Chapter 17-Blood

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formed elements

The cellular elements of blood; erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets. (plural)


colorless watery fluid of blood and lymph containing no cells and in which erythrocytes and leukocytes and platelets are suspended (singular)


Red blood cells that transport oxygen (plural)

buffy coat

a thin light colored layer of white blood cells and platelets than lie between a top layer of plasma and red blood cells (singular)


White blood cells (plural)


tiny, disk-shaped bodies in the blood, important in blood clot formation (plural)


% of blood that is plasma


% of blood that is buffy coat


% of blood that is Erythrocytes


a measuring instrument to determine (usually by centrifugation) the relative amounts of corpuscles and plasma in the blood (singular)

slightly alkaline

pH of blood


% of body weight attributed to blood


Protein in blood; maintains the proper amount of water in the blood (singular)


iron-containing protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen for delivery to cells (singular)


stem cells that give rise to all the formed elements of the blood (plural)


formation of blood cells

plasma proteins

function to buffer blood, transport molecules, and maintain osmotic pressure (plural)


The protein portion of hemoglobin (singular)


a complex red organic pigment containing iron and other atoms to which oxygen binds (singular)


compound formed when oxygen combines with hemoglobin (singular)


hemoglobin with no oxygen bound to it, a dull red color. (singular)


the compound formed by the union of carbon dioxide with hemoglobin (singular)


process of RBC production, is a negative feedback system


an immature red blood cell containing a network of filaments or granules (singular)


A hormone produced and released by the kidney that stimulates the production of red blood cells by the bone marrow. (singular)


primary iron storage protein; soluble in blood; serum level reflects marrow storage iron (singular)


iron-containing pigment derived from breakdown of hemoglobin (singular)


a globulin in blood plasma that carries iron (singular)


red blood cells have a lifespan of approximately ______ (number) days


Orange-yellow pigment in bile. It is formed by the breakdown of hemoglobin when red blood cells die. (singular)


"lacking blood" lack of a normal number of red blood cells (singular)

hemorrhagic anemia

acute or chronic loss of blood (singular)

hemolytic anemia

extreme reduction in circulating RBC’s due to their destruction (singular)

aplastic anemia

failure of blood cell production in the bone marrow (singular)


small pale iron deficient rbcs (plural)


abnormally large RBC (plural)


genetic anemia in which one of the globin chains is faulty or absent and the rbcs are thin, delicate and deficient in hemoglobin (common in people of Mediterranean ancestry) (plural)

sickle cell anemia

a genetic disorder in which erythroctyes take on an abnormal curved or "sickle" shape (singular)

hemoglobin S

sickle cell hemoglobin


a disorder characterized by an abnormal increase in the number of red blood cells in the blood (singular)

blood doping

"induced erythrocythemia"-procedure to increase the oxygen carrying capacity of red blood cells. Increases Concentration of RBC


passage of blood cells (especially white blood cells) through intact capillary walls and into the surrounding tissue

amoeboid motion

when WBCs form flowing cytoplasmic extensions that move them along (singular)

positive chemotaxis

movement toward a chemical stimulus


abnormal increase of white blood cells

never let monkeys eat bananas

mnemonic for remembering leukocytes in order of most abundant to least abundant


A group of leukocytes containing granules in their cytoplasm; neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils. (plural)


The most abundant type of white blood cell, are phagocytic and tend to self-destruct as they destroy foreign invaders, limiting their life span to a few days. (plural)


pertaining to a many-shaped nucleus; a type of white blood cell (polys)


white blood cell that are responsible for combating infection by parasites (2-4 % of WBC’s) (plural)


Blood cells that enter damaged tissues and enhance the inflammation process and contain histamine and heparin (.5-1% of WBC’s) (plural)


A group of leukocytes without granules in their nuclei; lymphocytes, monocytes. (plural)


the two types of white blood cells that are part of the body’s immune system: B lymphocytes form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections; T lymphocytes form in the thymus and other lymphatic tissue and attack cancer cells, viruses, and foreign substances. (25 % of WBC’s) (plural)


an agranular leukocyte that is able to migrate into tissues and transform into a macrophage (3-8% of WBC’s) (plural)


the formation of white blood cells, begins in the marrow.


proteins that stimulate the growth of B and T lymphocytes (plural)

colony stimulating factors

Stimulate progenitor cells in bone marrow to increase numbers of leukocytes, thereby improving immune function (plural)

myeloid stem cell

secondary stem cell; produces all formed elements (except lymphocytes) (singular)

lymphoid stem cell

secondary stem cell; produces lymphocytes (singular)


an abnormal lowering of the white blood cell count


malignant disease characterized by excessive increase in abnormal white blood cells formed in the bone marrow


a condition caused by the Epstein-Barr virus characterized by an increase in mononuclear cells (monocytes and lymphocytes) in the blood, along with enlarged lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy), fatigue, and sore throat (pharyngitis)


the large multinucleate cells that platelets are fragments of (plural)


hormone from liver stimulates platelet formation (singular)


the stoppage of bleeding

vascular spasm

1st step in hemostasis, important phase that platelets play in blood clotting which helps to prevent blood loss by the contraction of the smooth muscle lining the vessels

platelet plug formation

2nd step in hemostasis, When vessels are damaged, platelets will adhere to the rough edges. This may stop the leak. The platelets also release clotting factors.


3rd step in hemostasis, blood clotting


compounds that promote clotting,Activated when injury occurs. (plural)

intrinsic pathway

coagulation pathway involving coagulation factors circulating within the bloodstream (singular)

extrinsic pathway

coagulation pathway initiated by the release of thromboplastin from injured tissue (singular)


plasma protein; converted to thrombin in the clotting process (singular)


an enzyme that acts on fibrinogen in blood causing it to clot (singular)


Plasma protein that is converted to fibrin in the clotting process (singular)


a white insoluble fibrous protein formed by the action of thrombin on fibrinogen when blood clots (singular)


Substances that inhibit coagulation (plural)

clot retraction

after a clot has formed, it begins to condense into a more compact structure by this process (singular)


plasma minus clotting proteins and cells (singular)


a normal ongoing process that dissolves fibrin and results in the removal of small blood clots


an enzyme that dissolves the fibrin of blood clots (singular)


anticoagulant found in blood and tissue cells (singular)

thromboembolic disorders

diseases associated with the undesirable formation of blood clots (plural)

bleeding disorders

abnormalities that prevent normal clot formation (plural)

disseminated intravascular coagulation

widespread clotting in the blood vessels causing obstruction to the tissues (singular)


a blood clot formed within a blood vessel and remaining attached to its place of origin (singular)


A clot that breaks lose and travels through the bloodstream. (singular)


the sudden closure of a blood vessel by a traveling blood clot, or embolus (singular)


an anticoagulant (trade name Coumadin) use to prevent and treat a thrombus or embolus (singular)


a blood disease characterized by an abnormally small number of platelets in the blood (singular)


hereditary bleeding disorders caused by lack of clotting factors (plural)


Antigens formed on the surface of red blood cells, whose presence and structure are genetically determined. (plural)

ABO blood groups

Genetically determined classes of human blood that are based on the presence or absence of carbohydrates A and B on the surface of red blood cells; phenotypes, also called blood types, are A, B, AB, and O. (plural)

Rh blood groups

the extensive, genetically determined system of red blood cell antigens defined by the immune serum of rabbits injected with rhesus monkey erythrocytes, or by human antisera (plural)


blood type that can receive A,B,AB, or O


blood type that can receive B or O


blood type that can receive A or O


blood type that can receive O

erythroblastosis fetalis

hemolytic disease in the newborn caused by a blood groop (Rh factor) incompatibility between the mother and the fetus (singular)


identify blood type #1


identify blood type #2


identify blood type #3


identify blood type #4

transfusion reaction

a serious, and potentially fatal, complication of a blood transfusion in which a severe immune response occurs because the patient’s blood and the donated blood do not match (singular)

autologous transfusion

a transfusion prepared from a donor’s own blood (singular)


clot of blood (prefix)


red (prefix)


deficiency (suffix)


that which causes production (suffix)


phagacyte (suffix)


relating to that which is destructive to red blood cells (singular)


blood condition (suffix)


Kidney shaped clear background




Bi-lobed granular background


Multi-lobed granular background

Most common white blood cell found in whole blood


Mounts an immune response by direct cell attack or via antibodies


Kills parasitic worms


Becomes a macrophage


Main bacteria killer during acute infections


SEE Figure 17.1 and 17.2

Study guide!

Nucleus has two lobes; contains granules of lysosomal enzymes; functions in attacking parasitic worms.


Nucleus is multilobed; functions as a phagocyte; contains fine indistinct granules


Transports CO2 and oxygen


Contains a U- or an S-shaped nucleus; granules stain very dark; releases histamine and heparin


Largest of the WBCs; crucial in defense against viruses; associated with chronic infections


The major contributor to plasma osmotic pressure.


Thrombin catalyzes the activation of these molecules present in plasma.


Forms the structural framework of a blood clot.


Makes up most of plasma protein.


Main contributor to osmotic pressure.


Antibodies released by plasma cells during immune response.

Gamma Gobulins

Forms fibrin thread of blood clot.


Transport proteins that bind to lipids, metal ions, and fat-soluble vitamins.

Alpha and Beta Gobulins

Polymorphonuclear leukocyte.


White blood cell with dark-staining nucleus.


Protein capable of changing shape and color in the presence of O2.


Adverse reaction of donor blood cells with recipient plasma.


Lacking in hemophilia type A.

Factor VIII

Produced by platelets.

Prostaglandin derivates such as Thrombozane A2

A fibrous protein that gives shape to an RBC plasma membrane.


Hormone that stimulates production of RBCs.


Stimulates WBC production.

Interleukins and CSF’s

Natural anticoagulant found in basophils.


Universal donor.

Type O

Universal recipient.

Type AB

Cancerous condition involving white blood cells.


Condition in which blood has abnormally low oxygen-carrying capacity.


Abnormal excess of erythrocytes resulting in an increase in blood viscosity.


Free-floating thrombus in the bloodstream.


The primary source of RBCs in the adult human being is the bone marrow in the shafts of the long bones.

False – Found in the bones of Axial Skeleton and Girdles – and in the proximal epipsys of humerus and femur

Leukemia refers to cancerous conditions of white blood cells.


The immediate response to blood vessel injury is clotting.

False – It’s Vascular Spasm

The process of fibrinolysis disposes of bacteria when healing has occurred.

False – removes clots when healing has occurred. Without blood vessels would becomes blocked

The RBC "graveyard" is the liver.

False – The RBC graveyard is the SPL

Hemorrhagic anemias result from blood loss.


White blood cells are produced through the action of colony-stimulating factors.

True – 2 families 1) Interlukeins 2) Colony stimulating factors

Hemoglobin is made up of the protein heme and the red pigment globin.

False – Protein globin and red heme pigment

Each HEME contains an atom of iron and can transport one molecule of oxygen.

True – each iron can combine reversibly w/one molecule of oxygen

Each hemoglobin molecule can transport two molecules of oxygen.

False – 4 molecules of oxygen

Diapedesis is the process by which red blood cells move into tissue spaces from the interior of blood capillaries.

False – WBC’s are able to do this NOT WBC

Positive chemotaxis is a feedback system that signals leukocyte migration into damaged areas.


A condition of leukocytosis indicates over 11,000 white blood cells per cubic millimeter in the blood.


Basophils increase in number when parasitic invasion occurs.

False – eosinophils

Leukopenia is an abnormally low number of leukocytes.


A person with type B blood could receive blood from a person with either type B or type O blood.


Leukocytes move through the circulatory system by amoeboid motion.

False- they move through tissue spaces at the site of infection

Granulocytes called neutrophils are phagocytic and are the most numerous of all white blood cell types.


All lymphocytes are leukocytes, but not all leukocytes are lymphocytes.


Myelocytic leukemia involves a cancerous condition of lymphocytes.

False – involves myeloblast descendants

Which of the following is a pivotal molecule associated with the external surfaces of aggregated platelets and is involved in the intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms of blood clotting?


What is the average normal pH range of blood?


The special type of hemoglobin present in fetal red blood cells is ________.

hemoglobin F ( Hbf )

Which of the choices below is the parent cell for all formed elements of blood?

Pluripotent stem cell (hemocytoblast)

Which blood type is called the universal donor?


Which of the following is a regulatory function of blood?

maintenance of normal pH in body tissues

Which of the following is a protective function of blood?

prevention of blood loss

Which of the statements below is an incorrect or false statement?

Blood typing for the Kell, Lewis, and Duffy factors is always done before a blood transfusion.

Which of the following might trigger erythropoiesis?

hypoxia of EPO-producing cells

As red blood cells age ________.

membranes "wear out" and the cells become damaged – 100-120 days

An individual who is blood type AB negative can ________.

receive any blood type in moderate amounts except that with the Rh antigen

The most abundant plasma protein is ________.


When neither anti-A sera nor anti-B sera clot on a blood plate with donor blood, the blood is type ________.


Select the correct statement regarding blood cell formation.

Red marrow is the main site of blood cell formation throughout adult life.

Blood volume restorers include all of the following except ________.

packed cells

James has a hemoglobin measurement of 16 g/100 ml blood. This is ________.

within the normal range

Which of these is not a normal plasma protein?


All of the following can be expected with polycythemia except ________.

low blood viscosity

No visible cytoplasmic granules are present in ________.


Which of the following is not a phase of hemostasis?


Place the following in correct developmental sequence:

2, 4, 3, 1 proerythroblast, late erythroblast, normoblast, reticulocyte

A lack of intrinsic factor, leading to a deficiency of vitamin B12 and large pale cells called macrocytes, is characteristic of ________.

pernicious anemia

The slowest step in the clotting process is ________.

formation of prothrombin activator

Thromboembolic disorders ________.

include embolus formation, a clot moving within the circulatory system

Which of the following is not a cause of bleeding disorders?

excess secretion of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)

Which of the following is characteristic of all leukocytes?

they are nucleated

Which of the following is true about blood plasma?

It is about 90% water

Platelets ________.

stick to the damaged area of a blood vessel and help seal the break

Which sequence is correct for the following events?

3,4,1,2 formation of thromboplastin, prothrombin → thrombin, fibrinogen → fibrin, clot reaction

Fred’s blood was determined to be AB positive. What does this mean?

There are no antibodies to A, to B, or to Rh antigens in the plasma.

Sickling of red blood cells can be produced in those with sickle-cell anemia by ________.

travel at high altitude and vigorous exercise

All of the following conditions impair coagulation except ________.

vascular spasm

When can erythroblastosis fetalis not possibly happen in the child of an Rh negative mother?

when the father is Rh-

Complications of aplastic anemia generally do not include ________.

increase of leukocytes as a result of erythrocyte loss

Blood is a ________.


What organ in the body regulates erythrocyte production?


The formed element ________ can kill parasitic worms.


A(n) ________ is a committed granular leukocyte stem cell that produces neutrophils.


The rarest leukocyte is the ________.


Potent platelet aggregates that attract more platelets to the site of an injury are ________ and ________.

ADP and Thromboxane Serotonin

The universal recipient blood type is ________.


When monocytes migrate into the interstitial spaces, they are called ________.


Destruction of the hematopoietic components of red marrow leads to a condition called ________.

aplastic anemia

________ is the stage of development in the life of an erythrocyte during which the nucleus is ejected.


Hemoglobin is composed of ________ polypeptide chains.


List the general factors that limit normal clot growth

removal of clotting factors Aspirin – an antiprostaglandin that inhibits thromboxane A2 Heparin – an anticoagulant used clinically for pre- and postoperative cardiac care Warfarin (trade name Coumadin) – used for those prone to atrial fibrillation

When are whole blood transfusions routinely given?

Substantial and rapid blood loss

List the most common causes of bleeding disorders

Thrombocytopenia – condition of decreased circulating platelets with vitamin K deficiency and defective clotting cascade

List one example for each of these three functions of blood: distribution, regulation, and protection

Distribution – delivering O2 from lungs and waste Regulation – maintenance of normal ph in body tissues Protection – prevention of blood loss

List the granulocytes and describe their granules

Neutrophil – fine, faint pink granules Eosinophil – full of pink-orange granules Basophil – large dark deep purple ganules

Why is iron not stored or transported in its free form? In what form(s) is it stored or transported in blood?

Because iron can be toxic. Intracellular iron is stored in protein-iron complexes such as ferritin and hemosiderin. *FYI* The body stores iron in Hb (65%), the liver, spleen, and bone marrow Circulating iron is loosely bound to the transport protein transferrin

What determines whether blood is bright red or a dull, dark red?

the amount of oxygen

What is the buffy coat found in centrifuged whole blood?

Leukocytes and platelets

Name the granulocytes and state their average percentage in whole blood.

Neutrophil 50-70% Eosinophil 2-4% Basophil .5-1%

Blood plasma

A specialized type of connective tissue in which living the formed elements are suspended in a nonliving fluid matrix called _________?


Erythrocytes normally constitute about 45% of the total volume of a blood sample, a percentage known as the?


blood fraction

between 7.35 and 7.45

Blood is slightly alkaline, with a PH ___________, and its temperature is always slightly higher body temperature.

Regulatory functions of blood include

Maintaining appropriate body temperature, Maintaining normal pH in body tissues, and Maintaining adequate fluid volume in the circulatory system.

Protective functions of blood include

Preventing blood loss, and Preventing infection.


Accounts for some 60% of plasma protein and is the major blood protein contributing to the plasma osmotic pressure.

Osmotic Pressure

The pressure that helps to keep water in the bloodstream.

Formed Elements

Erythrocytes, Leukocytes, and platelets have some unusual features


consists of four polypeptide chains 2 alpha and 2 beta, each binding a ring like heme group.

Hematopoiesis or Hemopoiesis

Blood cell formation

Hemo, Hemato



To make

Red Bone Marrow

Hemopoiesis occurs in the



Pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell

Another name for the hemocytoblast


What play a major role in EPO production


When certain kidney cells become ________oxygen enzymes are unable to carry out their normal functions of degrading an intracellular signaling molecule called hypoxia-inducible factors.


have inadequate oxygen

Hypoxia-Inducible factor

As _________ accumulates it accelerates the synthesis and release of erythropoietin.

Red blood cells

___________are confined to the bloodstream, and they carry out their functions in the blood.

White Blood cells

__________ are able to slip out of the capillary blood vessels in a process called diapedesis, and the circulatory system is simply their means of transport to areas of the body where they are needed to mount inflammatory or immune responses.


leaping across

Positive Chemotaxis

By following the chemical trail of molecules released by damaged cells or other leukocytes, a phenomenon called ________, they can pinpoint areas of tissue damage and infection and gather there in large numbers to destroy foreign substances or dead cells.


The most important role of _________ is to lead the counterattack against parasitic worms, such as flatworms and roundworms.

T Lymphocyte

Function in the immune response by acting directly against virus-infected cells and tumor cells.

B Lymphocyte

give rise to plasma cells, which produce antibodies that are released to the blood.




"White blood", refers to a group of cancerous conditions involving white blood cells.

Platelets, Megakaryocytes

are not cells in the strict sense. About one-fourth the diameter of a lymphocyte, they are cytoplasmic fragments of extraordinarily large cells called ______


By sticking to the damaged site, __________ form a temporary plug that helps seal the break.


A clot that develops and persists in an unbroken blood vessel is called a _____________


If the thrombus breaks away from the vessel wall and floats freely in the bloodstream, it becomes an ____________


The term _______________ refers to several different hereditary bleeding disorders that have similar signs and sypmtoms.


The medial cavity of the thorax

12 14 Rib Intercoastal

The heart extends obliquely for ___ to___ cm from the 2nd ____ to the 5th __________ space.

Epicardium, Myocardium, Endocardium

The heart wall, richly supplied with blood vessels, is composed of three layers: the ___________, the _____________, and the ___________.

Papillary Muscles

Still other muscle bundles, the conelike ____________________ (2 words) , which play a role in valve function, project into the ventricular cavity .

Pulmonary Veins , Left

The freshly oxygenated blood is carried by the ___________________ (2 words) back to the _______ side of the heart

Systemic Circuit Pump

The left side of the heart is the _______________________ (3 words)

Coronary Circulation

The _____________________ ( 2 words), the functional blood supply of the heart.

Cardiac Veins

After passing through the capillary beds of the myocardium, the venous blood is collected by the ______________________ (2 words), whose path roughly follow those of the coronary arteries .

Coronary Sinus

These veins join together to form an enlarged vessel called the ____________________ (2 words), which empties the blood into the right atrium

Tricuspid, Mitral

The two atrioventricular (AV) valves – the right AV valve has three flexible cusps therefore it is known as the _________ valve- the Left AV valve has two flexible cusps and is known as the ________ valve or bicuspid.

Aortic,Pulmonary Valves

The ________ and _________________ ( 2 ws) guard the bases of the large arteries issuing from the ventricles and prevent backflow into the associated ventricles

Intrinsic cardiac conduction system

The ______________________________ (4ws) consist of noncontractile cardiac cells specialized to initiate and distribute impulses throughout the heart, so that it depolarizes and contracts in an orderly sequential manner.

Autorthythmic cells

THE _________________ (2ws) making up the intrinsic conduction system do not maintain a stable resting membrane, They have a unstable resting potential that continuously depolarizes.

sinoatrial node, atrioventricular node, atrioventricular bundle, right and left bundle branches, and ventricular walls.

Autorthythmic cardiac cells are found in the following areas ____________ (5)

Sinoatrial (SA) node

The cresent-shaped _________________ is located in the right atrial wall, just inferior to the entrance of the superior vena cava.

Heart black

Because the only route for impulse transmission from atria to ventricles is through the AV node, any damage to the AV node interferes with the ability of the ventricles to recieve pacing impulses. This is referred to as a ___________ __________.

P wave

depolarization wave from the SA node through the atria.

QRS complex

the large _________ results from ventricular depolarization.

T wave

The ___________ is caused by ventricular repolarization

Heart sounds

These ______________, often descrived as lub-dup, or (doom-doom), are associated with the closing of heart valves.

Cardiac Output (CO)

_________________ is the amount of blood pumped out by each ventricle in 1 minute.

Cardiac reserve

________________ is the difference between resting and maximal CO.

pg 684 ???

Foramen ovale

The _____________ connects the two atria and allows blood entering the right heart to bypass the pulmonary circuit and the collapsed, nonfunctional fetal lungs.


___________ carry blood away from the heart chambers


_________ carry carry blood towards the heart chambers.

Tunic intima, endothelium

The innermost tunic is the ____________. This tunic contains the ______________.

Tunic media

The ________________ is the bulkiest layer in the arteries, which bear the chief responsibility for maintaining blood pressure continuous blood circulation.

Muscular, or Distrivuting , ateries

Distally the elastic arteries give the way to the __________, or __________, ___________, which deliver blood to specific body organs and account for most of the named arteries studied in the anatomy laboratory.


Given their location and the thinness of their walls, _________ are ideally suited for their role-exchange of materials between the blood and the interstitial fluid.

Fenestrated capillaries

________________ are riddled with oval pores, or fenestration.

Precapillary sphincter

A cuff of smooth muscle fibers, called a ____________, surronunds the root of each true capillary at the metarteriole and acts as a valve to regulate blood flow into the capillary.

Blood viscosity, vessel lenght, and vessel diameter

There are three important sources of resistance.

Pulse pressure

Ther difference betweeen the systolic and diastolic pressures is called the ____________.

Vasomotor center

_______________ a cluster of neurons in the medulla.

Cardiovascular center

This center plus the cardiac centers described earlier make up the _______________ that integrates blood pressure control by altering cardiac output and blood vessel disameter.


When arterial blood pressure rises, it stretches _______________, neural receptors located in the caratid sinuses (dilations in the internal carotid arteries, which provide the major blood supply to the brain), in the aortic arch, and in the walls of nearly every large artery of the nek and thorax.

Norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine

During periods of stress, the adrenal gland releases _____________ and _____________ to the blood, and both hormones enhance the sympathetic fight or flight response.


_________________ the automatic adjustment of blood flow to each tissue on proporition to the tissue’s requirements at any instant.

Capillary beds

When the skin surface is exposed to heat, warm blood flushes into the ______________ and heat radiates from the skin surface.


Oxygen, carbon dioxide, most nutrients, and metabolic wastes pass between the blood and interstitial fluid by ____________.

Hydrostatic pressure

______________ is the force exerted by a fluid pressing against a wall.

Colloid osmotic pressure

_________________, the force opposing hydrostatic pressure, is created by the presence in a fluid of large nondiffusible molecules, such as plasma proteins, that are unable to cross the capillary wall.

Hypovolemic shock

The most common form of shock is _______________, which results from large scale loss of blood, as might follow acute hemorrhage, severe vomiting or diarrhea, or extensive burns.

Cardiogenic shock

______________, or pump failure, occurs when the heart is so inefficient that it cannot sustain adequate circulation. its usual cause is myocardial damage, as might follow numerous myocardial infarcts.

Lymphatic system
1. lymphatic vessels
3.lymph nodes

the _________________ actually consists of three parts. 1. a meandering network of _____________, 2. _________, the fluid contained in those vessels, and 3. __________, that cleanse the lymph as it passes through them.


once interstitial fluid enters the lymphatics it is called _________.

Lymphatic capillaries

The lymphatic vessels form a one way system in which lymph flows only toward the heart. this transport system begins in microscopic blind ended _____________. these capillaries weave between the tissue cells and blood capillaries in the loose connective tissues of the body.


Highly specialized lymphatic capillaries called ___________ are present in the fingerlike villi of the intestinal mucosa.

White, Clear

The lymph draining from the digestive viscera is milky ________ rather than _________ because the lacteals play a major role in absorbing digested fats from the intestine.


Fatty lymph called __________ (juice), is also delivered to the blood via the lymphatic stream.

Lymphatic trunks

___________ Are formed by the union of the largest collecting vessels, and drain fairly large areas of the body.

Right Lymphatic Duct

The _______________ drains lymph from the right upper limb and the right side of the head and thorax.

Thoracic Duct

The much larger ____________ receives lymph from the rest of the body.

Lymphatic System

____________ lacks an organ that acts as a pump.

Lymphatic Vessels

Under normal conditions, ____________ are low pressure conduits, and the same mechanisms that promote venous return in blood vessels act here as well — the milking action of active skeletal muscles, pressure changes in the thorax during breathing, and valves to prevent backflow.


____________, the main warriors of immune system, arise in red bone marrow (along with other formed elements.)

Lymphoid Macrophages

____________ play a crucial role in body protection and in the immune response by phagocytizing foreign substances and by helping to activate T cells.

Houses and Provides a proliferation site for lymphocytes

Lymphoid tissue is an important component of the immune system, mainly because_________

Lymphoid follicles (nodules)

_____________ are solid spherical bodies consisting of tightly packed reticular element and cells.

Lymph Node

The principal lymphoid organs in the body are the ________, which cluster along the lymphatic vessels of the body.

Cortex & Medulla

The lymph node has two histologically distinct regions,the_____ &______

Medullary Cords

__________ are thin inward extensions from the cortical lymphoid tissue, and contain both types of lymphocytes plus plasma cells.

Hilum, efferent lymphatic vessels

The lymph meanders through these sinuses and finally exits the node at its ______, the indented region on the concave side, via _____________


__________ is about the size of a fist and is the largest lymphoid organ.


The bilbed __________ has important functions primarily during the early years of life.

T Lymphocyte

The thymus is the site where the __________ precursors mature to become immunocomptetent lymphocytes.


______ forms a ring of lymphatic tissue around the entrance to the pharynx (throat), where they appear as swellings of mucosa.

Pharyngeal tonsil

_________ are referred to as adenoids if they are enlarged.

Peyer’s Patches, small intestines

____________ are aggregated lymphoid nodules, are large clusters of lymphoid follicles, structurally similar to the tonsils. They are located in the wall of the distal portion of the __________.


red blood cells


white blood cells




% water in plasma

gas, hormones, nutrients, waste

list alphabetically material in plasma other than water (seperate with commas)


most dense material in blood


least dense material in blood


% of blood that is plasma


% of blood that is buffy coat and erythrocytes


temperature of blood (in Fahrenheit)


scarlet red blood has (less/more) _______ oxygen


dark red blood has (less/more) _______ oxygen


lowest normal ph value for blood


highest normal ph value for blood


blood is 3 to 4 times more viscous than ________


reason why blood is more viscous than water. water is attracted to _______


a measurement of the percentage of packed red blood cells in a given volume of blood


range of hematocrit for males (+/- 5%)


range of hematocrit for females (+/- 5%)


males have higher hematocrit because they have more __________

biconcave disc

RBC are a ________ shape


RBC’s have no _________


RBC’s live for _____ days


Hemoglobin have ____ iron containing sections


iron-containing protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen for delivery to cells


RBC creation


plasma is the _______ of blood

formed elements

erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets are collectively called __________


an apparatus that uses centrifugal force to separate particles from a suspension

buffy coat

leukocytes and platelets compose this after centrifugation


temp of blood in celcius


blood composes what % of body weight?


males typically have _____ Liters of blood


females typically have ______ Liters of blood


Plasma contains over ______ dissolved solutes


composes 60% of plasma proteins


composes 36% of plasma proteins


composes 4% of plasma proteins


most plasma proteins are produced by the ______


blood transports waste to the lungs and the ______


blood transports these endocrine system molecules

plasma proteins

________ and platelets initiate clot formation

250 million

each red blood cell contains about ________ molecules of hemoglobin


Amino acid which is defective in hemoglobin that causes sickle cell

folic acid, iron, protein, vitamin B12

alphabetically name the items necessary to produce healthy hemoglobin (seperated by commas)

folic acid

lack of this can cause neural tube defects in a fetus


deficiency of oxygen


all blood is filtered through the _______


organ that produces EPO


hormone that stimulates bone marrow to produce RBC’s

red bone marrow

erythrocytes are produced in ________

cancellous bone

red bone marrow is found in ________


Thick yellowish-white fluid that is formed in infected wounds. It is composed of dead and dying white blood cells (principally neutrophils), tissue debris, and dead microorganisms.


stem cells that give rise to all the formed elements of the blood


immature form of erythrocyte with a nucleus


The precursor to Megakaryocyte, which becomes platelets


A large cell in the bone marrow that has an irregularly-shaped, multi-lobed nucleus, and that produces platelets

hemocytoblast, erythroblast, erythrocyte

list, from immaturity to maturity, the cells involved in erythropoesis (separated by commas)

hemocytoblast, megakaryoblast, mekakaryocyte, thrombocyte

list, from immaturity to maturity, the cells involved in platelet production (separated by commas)


identify A

beta chains

identify B

alpha chains

identify C


buffy coat



bacteria, virus, or other microorganisms that can cause disease.

mucous membranes, skin, stomach acid

list in alphabetical order the first lines of innate defense


cell organelle filled with enzymes needed to break down certain materials in the cell


increase in the number of white blood cells


When Phagocytes adhere themselves to capillary walls and perform diapedisis, walking through capillary and tissues to get to site of infection.


passage of blood cells (especially white blood cells) through intact capillary walls and into the surrounding tissue


movement by a cell or organism in reaction to a chemical stimulus


Intracellular vesicle containing material taken up by phagocytosis.


enzyme that kills bacteria

antigen-presenting cells

B cells, macrophages, dendritic cells

major histocompatability complex

genetic region that encodes "self" proteins. MHC proteins function as molecular reference points (several 100 genes in human pop)

MHC type 2

macrophage,dendritic and B cells. Most selective. Just showing the foreign object


any substance (as a toxin or enzyme) that stimulates the production of antibodies


limits spread of pathogens, removal of damaged cells, increases molecular energy


increased blood in an organ or other body part


an increase in capillary permeability

mast cell

a large connective tissue cell that contains histamine and heparin and serotonin which are released in allergic reactions or in response to injury or inflammation


a regulating body substance released in excess during allergic reactions causing swelling and inflammation of tissues


Fever (a rise in the temperature of the body)


first stage of pyrexia – temperature rise, clammy hands


second stage of pyrexia – temperature levels out


third stage of pyrexia – temperature returns to normal


a rapid temperature rise in the body can cause ______


(increase or decrease) fevers effect on the reproduction of bacteria and viruses


(increase or decrease) fever’s effect on metabolic rate


(increase or decrease) fever’s effect on tissue repair


(increase or decrease) fevers effect on interferon activity

humoral response

The branch of acquired immunity that involves the activation of B cells and that leads to the production of antibodies, which defend against bacteria and viruses in body fluids.

membrane-bound antibodies

antibody sticks in membrane (B cell antigen receptor)


Antibodies such as IgA, IgE, IgC, IgM, and IgD that are secreted by plasma cells in humoral immunity.


each b-cell contains (number) ____ type(s) of membrane-bound antibodies


a localized region on the surface of an antigen that is chemically recognized by antibodies; also called antigenic determinant

memory cell

long-lasting lymphocyte formed during the primary immune response that is reactivated on exposure to the same pathogen, quickly producing many clones

plasma cell

An activated B cell that is secreting antibody.

antigen-antibody complex

Structure formed when the antibody binds to the antigen to help disable a pathogen


process whereby opsonins make an invading microorganism more susceptible to phagocytosis


Made up of plasma & formed elements


Complex transport medium that performs vital pickup & delivery service for the body


Keystone of body’s heat-regulating mechanism

Young adult female has approximately how many liters of blood?

4-5 liters

Young adult male has approximately how many liters of blood?

5-6 liters

Blood volume varies according to

Age, Body Type, Sex, and Method of Measurement


Another name for red blood cells (RBC’s)

Mature red blood cells or erythrocytes

Have no nucleus & shaped like tiny biconcave disks; do not contain ribosomes, mitochondria and other organelle typical of most body cells; primary component is hemoglobin; most numerous of the formed elements


Critical role of red blood cells in the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide depend on

Carbonic Anhydrase

Enzyme in RBC’s that catalyzes a reaction that joins carbon dioxide and water to form carbonic acid

Carbonis Acid

Dissociates and generates bicarbonate ions, which diffuse out of the RBC and serve to transport carbon dioxide in the blood plasma

Within each RBC there are approximately how many molecules of hemoglobin?

200-300 million molecules


Made up of 4 globin chains, with each attached to a heme molecule


Hemoglobin is able to unite with 4 oxygen molecules to form


This allows RBC’s to transport oxygen where it is needed

Who has the greater amount of hemoglobin males or females?



A decrease in number or volume of functional RBC’s in a given unit of whole blood


Entire process of RBC formation

RBC formation begins where?

In the red bone marrow

RBC formation begins in the red bone marrow as what?

Hematopoietic stem cells

4 days or 96 hours

Entire maturation of RBC’s

Erythrocytes/red blood cells

Created and destroyed at approximately 100 million per minute in an adult

Homeostatic mechanisms

Operate to balance the number of cells formed against the number of cells destroyed

105-120 days

Life span of a circulating RBC averages

Mecrophage cells phagocytes

The aged, abnormal or fragmented erythrocytes

Amino acids, iron, and bilirobin

When hemoglobin is broken down this is released


Another name for white blood cells

Granulocytes (WBC with cytoplasmic granules) include what 3 leukocytes that have granules in cytoplasm

Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils


Make up approximately 65% of total WBC count in a normal blood sample


Highly mobile & very active phagocytic cells


WBC capable of diapedisis


WBC whose cytoplasmic granules contain lysosomes


Account for 2-5% of circulating WBC’s


WBC numerous in lining of respiratory & digestive tracts


WBC with weak phagocytes


WBC’s capable of ingesting inflammatory chemical and proteins associated with antigen-antibody reaction complexes


WBC that provides protection against infections caused by parasitic worms & allergic reaction


Accounts for only 0.5-1% of circulating WBC’s


WBC motile & capable of diapedisis


WBC’s whose cytoplasmic granules contain histamine and heparin

There are 2 types of granulocytes (WBC’s without cytoplasmic granules)

Lymphocytes, and Monocytes


Smallest of the WBC’s


2nd most numerous WBC


Account for approximately 25% of circulating WBC’s

T – Lymphocytes

This lymphocyte directly attacks an infected or cancerous cell

B – Lymphocytes

These lymphocytes produce antibodies against specific antigens


Largest leukocytes


WBC mobile and highly phagocytic cells

1 mm3 of normal blood usually contains what amount of leukocytes

5000-9000 leukocytes

Why do WBC numbers have clinical significance?

Because they change with certain abnormal conditions

Where do granular and agranular leukocytes mature from?

The undifferentiated hematopoietic stem cell

What originates in red bone marrow?

Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils, A few lymphocytes & monocytes

Where do most lymphocytes and monocytes develop from?

Hematopoietic stem cells in lymphatic tissue

In circulating blood, platelets are small, pale bodies that appear as what?

Irregular spindles or oval disks

3 important properties of platelets

Agglutination, Adhesiveness, and Aggregation

What is the average platelet count of an adult?

250,000/mm3 of blood

What is the normal range for platelets?

150,000-400,000/mm3 of blood


Plays an important role in hemostasis & blood coagulation


Refers to stoppage of blood flow; however, if injury is extensive, the blood clotting mechanism is activated to assist

1-5 seconds

How long after injury to vessel wall, platelets adhere to damage endothelial lining and to each other, forming a platelet plug

Temporary plated plug

An important step in hemostasis

Normal platelets (positive charge)

Adhere to damaged capillary wall and underlying collagen fibers, which both have a negative charge

"Sticky platelets"

Form physical plug and secrete several chemicals included in the coagulation process

Where & how are platelets formed?

In red bone marrow, lungs & spleen by fragmentation of megakaryocytes

Formation and lifespan of platelets

7-10 days

How many ABO groups are there?


How is ABO blood groups named?

According to antigens present on RBC membranes

4 types of ABO groups

A-antigen A on RBC, B-antigen B on RBC, AB-antigen A&B on RBC, and O-no antigens on RBC

Type O

universal donor

Type AB

universal recipient

Rh+ blood

Means Rh antigen is present on the RBC’s


Means Rh is not present on the RBC’s

What antibodies are not normally present in blood?

Anti Rh antibodies

What causes anti Rh antibodies?

Rh-blood comes in contact with Rh+ blood

Liquid part of blood; clear, straw-colored fluid



This part of human blood is made up of 90% water and 10% solutes

What % of plasma solute is protein?

6-8% protein

3 main compounds of plasma solutes

Albumins, Globulins, and Fibrinogen


Help maintain osmotic balance of the blood


Essential component of the immunity mechanism


Key role in blood clotting

Plasma proteins

Have an essential role in maintaining normal blood circulation

Blood clotting or coagulation

To stop bleeding and prevent loss of vital body fluid in a swift & sure method

Classic theory of coagulation

4 components critical for coagulation: prothrombin, thrombin, fibrinogen, fibrin

Current explanation of coagulation stage I

Production of thromboplastin activator by either: chemicals released from damaged tissues (extrinsic pathway); chemicals present in the blood (intrinsic pathway)

Current explanation of coagulation stage II

Conversion of prothrombin to thrombin

Current explanation of coagulation stage III

Conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin and production of fibrin clot

Factor that opposes clotting

Perfectly smooth surface of the normal endothelial lining of blood vessels does not allow platelets to adhere.


Substances in the blood that oppose or inactivate thrombin; prevent thrombin from converting fibrinogen to fibrin (e.g., Heparin).

Conditions that hasten clotting

A rough spot in the endothelium and abnormally slow blood flow


Physiological mechanism that dissolves


Enzyme in the blood that catalyzes the hydrolysis of fibrin, causing it to dissolve

Aid clotting dissolution

Fibrinolysis, Fibrinolysin, Additional factors (e.g. Substances that activate profibrinolysin)

Blood plasma

Transports substances, including heat, around the body, linking all body tissues together

Blood plasma transports

This allows substances can be transported between almost any two points in the body.

Blood tissue

Contains formed elements – blood cells and platelets

"RBC’s" Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes)

Assist in the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide.

"WBC’s" White Blood Cells (Leukocytes)

Assist in the defense mechanism of the whole body.


Prevent loss of fluid that constitutes the internal environment.


No organ or system of the body can maintain proper levels of nutrients, gases, or water without direct or indirect help from what?


Useless unless it continues to transport, defend, and maintain balance.

The ______ is the fluid portion of the blood.
buffy coat


In a centrifuged sample of blood, what makes up the buffy coat?
white blood cells and platelets
red blood cells
platelets only

white blood cells and platelets

Which of the following is NOT a function of blood?
hormone production

hormone production

The main protein in blood plasma is:


Which of the following is not a formed element of the blood?


In adults, red blood cell production occurs in__________.
the liver
the thymus
red bone marrow
yellow bone marrow

red bone marrow

Bilirubin is cleared from the body by:
the liver.
the pancreas.
the spleen.
the kidneys.

the liver

Which of the following is correctly matched?
Aplastic anemia: results from excessive blood loss
Hemorrhagic anemia: red blood cells rupture
Hemolytic anemia: results from inadequate iron intake
Pernicious anemia: results from a vitamin B12 deficiency

Pernicious anemia: results from a vitamin B12 deficiency

The most abundant leukocytes are:


Platelet formation is regulated by:


Which of the following is NOT a functional characteristic of leukocytes?
amoeboid motion
positive chemotaxis


Which leukocyte functions in phagocytizing bacteria?


You observe a large cell with a "U" shaped nucleus. This cell is most likely a(n):


The enzyme ______ digests fibrin clots.


A person who lacks agglutinogens A and B would have blood type:


Which ABO blood type is considered to be the universal donor?


What is an embolus?
an anticoagulant
a stroke
a protein in the coagulation pathway
a blood clot that has broken loose and is floating freely in the blood stream

a blood clot that has broken loose and is floating freely in the blood stream

The first step in hemostasis is:
fibrin production.
vascular spasm.
platelet plug formation.

vascular spasm.

Hemostasis leads to:
white blood cell production.
stoppage of bleeding.
red blood cell production.
heme production.

stoppage of bleeding.

Which plasma constituent is the main contributor to osmotic pressure?
alpha globulins
beta globulins


An abnormal excess of erythrocytes is called__________.
sickle-cell anemia


Which of the following represents a difference between extrinsic and intrinsic blood clotting cascades?
One leads to the production of prothrombin activator and the other does not.
One is faster than the other.
One is triggered by tissue damage while the other cannot be triggered by tissue damage.
One involves calcium ions while the other does not.

One is faster than the other.

Which of the following scenarios could result in HDN (hemolytic disease of the newborn)?
A+ female pregnant with a B- baby.
B- female pregnant with an AB+ baby.
O+ female pregnant with a B+ baby.
AB- female pregnant with an AB- baby.

B- female pregnant with an AB+ baby.

Choose the compatible transfusion.
Donate type B blood to a recipient with type O blood.
Donate type O blood to a recipient with type AB blood.
Donate type AB blood to a recipient with type B blood.
Donate type A blood to a recipient with type B blood.

Donate type O blood to a recipient with type AB blood.

Which of the following is NOT a part of hemostasis?
platelet plug formation
vascular spasm
vascular relaxation

vascular relaxation

What protein involved in coagulation provides the scaffolding for tissue repair?
prothrombin activator


Which of the following does not stimulate erythrocyte production?
A drop in normal blood oxygen levels


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