Chapter 16 Sample Questions

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Who made up the majority of the Republican Party in the South in the late 1800s?


Abraham Lincoln’s and Andrew Johnson’s reconstruction plans shared an emphasis on

ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment.

Within months of the end of the Civil War, about one-third of black women in the South

abandoned field work.

By 1872, many Republican leaders had come to believe that which group offered the best hope for honesty, order, and prosperity in the South?

Traditional white leadership

Who opposed President Johnson’s reconstruction plan?

Republican legislators

The Ku Klux Klan developed into a paramilitary organization, but it began as

a social club for Confederate veterans who wanted to restore white supremacy.

Who was disappointed in the voting rights provisions in the Fourteenth Amendment?

Advocates of female suffrage

What was the result of President Johnson’s plan to unite white opponents against the Fourteenth Amendment for the election of 1866?

The Republicans won a resounding victory.

What was the result of the Supreme Court’s ruling in the Slaughterhouse cases (1873)?

It limited the authority of federal courts in cases involving the civil rights of state citizens.

Why did African Americans prefer sharecropping to wage labor?

Sharecropping freed blacks from the day-to-day supervision of whites.

The purpose of the black codes passed in 1865 was to

subordinate blacks to whites.

The new southern state constitutions mandated by the Reconstruction Acts introduced which of the following reforms?

Universal male suffrage

The Fifteenth Amendment

extended black male suffrage to the entire nation.

How did the passage of the Fifteenth Amendment shape future Republican policy?

It allowed Republicans to ignore black rights in the future.

What happened to the whites who killed eighty-one blacks during the Colfax massacre?

They went free because nobody would prosecute them.

Why was the Civil Rights Act of 1866 extraordinary?

It made discrimination in state laws illegal.

What did "Sherman land" and the establishment of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands demonstrate to Southerners about Reconstruction?

The policies convinced ex-slaves that they would become independent landowners.

What did former slaves hope to gain from the Reconstruction labor transformation?

Land ownership

What did President Johnson do after Mississippi’s rejection of legislation that outlawed slavery and to South Carolina’s refusal to renounce secession?

Johnson refused to intervene.

How did Southern Democrats appeal to small white farmers?

The Democrats convinced poor whites that they paid taxes for blacks.

To challenge Grant’s reelection campaign in 1872, both the Liberty Party and the Democratic Party endorsed

Horace Greeley.

Why did many ex-slaves flee the biracial Methodist church soon after emancipation?

Ex-slaves wanted religious autonomy.

What happened to most sharecroppers once they borrowed goods on a crop lien?

They ended up in a cycle of debt.

President Grant wanted to annex which Caribbean island to increase trade and to provide a new home for Southern blacks?

Santo Domingo

Who were the Redeemers in the South?

Southern Democrats who wanted to restore white supremacy in the South

Supreme Court decisions in the years following the Civil War largely

undermined reconstruction.

How did Congress respond to southern Republicans’ pleas for federal protection from the racism and violence of the Ku Klux Klan?

Congress passed the Ku Klux Klan Act and the Civil Rights Act of 1875.

What was the result of the presidential election of 1876?

Tilden won the popular vote but fell one vote short of victory in the electoral college.

Who was disappointed in the Military Reconstruction Act of 1867?

Ex-slaves who demanded the redistribution of land

What was outlawed under the army’s system of compulsory free labor in the South during and after the Civil War?


Why did many freedmen travel immediately after gaining freedom?

They wanted to reunite their families.

The goal of the Wade-Davis bill was to

guarantee freedmen equal protection before the law.

What was the significance of pardons granted to rebel soldiers under the terms of Lincoln’s Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction?

The pardons restored property (except slaves) to rebel soldiers.

Union general Carl Schurz believed that to protect themselves from white oppression, newly freed blacks would need

voting rights.

Which factor led to the inclusion of a guarantee of black suffrage in the Military Reconstruction Act of 1867?

Persistent pressure from blacks

What problem plagued the Republican governments of the Reconstruction South?


How did the Fourteenth Amendment deal with voting rights?

It gave Congress the right to reduce an intransigent state’s representation.

In Lincoln’s plan for reconstruction, what did a Confederate state need to do to qualify for readmission into the Union?

Ten percent of the voting population needed to take an oath of allegiance before forming a new government.

What was the result of Republican campaigns for public education in the South during the Reconstruction period?

Literacy rates rose sharply across the South.

Why did President Andrew Johnson’s quick reconstruction of ex-Confederate states shock reformers?

He had long expressed a desire to destroy the southern planter aristocracy.

What was the real result of the Fifteenth Amendment?

It was undermined by literacy and property qualifications in southern states.

How did moderate Republicans and Republican Radicals differ in 1865?

Moderates did not actively support black voting rights and the distribution of confiscated lands to the freedmen, while Radicals did.

Andrew Johnson was impeached on what charge?

Johnson violated the Tenure of Office Act.

What was the result of the impeachment trial of President Johnson?

Johnson no longer interfered in Reconstruction.

After Ulysses S. Grant, the former Union general, was elected president in 1868, he

supported congressional reconstruction.

The election controversy ended with the Compromise of 1877, in which

southern Democrats accepted a Republican president in exchange for federal subsidies and the removal of federal troops from the South.

Although Andrew Johnson had left the Democratic Party before becoming president, he seemed more a Democrat than a Republican as president because he

advocated limitations on federal power.

How influential were African American politicians during the period southern whites derisively called "Negro domination?"

Only one out of five Republican officeholders was black.

What was the result of the Compromise of 1877?

The Compromise spelled the end of Reconstruction.

By the early 1870s, the congressional reconstruction goals of 1866

had been mostly abandoned by Northerners.

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