Chapter 19 quiz and vocab

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C. The brain requires glucose as much as it requires oxygen.

Which of the following statements regarding glucose is correct? Select one: A. Most cells will function normally without glucose. B. Blood glucose levels decrease in the absence of insulin. C. The brain requires glucose as much as it requires oxygen. D. The brain requires insulin to allow glucose to enter the cells.

B. diabetic ketoacidosis

A patient with an altered mental status; high blood glucose levels; and deep, rapid breathing may have a condition known as __________. Select one: A. hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic coma B. diabetic ketoacidosis C. hypoglycemic crisis D. hyperglycemic crisis

D. All of these answers are correct.

A 54-year-old golfer collapsed on the 17th green at the golf course. His friend said he wasn’t feeling well after the eighth hole, but insisted on walking and finishing out the game. His skin is pale, cool, and diaphoretic, and he provides incoherent answers to your questions. An initial blood glucose measurement indicates 65 mg/dL. The patient loses consciousness and a second blood glucose level reads 48 mg/dL. You should: Select one: A. call for, or rendezvous with, an ALS unit. B. ensure a patent airway. C. provide high-flow oxygen. D. All of these answers are correct.

C. open and maintain her airway and assess breathing

A man finds his 59-year-old wife unconscious on the couch. He states that she takes medications for type 2 diabetes. He further tells you that his wife has been ill recently and has not eaten for the past 24 hours. Your assessment reveals that the patient is unresponsive. You should: Select one: A. assess for the presence of a medical identification tag. B. administer 100% oxygen via a nonrebreathing mask. C. open and maintain her airway and assess breathing. D. administer oral glucose between her cheek and gum.

A. erythrocytes and leukocytes

The two main types of cells contained in blood are called _________. Select one: A. erythrocytes and leukocytes B. platelets and plasma C. transport and clotting D. hemoglobin A and S

D. a heart attack.

A 75-year-old male with type 1 diabetes presents with chest pain and a general feeling of weakness. He tells you that he took his insulin today and ate a regular meal approximately 2 hours ago. You should treat this patient as though he is experiencing: Select one: A. hypoglycemia. B. an acute stroke. C. hyperglycemia. D. a heart attack.

B. Pulmonary embolism

A 66-year-old woman experienced a sudden onset of difficulty breathing. She has a history of type 2 diabetes and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). On the basis of her medical history, which of the following should the EMT suspect? Select one: A. Severe hypoglycemia B. Pulmonary embolism C. Diabetic ketoacidosis D. Congestive heart failure

A. takes too much of his or her prescribed insulin.

Symptomatic hypoglycemia will MOST likely develop if a patient: Select one: A. takes too much of his or her prescribed insulin. B. markedly overeats and misses an insulin dose. C. eats a regular meal followed by mild exertion. D. misses one or two prescribed insulin injections.

A. Blindness

Which of the following conditions is the diabetic patient at an increased risk of developing? Select one: A. Blindness B. Depression C. Alcoholism D. Hepatitis B

C. insulin.

You are treating a 40-year-old male with a documented blood sugar reading of 480 mg/dL. The patient is semiconscious and breathing shallowly, and is receiving assisted ventilation from your partner. You should recognize that definitive treatment for this patient includes: Select one: A. oxygen. B. glucagon. C. insulin. D. dextrose.

A. polyphagia

Excessive eating caused by cellular "hunger" is called: Select one: A. polyphagia. B. polydipsia. C. dysphasia. D. dyspepsia.

A. diabetic ketoacidosis.

The accumulation of ketones and fatty acids in blood tissue can lead to a dangerous condition in diabetic patients known as: Select one: A. diabetic ketoacidosis. B. insulin shock. C. hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic coma. D. hypoglycemia.

B. minutes.

The onset of hypoglycemia can occur within: Select one: A. seconds. B. minutes. C. hours. D. days.

B. is caused by resistance to insulin at the cellular level.

In contrast to type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes: Select one: A. occurs when antibodies attack insulin-producing cells. B. is caused by resistance to insulin at the cellular level. C. is caused by a complete lack of insulin in the body. D. is commonly diagnosed in children and young adults.

C. irreversible renal failure.

A 37-year-old female with a history of diabetes presents with excessive urination and weakness of 2 days’ duration. Her blood glucose level reads 320 mg/dL. If this patient’s condition is not promptly treated, she will MOST likely develop: Select one: A. severe insulin shock. B. acidosis and dehydration. C. irreversible renal failure. D. hypoxia and overhydration.

C. he has hemophilia A.

During your assessment of a 19-year-old male, you are told that he is being treated with factor VIII. This indicates that: Select one: A. he has a thrombosis. B. he has thrombophilia. C. he has hemophilia A. D. his blood clots too quickly.

B. ensuring the absence of a gag reflex.

Proper procedure for administering oral glucose to a patient includes all of the following, EXCEPT: Select one: A. assessing the patient’s mental status. B. ensuring the absence of a gag reflex. C. checking the medication’s expiration date. D. requesting permission from medical control.

B. milligrams per deciliter.

Blood glucose levels are measured in: Select one: A. micrograms per deciliter. B. milligrams per deciliter. C. milliliters per decigram. D. microliters per decigram.

B. 80 and 120 mg/dL.

The normal blood glucose level is between: Select one: A. 60 and 80 mg/dL. B. 80 and 120 mg/dL. C. 30 and 150 mg/dL. D. 160 and 200 mg/dL.

A. 80 to 120

Normal blood glucose levels range from _____ mg/dL. Select one: A. 80 to 120 B. 90 to 140 C. 70 to 110 D. 60 to 100


a pathologic condition that results from the accumulation of acids in the body

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA)

A form of hyperglycemia in uncontrolled diabetes in w hich certain acids accumulate when insulin is not available.


a congenital abnormality in which the body is unable to produce clots, which results in uncontrollable bleeding.


a chemical substance produced by a gland that regulates the activity of organs and tissues.


an abnormally high blood glucose level.

hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome (HHNS)

a life-threatening condition resulting from high blood glucose that typically occurs in older adults, and which causes altered mental status, dehydration, and organ damage.


an abnormally low blood glucose level


a hormone produced by the islets of langerhans (endocrine gland located throughout the pancreas) that enables glucose in the blood to enter cells; used in synthetic form to treat and control diabetes mellitus.

kussmaul respirations

deep, rapid breathing; usually the result of an accumulation of certain acids when insulin is not available in the body.


excessive thirst that persists for long periods, despite reasonable fluid intake; often the result of excessive urination.


excessive eating; in diabetes, the inability to use glucose properly can cause a sense of hunger


the passage of an unusually large volume of urine in a given period; in diabetes, this can result from the wasting of glucose in the urine.

sickle cell disease

a hereditary disease that causes normal, round red blood cells to become oblong or sickle shaped.

symptomatic hyperglycemia

a state of unconsciousness resulting from several problems, including ketoacidosis, dehydration becasue of excessive urination, and hyperglycemia.

symptomatic hypoglycemia

severe hypoglycemmia resulting in changes in mental status.


a tendency toward the development of blood clots as a result of an abnormality of the system of coagulation


a blood clot, either in the arterial or venous system.

type 1 diabetes

an autoimmune disorder in which the individual’s immune system produces antibodies to the pancreatic beta cells, and therefore the pancreas cannot produce insulin; onset in early childhood is common.

type 2 diabetes

a condition in which insulin resistance develops in response to increased blood glucose levels; can be managed by exercise and diet modification, but is often managed by medications.

vasoocclusive crises

ischemia and pain caused by sickle-shaped red blood cells that obstruct blood flow to a portion on the body.

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