Chapter 18- The Progressive Era

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The Triangle Shirtwaist brought

much needed safety regulations

The word "Progressivism" came into common use around ________ as a way of describing a loosely defined political movement


Why was "the city" the focus of Progressive politics?

Urban populations experienced the most dramatic growth and most significant changes

Newspaper and magazine writers who exposed the ills of industrial and urban life, fueling the Progressive movement were known as _____________


________________ was the writer whose work encouraged the passage of the Meat Inspection Act

Upton Sinclair

During the Progressive era, new immigration from _______ and __________ Europe reached its peak

eastern, southern

Progressive-era immigration was part of a larger process of worldwide migration set in motion by

industrial expansion decline of traditional agriculture political turmoil widespread poverty in rural southern and eastern Europe and parts of Asia

Asian and Mexican immigrants in the early twentieth century clustered in the West as ____________________

agricultural workers

Birds of passage were _____________ who planned on returning to their homeland


Most new immigrants who arrived during the early years of the twentieth century lived in _________

close- knit communities

How did mass consumption in the Progressive era result in new consumer freedoms?

Farmers in the heartland had more time and money to attend Nickelodeon shows. It allowed people access to washing machines and vacuums.

How did "nickelodeons" reflect a mass consumption society in the Progressive era?

Nickelodeons offered a popular and less popular leisure experience for residents

During the Progressive era, growing numbers of ___________ worked in offices

native born white women

Working owmen experienced new freedoms in the Progressive era because

Young factory workers gained independence from the traditional rules of their fathers Employment opened up to married women

The term "Fordism" describes an economic system based on ________ and __________

mass production, mass consumption

The "living wage" and the "American standard of living" were an outgrowth of ________________________

a mateur consumer economy

Why did workers experience the introduciton of scientific management as a loss of freedom?

Skilled workers have to obey detailed instruction in scientific management. They felt they lost freedom of expression.

Industrial freedom in the Progressive era meant a rise in ________ and a loss of _____________ for skilled workers

union activism, personal atonomy

In the early twentieth century, the Socialist Party advocated for

free college education legislation to improve conditions of laborers public ownership of railroads – aka government ownership Public ownership of factories

By 1912, the Socialist Party had elected scores of ________

local officials

Why did the Socialist Party gain significant political influence during the Progressive era?

Jewish and other immigrant laborers across the country supported the progressive fight against economic exploitation of workers

The American Federation of Labor

Represented skill workers Membership tripled by 1900 and 1904 Established pension plans for long-term workers Forged closer ties w/ corporate leaders to stablize employee relations

Why did Samuel Gompers seek to forge closer ties with forward-looking corporate leaders?

He wanted to stabalize employer/employee relations

The Industial Workers of the World advocated for ______________

workers revolution

List 4 things that describe the 1912 textile strike in Lawrence, Massachusetts

workers wanted something better out of life Response to a reduction in weekly wages children of workers publicly marched Strike settled on workers term

What brought about a new wave of sympathy for the plight of women in the garment industry in Lawrence, Massachusetts?

The sight of the malnourished children evacuating from Lawrence shocked the public

The battle for free speech among workers in the early twentieth century was led by _______________________

industrial workers of the world (lww)

Feminism sought to attack the traditional roles of ________ for women

sexual behavior

List 2 characteristics of the Progressive era’s birth-control movement

Public lectures on sexual freedom and conception by activities such as Emma Goldman Distribution of birth control devices by Margaret Sanger

Why did Carlos Montezuma call for the abolition of the Bureau of Indian Affairs in 1916?

The bureau failed to secure Indians self-determination

Why did progressive reformers think they had much to learn from the Old World?

Germans had pioneered several measures of social legislation

List 4 statements about urban Progressives

wanted to reform the structure of government sought to establish public control of gas and water works raises taxes to increase spending on schools and parks sought to improve public transportation

List 3 characteristics of the Oregon System

included direct primary to choose candidates for political office developed by Oregon lawyer William U’Pen indicated initiative and referendum which allowed voting

List 4 reforms that were instituted by Robert La Follette, the Progressive governor of Wisconsin

utilizing primary elections to select canidates taxing corporal wealth regulating railroads and utilities drawing on non-partisan university faculty

Electoral reform during the Progressive era actually limited many Americans _____________–

the right to vote

What was the largest contradiction that plagued the ideas of the progressive reformers in the political process?

They were trying to expand the electorate and shrink its size by limiting who could vote

After 1900, the campaign for women’s suffrage included both ______ and ___________ women.

middle, working-class

In Muller v. Oregon, the United States Supreme Court argued that _________ were too weak to work _________

women, long hours

List 3 things that John Muir did

lamented the intrusion on the natural environment called the forest God’s first temples He founded the Sierra Club

Why did businesses support the Pure Food and Drug Act?

They understood that greater public confidence in the quality of products helped their sales

The Sixteenth Amendment authorized _______ to implement _____________

congress, a graduated income tax

Why were many American drawn to the Socialist party in the election of 1912?

The parties proposal to nationalize railroads, banks, and provide an unemployment relief expressed the popular progressive thought

According to Theodore Roosevelt supporters, what issue made Woodrow Wilson appear like a relic of the past?

Wilson was committed to programs that aided small businessmen and seemed to deny the inevitability of economic concentration

Jane Addams

cofounded one of the first settlements, Hull House. Co-winner of the 1931 Nobel Peace Prize

Henry Ford

Founder of Ford Motors and the sponsor of the development of the assembly line

Eugene Debs

A union leader, the founding member of the industrial workers of the world, Five times candidate for the Socialist President of the U.S.

Frederick Taylor

American engineer who sought to improve industrial efficiency

Margaret Sanger

An American birth control activist, sex educator, writer, and nurse. Opened the first birth control clinic

Bill Haywood

American radical who led the industrial workers of the World

Theodore Roosevelt

26th President, the leader of the reform faction of Republicans in New York’s state legislature

Louis Brandeis

American lawyer and associate justice on the Supreme Court

John Mitchell

The attorney general of the United States under President Nixon

Charlotte Perkins Gilman

American feminist, sociologist, novelists

New Freedom

Collection of speeches Woodrow Wilson made during his presidential campaign of 1912

Upton Sinclair

American writer who wrote nearly 100 books, won the Pulitzer Prize for fiction

Settlement House

Important reform institutions in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The Chicago Hull HOuse was well-known

Federal Reserve Act

Created the Federal Reserve System (the central banking system of the U.S.)


A reform-minded American journalist who attacked established institutions and leaders as corrupt

Seventheent Amendement

The Senate is composed of two senators per state elected by the people for 6 years

Angel Island

During Pearl Harbor, Chinese were kept there to be questioned. It is off the coast of San Francisco

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