH

39. Peripheral receptors stimulate the respiratory areas resulting in A. increased respiratory rate. B. decreased respiratory rate. C. respiratory collapse. D. passive exhalation. E. a loud belch.

A. increased respiratory rate.

40. The partial pressure of oxygen that stimulates the respiratory areas is ___ of normal. A. 33% B. 50% C. 67% D. 80% E. 100%

B. 50%

41. Oxygen plays a minor role in control of normal respiration because A. oxygenated blood is > 95% saturated. B. deoxygenated venous blood is < 5% saturated. C. oxygenated blood is more sensitive to CO2. D. deoxygenated venous blood is 75% saturated. E. deoxygenated venous blood is polyunsaturated.

D. deoxygenated venous blood is 75% saturated.

42. Which of the following is important in maintaining the pH of blood? A. Oxygen B. Phosphate C. Carbon dioxide D. Nitrogen E. Hydrogen

C. Carbon dioxide

43. The chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies are most sensitive to changes in blood concentration of A. carbon dioxide. B. hydrogen ions. C. oxygen. D. bicarbonate ions. E. nitrogen.

C. oxygen.

44. Carbon dioxide is sometimes added to the air that a patient breathes in order to A. increase the rate and decrease the depth of breathing. B. increase the rate and depth of breathing. C. decrease the rate and increase the depth of breathing. D. decrease the rate and depth of breathing. E. none of the above.

B. increase the rate and depth of breathing

45. Hyperventilation is usually accompanied by a(n) A. decrease in blood CO2 concentration and a drop in pH. B. decrease in blood CO2 concentration and a rise in pH. C. increase in blood CO2 concentration and a drop in pH. D. increase in blood CO2 concentration and a rise in pH. E. increase in hemoglobin content of the blood.

B. decrease in blood CO2 concentration and a rise in pH.

46. Max works out about an hour every day, using aerobic machines at a gym. During his moderate physical exercise, blood concentrations of A. oxygen and carbon dioxide increase. B. oxygen and carbon dioxide remain nearly unchanged. C. oxygen decrease and carbon dioxide increase. D. oxygen increase and carbon dioxide decrease. E. nitrogen and hydrogen increase.

B. oxygen and carbon dioxide remain nearly unchanged.

47. Increasing blood concentrations of carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions have similar effects upon the respiratory areas due to A. their similarity in chemical structure, inhibiting the respiratory rate. B. both chemically bonding, increasing the respiratory rate. C. an increase in carbon dioxide, increasing hydrogen ions. D. both increasing pH and inhibiting the respiratory areas. E. removing oxygen.

C. an increase in carbon dioxide, increasing hydrogen ions

48. The walls of the alveoli are composed of A. ciliated columnar epithelium. B. simple squamous epithelium. C. stratified squamous epithelium. D. areolar connective tissue. E. layers of fibroblasts emeshed in collagen fibrils.

B. simple squamous epithelium.

49. The respiratory membrane consists of A. a single thickness of epithelial cells. B. a single thickness of epithelial cells and a basement membrane. C. two thicknesses of epithelial cells. D. two thicknesses of epithelial cells and basement membranes. E. collagen and elastin with widely spaced fibroblasts.

D. two thicknesses of epithelial cells and basement membranes.

50. Alveoli are kept clean by the action of A. surfactant. B. antibodies. C. macrophages. D. pseudoephedrine. E. platelets.

C. macrophages.

51. In bronchopulmonary dysplasia, the lungs of newborns become inflamed and scarred. Most infants recover, but some die. An experimental treatment cultures stem cells from a newborn's umbilical cord. The stem cells, in a lab dish, give rise to type II cells, which in turn give rise to more type I cells. In this treatment A. the type I cells secrete surfactant and the type II cells form the respiratory membrane. B. the type II cells secrete surfactant and the type I cells form the respiratory membrane. C. the stem cells enable the baby to grow new lungs. D. the stem cells directly replace alveoli. E. both type I and type II cells produce surfactant.

B. the type II cells secrete surfactant and the type I cells form the respiratory membrane.

52. Police stop Richard for driving erratically at 3 AM and give him a breathalyzer test, which he fails miserably because of A. the thinness of his respiratory membranes. B. the thickness of his respiratory membranes. C. the excellent condition of his alveoli. D. excess surfactant secreted in response to alcohol. E. the malfunction of his respiratory membranes.

A. the thinness of his respiratory membranes.

53. The amount of oxygen released from oxyhemoglobin increases when A. carbon dioxide concentration decreases. B. carbon dioxide concentration increases. C. temperature decreases. D. blood becomes more alkaline. E. the moon is full.

B. carbon dioxide concentration increases.

54. The enzyme carbonic anhydrase causes A. carbon dioxide to react with water. B. carbon dioxide to react with bicarbonate ions. C. water to react with bicarbonate ions. D. water to react with hydrogen ions. E. hydrogen to react with oxygen.

A. carbon dioxide to react with water.

55. Which of the following proteins transports some carbon dioxide in the blood? A. Hemoglobin B. Carbonic anhydrase C. Heme D. Albumin E. Ferritin

A. Hemoglobin

56. Globin is A. another term for alveolus. B. a fat that carries oxygen in the blood. C. a form of surfactant. D. the protein part of hemoglobin, which carries oxygen in the blood. E. a type of microorganism that infects the lungs, especially in people who have cystic fibrosis.

D. the protein part of hemoglobin, which carries oxygen in the blood.

57. The chloride shift A. maintains the ionic balance between the red blood cells and the plasma. B. inflates alveoli while decreasing oxygen delivery to tissues. C. replaces carbonic anhydrase. D. regulates the amount of salt in the large intestine compared to the small intestine. E. none of the above.

A. maintains the ionic balance between the red blood cells and the plasma.

58. A mother and two young children are found passed out in their apartment, where a space heater is on. Emergency medical technicians suspect carbon monoxide poisoning, so they give the patients A. CPR. B. highly concentrated oxygen and some carbon dioxide. C. surfactant. D. blood transfusions. E. nitrogen and carbon dioxide

B. highly concentrated oxygen and some carbon dioxide.

59. Changes in the respiratory system that accompany aging are A. thickened mucus. B. slowed swallowing reflex. C. macrophages become less efficient at keeping bacteria out. D. cilia become less active or vanish. E. all of the above.

E. all of the above.

60. Exposure to secondhand smoke can cause or increase risk of A. high altitude sickness and sleep apnea. B. heart disease, lung cancer, and low birth weight. C. pneumonia and tuberculosis. D. sarcoidosis, multiple sclerosis, and vasculitis E. all of the above.

B. heart disease, lung cancer, and low birth weight.

61. Exposure to secondhand smoke increases risk of A. damage to the smooth endothelial lining of blood vessels. B. platelet activation C. abnormal blood clotting. D. decreased coronary artery blood flow. E. all of the above.

E. all of the above.

62. Cancer that originates in the lungs is most likely to begin in A. epithelial (lining) cells. B. smooth muscle cells. C. dense connective tissue cells. D. hyaline cartilage cells. E. adipose cells.

A. epithelial (lining) cells.

63. Smokers are more susceptible to respiratory infections because A. they congregate in small areas to smoke. B. their respiratory passages overproduce cilia, to which bacteria cling. C. their respiratory passages lose cilia, which would otherwise remove bacteria. D. the respiratory passages have too little mucus. E. their respiratory passages have receptors to which infectious bacteria bind.

C. their respiratory passages lose cilia, which would otherwise remove bacteria.

64. In emphysema A. pressure in alveoli increases and their walls burst, coalescing them and decreasing the surface area for gas exchange. B. cells in the bronchial lining divide too fast. C. tar from cigarettes blackens alveoli. D. the respiratory system gradually fails due to too little mucus and thinning of the bronchial lining. E. membranes form within alveoli, increasing surface area.

A. pressure in alveoli increases and their walls burst, coalescing them and decreasing the surface area for gas exchange.

65. In October 2001 at the site of the World Trade Center in New York City, fires were still burning from the terrorist attacks that had brought down the buildings. The greatest danger to the respiratory system was A. the odor. B. very small particles of debris. C. very large particles of debris. D. falling material from damaged buildings. E. all of the people smoking cigarettes.

B. very small particles of debris.

66. A disorder seen in people who work in factories that package buttered popcorn, caused by inhaling organic dust, is A. emphysema B. extrinsic allergic alveolitis. C. berylliosis D. asbestosis. E. river blindness.

B. extrinsic allergic alveolitis

67. Bronchial asthma is usually caused by A. an injury to the respiratory areas. B. poliomyelitis. C. an allergy. D. paralysis of breathing muscles. E. coalescing alveoli.

C. an allergy.

68. During an asthma attack, the patient usually finds it most difficult to A. exhale. B. inhale. C. contract the respiratory muscles. D. expand the lungs. E. sneeze.

A. exhale.

69. Emphysema increases A. total surface area of the respiratory membrane. B. alveolar wall elasticity. C. the number of respiratory capillaries. D. temperature. E. none of the above.

E. none of the above.

70. Breathing rate increases during exercise due to A. signals from the cerebral cortex to the respiratory areas when it also signals skeletal muscles to contract. B. muscle stimulation of proprioceptors. C. a joint reflex. D. stimulation of the respiratory areas by decreasing blood concentration of oxygen and increasing blood concentration of carbon dioxide. E. all of the above.

E. all of the above.

71. The hypoxia associated with high altitude can cause A. vasodilation of the major arterial blood vessels. B. vasoconstriction of the pulmonary blood vessels. C. vasoconstriction of the coronary blood vessels. D. vasodilation of the major venous blood vessels. E. vasoexpansion of the capillaries.

B. vasoconstriction of the pulmonary blood vessels.

72. At high altitudes, when capillary pressure becomes too high, A. fluid filters out of the blood and collects in the alveoli. B. blood pressure decreases. C. dehydration occurs. D. blood pH increases to pathologic levels. E. itching begins.

A. fluid filters out of the blood and collects in the alveoli.

73. Atelectasis is A. a collapsed bronchial tube. B. a deviated septum. C. a collapsed lung. D. a shrunken liver. E. none of the above.

C. a collapsed lung.

74. In tuberculosis A. an obstruction blocks airflow to alveoli, which collapse, deflating part or all of a lung. B. a viral infection increases fluid in the lung. C. alveoli collapse after near-drowning. D. fibrous connective tissue forms around the sites of bacterial infection. E. fungi inhabit the lungs.

D. fibrous connective tissue forms around the sites of bacterial infection.

75. Pneumonia can be caused by A. bacteria, viruses, or fungi. B. viruses only. C. fungi only. D. bacteria only. E. exposure to a toxin.

A. bacteria, viruses, or fungi.

76. Another word for breathing is ventilation.

TRUE

77. Cellular respiration enables cells to harness the energy from oxygen.

FALSE

78. The organs of the upper respiratory tract are located outside the thorax.

TRUE

79. The pharynx is an enlargement at the top of the trachea that houses the vocal cords.

FALSE

80. The glottis is the opening between the vocal cords.

TRUE

81. The left lung is larger than the right lung and is divided into three lobes.

FALSE

82. The pectoralis minors and the sternocleidomastoid are useful in aiding forced expiration.

FALSE

83. The inflation reflex is activated when stretch receptors are stimulated during inspiration.

TRUE

84. A sudden contraction of the diaphragm while the glottis is closed produces a sneeze.

FALSE

85. Ordinary air is about 21% oxygen and 78% nitrogen.

TRUE

86. Gas exchange occurs across alveolar pores.

FALSE

87. Carbon monoxide bonds to hemoglobin more effectively than does oxygen.

TRUE

88. The greatest amount of carbon dioxide transported in the blood is in the form of dissolved carbon dioxide.

FALSE

89. Oxygen is carried in the blood in the form of bicarbonate ions and is bound to hemoglobin.

False

90. Carbon monoxide is toxic because it destroys respiratory areas in the brain.

False

91. Coughing reflexes become faster with age.

False

92. The bronchus and blood vessels enter a lung through the _______.

hilum

93. The nasal conchae create passageways in the nasal cavity called ______.

meatuses

94. The cartilaginous structure at the base of the tongue that helps to prevent food and liquid from entering the trachea during swallowing is the ______.

epiglottis

95. The layer of serous membrane that is firmly attached to the surface of a lung is called ______ ______.

visceral pleura

96. The ease with which the lungs can be expanded during breathing is called ______.

compliance

97. The respiratory areas are in the medulla oblongata and the ____ of the brainstem.

pons

98. A voluntary increase in the rate and depth of breathing is called ______.

hyperventilation

99. In a mixture of gases, each gas creates a pressure called its ______ ______.

partial pressure

100. The cells of an alveolus that secrete surfactant are type __.

II

101. When carbon dioxide bonds to hemoglobin, the compound ______ forms.

carbaminohemoglobin

102. The amount of oxygen released from oxyhemoglobin ______ as the concentration of carbon dioxide increases.

increases

Chapter 19 Respiratory System - Subjecto.com

Chapter 19 Respiratory System

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1. Respiration is
A. breathing. B. making ATP. C. gas exchange between the atmosphere and cells. D. circulating blood to tissues. E. extracting energy from glucose.

C. gas exchange between the atmosphere and cells.

2. The events of respiration are A. inhaling and exhaling. B. ventilation, external and internal respiration, and cellular respiration. C. inflating and deflating alveoli. D. delivering carbon dioxide to cells and removing oxygen from cells. E. digesting and excreting.

B. ventilation, external and internal respiration, and cellular respiration.

3. The ultimate function of breathing is to A. deliver oxygen to cells, where it takes part in the reactions of cellular respiration that liberate energy from nutrient molecules and get rid of carbon dioxide, which maintains the pH of the internal environment. B. inflate the lungs, which forces oxygen molecules into the bloodstream. C. deliver carbon dioxide to cells, where it takes part in the reactions of cellular respiration that liberate energy from nutrient molecules and get rid of oxygen, which maintains the pH of the internal environment. D. deliver oxygen to cells, where it takes part in the reactions of cellular respiration that liberate energy from waste molecules. E. deliver oxygen to cells during the day and deliver carbon dioxide at night.

A. deliver oxygen to cells, where it takes part in the reactions of cellular respiration that liberate energy from nutrient molecules and get rid of carbon dioxide, which maintains the pH of the internal environment.

4. Which of the following bones does not house a sinus? A. Maxillary B. Frontal C. Sphenoid D. Zygomatic E. Ethmoid

D. Zygomatic

5. Which of these laryngeal cartilages is single? A. Cricoid B. Arytenoid C. Corniculate D. Cuneiform E. Marbular

A. Cricoid

6. The pitch of a vocal sound is controlled by changing the A. force of the air. B. tension on the vocal cord. C. size of the laryngeal cartilages. D. oral opening. E. shape of the laryngeal cartilages.

B. tension on the vocal cord.

7. Arielle is an 8-year-old with cystic fibrosis. For 30 minutes each morning and evening, a parent holds her body in various positions and massages and kneads the areas over her lungs to dislodge the abundant, sticky mucus, which Arielle spits into a jar. She also takes medication – an enzyme – that thins the mucus. If she didn’t take these measures, the mucus in her lungs would most likely increase her risk of A. cancer. B. emphysema. C. infection. D. asthma. E. mutation.

C. infection

8. The vocal cords are in the A. pharynx. B. larynx. C. trachea. D. oral cavity. E. nasal cavity.

B. larynx.

9. Which of the following is not a function of the mucus-covered nasal passages? A. Warming inspired air. B. Moistening inspired air. C. Entrapping small particles. D. Entrapping dust. E. Cooling exhaled air.

E. Cooling exhaled air.

10. The intensity (volume) of a vocal sound is a result of the A. force of air passing over the vocal cords. B. tension on the vocal cords. C. size of the laryngeal cartilage. D. shape of the laryngeal cartilage. E. shape of the oral cavity.

A. force of air passing over the vocal cords.

11. A flashlight placed just below the eyebrow in a darkened room illuminates the A. frontal sinus. B. maxillary sinus. C. sphenoid sinus. D. ethmoid sinus. E. posterior sinus.

A. frontal sinus.

12. Laryngitis is a potentially dangerous condition because it may A. obstruct the esophagus. B. obstruct the airway. C. press on the thyroid gland. D. cause inner ear infection. E. cause mucus buildup in the lungs.

B. obstruct the airway.

13. The procedure used to directly examine the trachea and bronchial tree is called A. bronchoscopy. B. tracheostomy. C. tracheotomy. D. laryngectomy. E. lingualectomy.

A. bronchoscopy.

14. The mucous membrane lining the nasal cavity A. warms incoming air. B. moistens incoming air. C. entraps dust D. entraps other small particles. E. all of the above.

E. all of the above.

15. The pharynx functions as a ______, whereas the larynx functions as a ______. A. common passage for air and food; passageway for food only B. passageway for air only; passageway for air and food C. common passageway for air and food; passageway for air only D. site to prevent objects from entering the trachea; site to prevent objects from entering the larynx E. block to bacteria; conduit for air and food

C. common passageway for air and food; passageway for air only

16. The trachea A. is lined with a ciliated mucous membrane. B. includes 20 C-shaped cartilage rings. C. is a passageway for air. D. is also called the windpipe. E. is all of the above

E. is all of the above

17. As the respiratory tube branches become finer, A. it has increased cartilage. B. it has less muscle. C. it has fewer elastic fibers. D. the epithelial lining changes from pseudostratified ciliated columnar to cuboidal and simple squamous epithelium. E. the epithelial lining changes to connective tissue.

D. the epithelial lining changes from pseudostratified ciliated columnar to cuboidal and simple squamous epithelium.

18. The right lung has ______ lobes; the left lung has ______ lobes. A. superior, middle, and inferior; superior and inferior B. superior and inferior; superior; middle, and inferior C. anterior, posterior, and lateral; superior and inferior D. superior, middle, and inferior; anterior and posterior E. superior, middle, and inferior; superior, medial, and inferior

A. superior, middle, and inferior; superior and inferior

19. The force that moves air into the lungs during inspiration comes from the A. diaphragm. B. external intercostal muscles. C. abdominal wall muscles. D. atmospheric pressure. E. cerebral cortex.

D. atmospheric pressure.

20. The force responsible for normal expiration is supplied by the A. diaphragm. B. external intercostal muscles. C. elastic recoil of tissues and surface tension. D. contraction of smooth muscles in air passages. E. none of the above.

C. elastic recoil of tissues and surface tension.

21. The volume of air that enters or leaves the lungs during a normal respiratory cycle is the A. tidal volume. B. residual volume. C. vital capacity. D. total lung capacity. E. vital volume.

A. tidal volume.

22. Of the respiratory air volumes listed, which one has the largest volume? A. Expiratory reserve volume B. Inspiratory reserve volume C. Vital capacity D. Tidal volume E. Vital volume

C. Vital capacity

23. Respiratory distress syndrome in newborns is caused by A. lack of surfactant. B. lack of a respiratory membrane. C. low oxygen concentration. D. high oxygen concentration. E. a bacterial infection.

A. lack of surfactant.

24. The visceral and parietal pleural membranes are normally held together by A. loose connective tissue. B. dense connective tissue. C. a thin film of serous fluid. D. surfactant. E. mucus.

C. a thin film of serous fluid.

25. Air entering the potential space of the pleural cavity is called A. pneumonia. B. pneumothorax. C. pulmonary ventilation. D. internal respiration. E. a pleural infusion.

B. pneumothorax.

26. A simple spirometer cannot measure which of the following air volumes? A. Tidal volume B. Vital capacity C. Residual volume D. Expiratory reserve volume E. Inspiratory capacity

C. Residual volume

27. The most sensitive areas of the air passages are in the A. larynx and bronchi. B. bronchioles. C. alveolar ducts. D. alveoli. E. pharynx.

A. larynx and bronchi.

28. The volume of air that enters (or leaves) during a single respiratory cycle is the A. inspiratory reserve volume. B. vital capacity. C. tidal volume. D. expiratory reserve volume. E. tidal wave.

C. tidal volume.

29. The first event in inspiration is A. the diaphragm moves downward and the external intercostal muscles contract. B. atmospheric pressure forces air into the respiratory tract. C. decreased intra-alveolar pressure. D. lung inflation. E. holding one’s breath.

A. the diaphragm moves downward and the external intercostal muscles contract.

30. The first event in expiration is A. inter-alveolar pressure increases. B. elastic tissues of the lungs, thoracic cage, and abdominal organs recoil. C. air is squeezed out of the lungs. D. the diaphragm and external intercostal respiratory muscles relax. E. inter-alveolar pressure decreases.

D. the diaphragm and external intercostal respiratory muscles relax

31. The inverse relationship between pressure and volume is known as A. Dalton’s law. B. Newton’s law. C. Boyle’s law. D. Hering-Breuer reflex E. Clinton’s law.

C. Boyle’s law.

32. The probable function of yawning A. is to release extra oxygen. B. is to release extra carbon dioxide C. is to alert people that you are bored. D. was to signal aggression in our ancient ancestors. E. is poorly understood.

E. is poorly understood.

33. The respiratory areas are in the A. cerebral cortex. B. pons and medulla oblongata. C. alveoli. D. hypothalamus and hippocampus. E. hippocampus.

B. pons and medulla oblongata.

34. "I’m going to hold my breath until I turn blue and stop breathing and die and it will be all your fault!" shrieked the 6-year-old at her father. The child was unable to carry out her threat because A. she never stopped talking long enough to try to hold her breath. B. increased CO2 and hydrogen ion concentration and decreased oxygen concentration stimulate chemoreceptors. C. decreased CO2 and hydrogen ion concentration and increased oxygen concentration stimulate chemoreceptors. D. she could not take in enough oxygen. E. none of the above.

B. increased CO2 and hydrogen ion concentration and decreased oxygen concentration stimulate chemoreceptors.

35. Baby Timothy suffers from apnea and is hooked up to a monitor to warn his parents when he stops breathing. Timothy’s dad snores very loudly. Timothy’s condition differs from his father’s in that infant apnea is A. due to airway obstruction. B. a result of decreased surfactant. C. a central problem of respiratory control. D. due to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) E. inherited.

C. a central problem of respiratory control.

36. Emily is winded from running to her car from the supermarket. It is late at night and she thinks she is being followed. Which of the following receptors would not be involved in regulating her breathing rate? A. Baroreceptors B. Mechanoreceptors C. Central chemoreceptors D. Peripheral chemoreceptors E. None of the above.

A. Baroreceptors

37. The ventral part of the medulla oblongata near the origin of the vagus nerve has A. baroreceptors B. mechanoreceptors C. central chemoreceptors D. peripheral chemoreceptors E. vagoreceptors

C. central chemoreceptors

38. Which of the following factors does not directly affect breathing rate? A. Partial pressure of oxygen in body fluids. B. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide in body fluids. C. Degree of lung tissue stretch D. pH E. level of physical activity.

D. pH

39. Peripheral receptors stimulate the respiratory areas resulting in A. increased respiratory rate. B. decreased respiratory rate. C. respiratory collapse. D. passive exhalation. E. a loud belch.

A. increased respiratory rate.

40. The partial pressure of oxygen that stimulates the respiratory areas is ___ of normal. A. 33% B. 50% C. 67% D. 80% E. 100%

B. 50%

41. Oxygen plays a minor role in control of normal respiration because A. oxygenated blood is > 95% saturated. B. deoxygenated venous blood is < 5% saturated. C. oxygenated blood is more sensitive to CO2. D. deoxygenated venous blood is 75% saturated. E. deoxygenated venous blood is polyunsaturated.

D. deoxygenated venous blood is 75% saturated.

42. Which of the following is important in maintaining the pH of blood? A. Oxygen B. Phosphate C. Carbon dioxide D. Nitrogen E. Hydrogen

C. Carbon dioxide

43. The chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies are most sensitive to changes in blood concentration of A. carbon dioxide. B. hydrogen ions. C. oxygen. D. bicarbonate ions. E. nitrogen.

C. oxygen.

44. Carbon dioxide is sometimes added to the air that a patient breathes in order to A. increase the rate and decrease the depth of breathing. B. increase the rate and depth of breathing. C. decrease the rate and increase the depth of breathing. D. decrease the rate and depth of breathing. E. none of the above.

B. increase the rate and depth of breathing

45. Hyperventilation is usually accompanied by a(n) A. decrease in blood CO2 concentration and a drop in pH. B. decrease in blood CO2 concentration and a rise in pH. C. increase in blood CO2 concentration and a drop in pH. D. increase in blood CO2 concentration and a rise in pH. E. increase in hemoglobin content of the blood.

B. decrease in blood CO2 concentration and a rise in pH.

46. Max works out about an hour every day, using aerobic machines at a gym. During his moderate physical exercise, blood concentrations of A. oxygen and carbon dioxide increase. B. oxygen and carbon dioxide remain nearly unchanged. C. oxygen decrease and carbon dioxide increase. D. oxygen increase and carbon dioxide decrease. E. nitrogen and hydrogen increase.

B. oxygen and carbon dioxide remain nearly unchanged.

47. Increasing blood concentrations of carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions have similar effects upon the respiratory areas due to A. their similarity in chemical structure, inhibiting the respiratory rate. B. both chemically bonding, increasing the respiratory rate. C. an increase in carbon dioxide, increasing hydrogen ions. D. both increasing pH and inhibiting the respiratory areas. E. removing oxygen.

C. an increase in carbon dioxide, increasing hydrogen ions

48. The walls of the alveoli are composed of A. ciliated columnar epithelium. B. simple squamous epithelium. C. stratified squamous epithelium. D. areolar connective tissue. E. layers of fibroblasts emeshed in collagen fibrils.

B. simple squamous epithelium.

49. The respiratory membrane consists of A. a single thickness of epithelial cells. B. a single thickness of epithelial cells and a basement membrane. C. two thicknesses of epithelial cells. D. two thicknesses of epithelial cells and basement membranes. E. collagen and elastin with widely spaced fibroblasts.

D. two thicknesses of epithelial cells and basement membranes.

50. Alveoli are kept clean by the action of A. surfactant. B. antibodies. C. macrophages. D. pseudoephedrine. E. platelets.

C. macrophages.

51. In bronchopulmonary dysplasia, the lungs of newborns become inflamed and scarred. Most infants recover, but some die. An experimental treatment cultures stem cells from a newborn’s umbilical cord. The stem cells, in a lab dish, give rise to type II cells, which in turn give rise to more type I cells. In this treatment A. the type I cells secrete surfactant and the type II cells form the respiratory membrane. B. the type II cells secrete surfactant and the type I cells form the respiratory membrane. C. the stem cells enable the baby to grow new lungs. D. the stem cells directly replace alveoli. E. both type I and type II cells produce surfactant.

B. the type II cells secrete surfactant and the type I cells form the respiratory membrane.

52. Police stop Richard for driving erratically at 3 AM and give him a breathalyzer test, which he fails miserably because of A. the thinness of his respiratory membranes. B. the thickness of his respiratory membranes. C. the excellent condition of his alveoli. D. excess surfactant secreted in response to alcohol. E. the malfunction of his respiratory membranes.

A. the thinness of his respiratory membranes.

53. The amount of oxygen released from oxyhemoglobin increases when A. carbon dioxide concentration decreases. B. carbon dioxide concentration increases. C. temperature decreases. D. blood becomes more alkaline. E. the moon is full.

B. carbon dioxide concentration increases.

54. The enzyme carbonic anhydrase causes A. carbon dioxide to react with water. B. carbon dioxide to react with bicarbonate ions. C. water to react with bicarbonate ions. D. water to react with hydrogen ions. E. hydrogen to react with oxygen.

A. carbon dioxide to react with water.

55. Which of the following proteins transports some carbon dioxide in the blood? A. Hemoglobin B. Carbonic anhydrase C. Heme D. Albumin E. Ferritin

A. Hemoglobin

56. Globin is A. another term for alveolus. B. a fat that carries oxygen in the blood. C. a form of surfactant. D. the protein part of hemoglobin, which carries oxygen in the blood. E. a type of microorganism that infects the lungs, especially in people who have cystic fibrosis.

D. the protein part of hemoglobin, which carries oxygen in the blood.

57. The chloride shift A. maintains the ionic balance between the red blood cells and the plasma. B. inflates alveoli while decreasing oxygen delivery to tissues. C. replaces carbonic anhydrase. D. regulates the amount of salt in the large intestine compared to the small intestine. E. none of the above.

A. maintains the ionic balance between the red blood cells and the plasma.

58. A mother and two young children are found passed out in their apartment, where a space heater is on. Emergency medical technicians suspect carbon monoxide poisoning, so they give the patients A. CPR. B. highly concentrated oxygen and some carbon dioxide. C. surfactant. D. blood transfusions. E. nitrogen and carbon dioxide

B. highly concentrated oxygen and some carbon dioxide.

59. Changes in the respiratory system that accompany aging are A. thickened mucus. B. slowed swallowing reflex. C. macrophages become less efficient at keeping bacteria out. D. cilia become less active or vanish. E. all of the above.

E. all of the above.

60. Exposure to secondhand smoke can cause or increase risk of A. high altitude sickness and sleep apnea. B. heart disease, lung cancer, and low birth weight. C. pneumonia and tuberculosis. D. sarcoidosis, multiple sclerosis, and vasculitis E. all of the above.

B. heart disease, lung cancer, and low birth weight.

61. Exposure to secondhand smoke increases risk of A. damage to the smooth endothelial lining of blood vessels. B. platelet activation C. abnormal blood clotting. D. decreased coronary artery blood flow. E. all of the above.

E. all of the above.

62. Cancer that originates in the lungs is most likely to begin in A. epithelial (lining) cells. B. smooth muscle cells. C. dense connective tissue cells. D. hyaline cartilage cells. E. adipose cells.

A. epithelial (lining) cells.

63. Smokers are more susceptible to respiratory infections because A. they congregate in small areas to smoke. B. their respiratory passages overproduce cilia, to which bacteria cling. C. their respiratory passages lose cilia, which would otherwise remove bacteria. D. the respiratory passages have too little mucus. E. their respiratory passages have receptors to which infectious bacteria bind.

C. their respiratory passages lose cilia, which would otherwise remove bacteria.

64. In emphysema A. pressure in alveoli increases and their walls burst, coalescing them and decreasing the surface area for gas exchange. B. cells in the bronchial lining divide too fast. C. tar from cigarettes blackens alveoli. D. the respiratory system gradually fails due to too little mucus and thinning of the bronchial lining. E. membranes form within alveoli, increasing surface area.

A. pressure in alveoli increases and their walls burst, coalescing them and decreasing the surface area for gas exchange.

65. In October 2001 at the site of the World Trade Center in New York City, fires were still burning from the terrorist attacks that had brought down the buildings. The greatest danger to the respiratory system was A. the odor. B. very small particles of debris. C. very large particles of debris. D. falling material from damaged buildings. E. all of the people smoking cigarettes.

B. very small particles of debris.

66. A disorder seen in people who work in factories that package buttered popcorn, caused by inhaling organic dust, is A. emphysema B. extrinsic allergic alveolitis. C. berylliosis D. asbestosis. E. river blindness.

B. extrinsic allergic alveolitis

67. Bronchial asthma is usually caused by A. an injury to the respiratory areas. B. poliomyelitis. C. an allergy. D. paralysis of breathing muscles. E. coalescing alveoli.

C. an allergy.

68. During an asthma attack, the patient usually finds it most difficult to A. exhale. B. inhale. C. contract the respiratory muscles. D. expand the lungs. E. sneeze.

A. exhale.

69. Emphysema increases A. total surface area of the respiratory membrane. B. alveolar wall elasticity. C. the number of respiratory capillaries. D. temperature. E. none of the above.

E. none of the above.

70. Breathing rate increases during exercise due to A. signals from the cerebral cortex to the respiratory areas when it also signals skeletal muscles to contract. B. muscle stimulation of proprioceptors. C. a joint reflex. D. stimulation of the respiratory areas by decreasing blood concentration of oxygen and increasing blood concentration of carbon dioxide. E. all of the above.

E. all of the above.

71. The hypoxia associated with high altitude can cause A. vasodilation of the major arterial blood vessels. B. vasoconstriction of the pulmonary blood vessels. C. vasoconstriction of the coronary blood vessels. D. vasodilation of the major venous blood vessels. E. vasoexpansion of the capillaries.

B. vasoconstriction of the pulmonary blood vessels.

72. At high altitudes, when capillary pressure becomes too high, A. fluid filters out of the blood and collects in the alveoli. B. blood pressure decreases. C. dehydration occurs. D. blood pH increases to pathologic levels. E. itching begins.

A. fluid filters out of the blood and collects in the alveoli.

73. Atelectasis is A. a collapsed bronchial tube. B. a deviated septum. C. a collapsed lung. D. a shrunken liver. E. none of the above.

C. a collapsed lung.

74. In tuberculosis A. an obstruction blocks airflow to alveoli, which collapse, deflating part or all of a lung. B. a viral infection increases fluid in the lung. C. alveoli collapse after near-drowning. D. fibrous connective tissue forms around the sites of bacterial infection. E. fungi inhabit the lungs.

D. fibrous connective tissue forms around the sites of bacterial infection.

75. Pneumonia can be caused by A. bacteria, viruses, or fungi. B. viruses only. C. fungi only. D. bacteria only. E. exposure to a toxin.

A. bacteria, viruses, or fungi.

76. Another word for breathing is ventilation.

TRUE

77. Cellular respiration enables cells to harness the energy from oxygen.

FALSE

78. The organs of the upper respiratory tract are located outside the thorax.

TRUE

79. The pharynx is an enlargement at the top of the trachea that houses the vocal cords.

FALSE

80. The glottis is the opening between the vocal cords.

TRUE

81. The left lung is larger than the right lung and is divided into three lobes.

FALSE

82. The pectoralis minors and the sternocleidomastoid are useful in aiding forced expiration.

FALSE

83. The inflation reflex is activated when stretch receptors are stimulated during inspiration.

TRUE

84. A sudden contraction of the diaphragm while the glottis is closed produces a sneeze.

FALSE

85. Ordinary air is about 21% oxygen and 78% nitrogen.

TRUE

86. Gas exchange occurs across alveolar pores.

FALSE

87. Carbon monoxide bonds to hemoglobin more effectively than does oxygen.

TRUE

88. The greatest amount of carbon dioxide transported in the blood is in the form of dissolved carbon dioxide.

FALSE

89. Oxygen is carried in the blood in the form of bicarbonate ions and is bound to hemoglobin.

False

90. Carbon monoxide is toxic because it destroys respiratory areas in the brain.

False

91. Coughing reflexes become faster with age.

False

92. The bronchus and blood vessels enter a lung through the _______.

hilum

93. The nasal conchae create passageways in the nasal cavity called ______.

meatuses

94. The cartilaginous structure at the base of the tongue that helps to prevent food and liquid from entering the trachea during swallowing is the ______.

epiglottis

95. The layer of serous membrane that is firmly attached to the surface of a lung is called ______ ______.

visceral pleura

96. The ease with which the lungs can be expanded during breathing is called ______.

compliance

97. The respiratory areas are in the medulla oblongata and the ____ of the brainstem.

pons

98. A voluntary increase in the rate and depth of breathing is called ______.

hyperventilation

99. In a mixture of gases, each gas creates a pressure called its ______ ______.

partial pressure

100. The cells of an alveolus that secrete surfactant are type __.

II

101. When carbon dioxide bonds to hemoglobin, the compound ______ forms.

carbaminohemoglobin

102. The amount of oxygen released from oxyhemoglobin ______ as the concentration of carbon dioxide increases.

increases

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