Chapter 17 Test

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The Southern blotting technique for transferring DNA from an agarose gel to a piece of nitrocellulose membrane is named for E. M. Southern, the person who developed the procedure.

True

Recombinant DNA technology does not rely on which of the following enzymes?
A. restriction endonucleases
B. RNA methylase
C. DNA ligase
D. reverse transcriptase

RNA methylase

Which of the following is true about restriction endonucleases?
A. They make a blunt cut on the two DNA strands so that there are no single-strand regions.
B. They make staggered cuts on the DNA so that single-strand ends are formed that can be used to insert foreign DNA cut with the same enzyme.
C. Some make a blunt cut on the two DNA strands so that there are no single-strand regions and some make staggered cuts on the DNA so that single-strand ends are formed that can be used to insert foreign DNA cut with the same enzyme.
D. Depending on the incubation conditions, the same enzyme can either make a blunt cut on the two DNA strands so that there are no single-strand regions OR make staggered cuts on the DNA so that single-strand ends are formed that can be used to insert foreign DNA cut with the same enzyme.

C

When a eukaryotic gene is cloned into a bacterium, the advantage of a complementary DNA (cDNA) gene being used instead of fragments of genomic DNA is that
A. the promoter and terminator are found in the cDNA gene but not in the genomic fragment.
B. the introns have been removed from the cDNA gene but not from the genomic fragment.
C. the cDNA is made with the nucleotides found in the prokaryote but not in the eukaryote.
D. there is no advantage to using a cDNA gene rather than a genomic fragment.

B. the introns have been removed from the cDNA gene but not from the genomic fragment

Restriction endonucleases in bacteria may have evolved in order to
A. carry out natural genetic engineering.
B. protect the bacteria from infection by viruses.
C. use nucleic acids as a food (energy) source.
D. all of the choices

B. protect the bacteria from infection by viruses

Cloning a gene involves all of the following except
A. isolating the fragment of DNA containing the desired gene.
B. insertion of the gene into an appropriate vector.
C. expression of the vector and the gene in a cell-free environment.
D. introducing ligated DNA into E. coli cells.

C. expression of the vector and the gene in a cell-free environment

An enzyme that cleaves internal phosphodiester bonds of a DNA molecule is a (n)
A. exonuclease.
B. endonuclease.
C. ligase.
D. methylase.

B. endonuclease

Complementary DNA (cDNA) probes are produced using
A. restriction endonucleases.
B. RNA polymerase.
C. DNA ligase.
D. reverse transcriptase.

D. reverse transcriptase

A __________ is a DNA molecule used in hybridization reactions to detect the presence of a particular gene in separated DNA fragments.
A. plasmid
B. vector
C. probe
D. blot

C. probe

In order to express eukaryotic genes in a bacterium, the __________ must first be removed.
A. introns
B. exons
C. enhancers
D. 3′ poly A sequence

A. introns

Which of the following was first produced commercially using recombinant DNA technology?
A. Human growth hormone.
B. Interleukins.
C. Hepatitis B vaccine.
D. Human insulin.

D. human insulin

The enzyme reverse transcriptase was discovered by
A. Arber and Smith.
B. Jackson, Symons, and Berg.
C. Boyer and Cohen.
D. Temin and Baltimore.

D. Temin and Baltimore

Restriction endonucleases were discovered by
A. Arber and Smith.
B. Jackson, Symons, and Berg.
C. Boyer and Cohen.
D. Temin and Baltimore.

A. Arber and Smith

Restriction endonucleases are produced by
A. fungi.
B. bacteria.
C. protozoa.
D. plants.
E. all of the choices

B. bacteria

Genetic engineering methods have been used to produce vaccines.

True

The production of large quantities of a particular DNA sequence is known as gene __________________.

amplification

The thermostable enzyme most commonly used in PCR is reverse transcriptase.

False

The three steps that take place in each cycle during PCR occur in which order?
A. DNA annealing, denaturation, and synthesis.
B. DNA denaturation, annealing, and synthesis.
C. DNA synthesis, denaturation, and annealing.
D. none of the above.

B. DNA denaturation, annealing, and synthesis

A PCR procedure that allows a determination of the amount of a particular DNA fragment that is present in a sample is called
A. quantitative PCR.
B. analytical PCR.
C. real-time PCR.
D. reverse PCR.

C. real-time PCR

The PCR method was developed by
A. Boyer.
B. Mullis.
C. Cohen.
D. Sanger.

B. Mullis

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can be used to produce __________ of copies in a few hours.
A. hundreds
B. thousands
C. millions
D. billions

D. billions

Movement of charged molecules in an electrical field, which is used to separate nucleic acid fragments for recombinant DNA work, is called
A. iontophoresis.
B. nucleophoresis.
C. electrophoresis.
D. plasmaphoresis.

C. electrophoresis

Which of the following best describes the basis for separation of DNA fragments during agarose gel electrophoresis?
A. The fragments with the highest percentage of G and C will migrate fastest.
B. The fragments with the highest percentage of A and T will migrate fastest.
C. The largest fragments will migrate fastest.
D. The smallest fragments will migrate fastest.

D. the smallest fragments will migrate fastest

Which of the following is not true of cloning vectors?
A. They usually contain multicloning sites or polylinkers.
B. They contain at least two replication origins.
C. They can be replicated within an appropriate host.
D. All of these are true of cloning vectors.

B. they contain at least two replication origins

Which of the following can be used as vectors for cloning DNA fragments?
A. plasmids.
B. cosmids.
C. bacteriophages.
D. all of the choices.

D. all of the choices

Plasmid cloning vector DNA is usually introduced into bacterial hosts by
A. ligation.
B. transformation.
C. transduction.
D. plasmolysis.

B. transformation

Plasmid vectors often contain __________ genes that can be used to screen for recombinants.
A. metabolic activation
B. antibiotic resistance
C. insertion sequence
D. promoter/operator

B. antibiotic resistance

A DNA molecule used to carry a foreign gene into a host organism is called a
A. plasmid.
B. vector.
C. probe.
D. blot.

B. vector

Antibiotics incorporated into the culture medium can
A. select against organisms that have not incorporated the plasmid.
B. select against organisms that have incorporated a plasmid not containing the desired gene.
C. enhance production of recombinant proteins.
D. select against organisms that have not incorporated the plasmid and select against organisms that have incorporated a plasmid not containing the desired gene

A. select against organisms that have not incorporated the plasmid

A (n) __________ vector is a plasmid that can be replicated in several different organisms because it has at least one origin of replication that will function in each host.
A. shuttle
B. chimeric
C. expression
D. phage

A. shuttle

___________ is a bacterial plasmid vector.
A. Lambda
B. T4 DNA ligase
C. pUC19
D. SV40

C. pUC19

Which of the following is not part of a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC)?
A. The F factor.
B. A selectable marker.
C. An ARS.
D. A CEN sequence.

A. the F factor

Which of the following types of cloning vector can carry the largest amount of foreign DNA?
A. bacterial artificial chromosome.
B. bacteriophage.
C. cosmid.
D. plasmid.

A. bacterial artificial chromosome

Cosmids are plasmids that can be packaged into capsids of the bacteriophage lambda; therefore, they can be transmitted like phages, but they can exist and replicate in a cell like plasmids.

True

Transposons are frequently used as cloning vectors.

False

Cosmids are so named because they can be used to express foreign genes in a variety of different hosts.

False

Regardless of the exact approach taken to recombinant DNA technology, one of the keys to successful cloning is choosing the right vector.

True

One of the major advantages to using plasmids as cloning vectors is that very high copy numbers can be achieved with many types of plasmid vectors.

True

A(n)__________ __________ is a piece of DNA with all of the features necessary for chromosomal replication and which can carry large (up to 1000 kb) pieces of foreign DNA into a host organism.

artificial chromosome

A genomic __________ is a sufficiently large collection of recombinant DNA molecules in which the inserted sequences together represent the entire genome of an organism.

library

Promoters for genes that code for proteins can be isolated from a cDNA library.

False

In _____________, cells are mixed with recombinant DNA and exposed to a brief pulse of high-voltage electricity to cause the membrane to become permeable and allow the uptake of DNA from its environment.

Electroporation

Electroporation is commonly used to introduce recombinant DNA molecules into cells.

True

When a eukaryotic gene is expressed in a bacterium, the eukaryotic regulatory sequences should be maintained in order to achieve maximum expression of the gene.

False

A (n) __________ vector contains promoters that result in high-level transcription of the gene cloned within a multicloning site.
A. shuttle
B. chimeric
C. expression
D. phage

C. expression

Some plasmid vectors have incorporated the regulatory sequences of the lactose operon so that the expression of the recombinant gene can be induced at the appropriate time.

True

The most frequently chosen prokaryotic host in cloning techniques is
A. Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
B. Bacillus subtilis.
C. Staphylococcus aureus.
D. Escherichia coli.

D. Escherichia coli

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