Chapter 17 Mastering Microbiology

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The primary immune response involves

a slow rise in the concentration of antibodies, followed by a gradual decline.

According to the animation, for approximately how many days is IgG present in the serum?

Ten days

According to the animation, on what day does IgM first appear?

Day five

Phagocytosis is a process for engulfing large particles (>1μm). Which feature of antibodies will help to make particles larger, therefore enhancing phagocytosis?


The flu virus mutates fairly frequently. Its adhesive proteins change such that we have different "strains" of influenza each year. When a particular flu virus mutates such that its adhesive proteins change, which function of antibodies is disrupted?


__________________ stimulated with ___________ differentiate into __________, which secrete antibodies into the bloodstream.

B-cells, antigen, plasma cells

Antigen processing and presentation

is a way for a cell to give information about its activities.

Why would a body cell that is not a phagocyte need to present antigens?

Non-phagocytic body cells can become infected with a virus.

How do phagocytes communicate to other cells what they have captured?

They present antigens from engulfed foreign cells.

Which of the following best characterizes clonal selection?

The production of identical B cells producing the same antibody

What is produced by the process of clonal expansion?

Plasma cells and memory B cells

An antigen that is potent enough to activate a B cell on its own is known as

T-independent antigens.

Based on the animation, T cells recognized the antigen displayed by what protein of the B cell?


How can a sufficient humoral immune response occur if a plasma cell only lives for a few days?

Each plasma cell can produce up to 2000 antibodies every second.

What makes agglutination by antibodies possible?

Each antibody has at least two antigen-binding sites.

What is the role of plasma cells in humoral immunity?

Plasma cells produce antibodies.

Which of the following most accurately describes how a pathogenic bacterium might be affected by antibodies?

The antibodies may block proteins necessary for binding the pathogen to the host, may opsonize the bacterium, or may agglutinate bacteria.

Where are MHC molecules located on a cell?

On the surface of the cell

What is a feature of the small fragments presented by MHC-I proteins?

They are small peptides, roughly 8-10 amino acids long.

Which organelle assists directly with the presentation of MHC-I antigens?

The endoplasmic reticulum

When does MHC-II loading occur?

During the fusion of vesicles containing MHC-II proteins with vesicles containing digested pathogens

Which of the cells listed below can present antigens on Class II MHC proteins?


What is apoptosis?

The process of programmed cell death.

What is the function of the CD8 receptor?

Bind to MHC molecules

What is the fate of activated cytotoxic T-cells?

They proliferate into a clone of cells specific to the same antigen; some of these cells then differentiate into long-lived memory T-cells, while others mature to attack infected cells.

Which molecule triggers apoptosis?


Which event happens first during cytotoxic T-cell activation?

CD8 binds to MHC molecules of infected cells

Which receptor on the helper T-cell recognizes the specific antigen from an antigen-presenting cell?


TH2 cells produce cytokines that activate

B cells.

Which proteins on the antigen-presenting cell are recognized by the helper T-cell?

MHC proteins

When do helper T-cells develop into TH1 or TH2 cells?

After proliferation into a clonal population

Natural killer cells are activated by

TH1 cells.

Which type of cell directly attacks infected cells?

Cytotoxic T-cells

Immune cells that secrete cytokines and activate other immune cells are:

Helper T-cells

HIV directly infects T-cells. Why is this problematic for cell-mediated immunity?

Cytotoxic T-cells begin to attack the virally infected T-cells, reducing the number of T-cells in the body.

How do helper T-cells and cytotoxic T-cells work together?

Helper T-cells produce cytokines to activate other cells of the immune system.

Which structure do antigen presenting cells utilize to directly help them present bacterial antigens?


Which of the following are likely to be found on an MHC-I protein?

Damaged mitochondrial fragment

What would a virally infected skin epithelial cell have on its cell surface?

Class I MHC with skin cell antigens

Which of the following would you likely see on the surface of a human dendritic cell following phagocytosis of a bacterium?

Class I MHC with dendritic cell antigens and Class II MHC with engulfed bacteria

Tom has a genetic disorder in which he does not synthesize class I MHC proteins or functional NK cells. Which of the following statements would be true for Tom?

Tom would not be able to destroy virally-infected cells.

Which part of the adaptive immune response involves B cells?


Antibodies are a part of which type of immunity?


Which cells are involved in a secondary response?

Memory B cells and plasma cells

How is the secondary response different from the primary response in terms of antibody concentration in the blood?

The secondary response is faster and produces more antibodies than the primary response.

According to the animation, on which day does the production of IgG occur in the secondary response?

Day five

An anamnestic response is

another name for secondary response.

One of the foundations of vaccination is generating an antibody response against your virus. The antibody response is one part of the adaptive immune response. Which of the following are characteristics of an adaptive immune response?

*The response has memory. *The response is inducible. *The response is clonal. *The response is specific

In designing your vaccine, you will need to choose an antigen or antigens to stimulate the adaptive response. All antigens are not created equal–there are certain characteristics that make more effective antigens. Which of the following best describes why molecules such as glycoproteins are more effective antigens compared to molecules such as starch?

Glycoproteins contain a variety of shapes and subunits that contribute to the overall complexity of the molecule.

During the adaptive response, the MHC molecules are responsible for presenting an antigen to T cells. The two types of MHC (MHCI and MHCII) have specific roles during the response. Which of the following most accurately describes the characteristics of MHCII molecules in mounting the antibody response?

found on APC, present exogenous antigens, activate T helper cells

There are a variety of lymphocytes involved in the adaptive response, each with a specific function. One of the subsets of cells essential in the adaptive response is T helper cells. Choose the answer that most accurately describes the role of T helper cells in mounting the antibody response.

T helper cells aid the antibody response by binding to the B cell MHCII/protein complex and secreting cytokines like IL-4.

Arrange the following statements in the correct order to describe how an antibody response is generated.

1. Dendritic cells process antigens 2. Dendritic cells present antigens on their surface 3. T helper cells recognize MCH11antigen complexes on dendritic cells 4. Stimulated by IL-4 T helper cells differentiate in to Th2 cells 5.B cells are activated after interacting with Th2 cells 6. B cells differentiate into memory cells and plasma cells

Includes cilia, mucous membranes, dendritic cells

Innate Immunity

Immunological response brough about by antibody production

humoral immunity

a immunological response the skills infected host cells

cellular immunity

uses BCR to recognize epitope. First step in colonel selection

immature B cells

Phagocytes that engulf anything foreign. Eventually display epitope of helper t cells using MHC

dendritic cells

Lymphocytes that activate B cells and CTLS

Th cells

Differentiated B cells that are stored in lymph nodes to provide protection against future infections by the same pathogen

memory cells

produce and secrete antibodies

plasma cells

Kills infected host cells

Cytotoxic t cells

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