Chapter 16 – Renaissance

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self-conscious

One of the things that distinguished Renaissance artists was that they were

rebirth, Greeks and Romans

Renaissance means _____, when the art of ______ and ______ was being revived

painting

Unlike the art of the Gothic era, the Renaissance emphasized

reflect the physical

Renaissance artists felt that art should ______ the _______ world

because of what they could do

In the Renaissance, artists for the first time were respected

Ghiberti, The Gates of Paradise

One great sculptor of the era was ______, who did ___ ______ ____ _________

nudity / pagan subject matter

Botticelli’s The Birth of Venus is a Renaissance painting because of its _____ and _____

shallow surface area

Botticelli’s The Birth of Venus is an Early Renaissance painting because of its

like smoke

Leonardo do Vinci’s Mona Lisa demonstrates his mastery of the technique of sfumato, which means

it shows tension and facial expression

Michelangelo’s David is a Renaissance statue because

combine Classical culture with Christianity

The Sistine Chapel ceiling is Michelangelo’s attempt to

Giogione

_____’s painting The Tempest placed more emphasis on the landscape than on the people in it

interact with each other

Anguissola’s The Chess Game differs from Raphael’s Pope Leo X in that the people portrayed by Anguissola

character analysis

Holbein’s portraits combine a realistic physical appearance with

mannerist

Two famous _____ artists are El Greco and Tintoretto

elongated figures

Among the characteristics of Mannerism are

Vasari

Lives of the Most Excellent Architects, Painters and Sculptors, a biography of Renaissance artists published in 1550, was written by

Venus

In Neo-Platonic thought, the Biblical character Eve was identified with

skilled crafts workers to intellectuals

One of the effects of the Renaissance was to change the status of artists in Europe from

rebirth

The word renaissance means

The technology of painting with oils was developed

by norhtern Europeans

old Testament

The theme of the Sistine Chapel ceiling frescoes comes from

Triangular

_____ organization, as seen in Masaccio’s Trinity with the Virgin, St. John the Evangelist, and Donors, was a popular device among Renaissance artists of Italy

the Medici family

Michelangelo, Raphael, and Botticelli were all commissioned to make art for

75

Northern European artists began using the system of linear perspective about __ years after it was first developed

Botticelli, Donatello, and Ghiberti

Artists working in the Early Renaissance period include

hospital

The Isenheim Altarpiece, with its gruesome details of Christ’s flesh wounds, originally hung in a _______ for patients with skin disease

the Reformation

The movement that divided all of Europe into Protestant and Catholic camps is called

thief

Vincenzo Perugia was a _____

frescoes

Raphael’s The school of athens, and Michelangelo’s the Creation of Adam are _______ painters

Venice, Rome, and Florence

The three most vital centers of Italian art during the Renaissance were

the merchant class

Which new group of art patrons emerged during the Renaissance

Renaissance

The ________ was a revival of interest in ancient Greek and Roman ideals

italy

The system of linear perspective was developed in the early 15th century in

sculpture

Michelangelo considered the field of _____ to be his foremost specialty

surface details

Which characteristic helps define the art of 15th-century northern European artists their precise rendering of _______ ______

mannerism

The strance and artificial sense of form and space in 16th century italian painting is typical of

sfumato

The use of _____ can be seen in the painting Madonna and Child with Saint Anne

Catholic Counter -Reformation

The emotional and dramatic Last Supper by Tintoretto reflects the artistic goals of the _________ ________-___________

Renaissance

refers to widespread cultural revival of Classical ideas (greek and romans) and culture beginning in 14th c. Italy and spread to Northern Europe and lasted until 16th century

Renaissance

-1400 to 1600- vast changes in art world. The way art looked, subjects it treated, the way it was thought about, position of artist in society, identities and influence of partons, culture served as point of reference- all things changes. Might say renaissance is time when concept of "art" arose, during this time painting, sculpture, and architecture began to earn their privileged position in Western thought,

humanism

Developed focus on _______ whereby Man and Humankind became the focus of knowledge not God although he too was still important. – MAN’s Place in NATURE – which revived representations of the Nude (held to be the noblest of God’s creation)

humanists, natural

Revival of classical greek and roman texts inspired learning and practice of ancient teachings, philosophies, and most importantly styles and techniques of art (studied greek and roman text). Referring to themselves as _______, believed sound education should include teachings of the Church and study of early Christian writers, also study of liberal arts- grammar, rhetoric, poetry, politics, and moral philosophy- about which pre-Christian world had much to teach. They believed in pursuit of knowledge for own sake. Held that humankind was not worthless in eyes of god, rather humankind was God’s finest and most perfect creation. Reason and creativity were God’s gifts, proof of humankind’s inherent dignity. People’s obligation to God was thus not tremble and submit but, rather, to soar, strive to realize their full intellectual and creative potential. -implications of these ideas for art were tremendous. artist observing the _______ world and work to reproduce it as accurately as possible, studied effects light, developed technique of chiaroscuro, system of linear perspective, how detail and color blur in distance, principles of atmospheric perspective. -studied anatomy, even dissected corpses

Plato

-Under influence of Greek Philosopher _____, beauty become equated with moral goodness. Artist sought an idealized body, one they created by taking the most beautiful features of numerous examples and combining them. -Ten-volume treatise on architecture by Roman writer Vitruvius was read in attempt to understand Classical thought and practice, include ideas about beauty and harmonious proportions. Greek and Roman ruins were studied in detail- described, measures, analyzed, and drawn. Statues like (14.29) Laocoon Group served as inspiration to renaissance artists.

merchant-rulers

-Chiaroscuro and perspective closely observe nature, study of anatomy, theories of beauty and proportion- establish painting, sculpture, and architecture allied with mathematics, science, and poetry. -before Renissance only 2 groups could afford art. Nobility and clergy, but they were joined by a new group of ______-_______ in 15th century, They all supported extravagant spending of art.

Italy

Renaissance started in _____, why? first to recover economy after Middle Ages, Church important patron of the arts, humanism arose in Italy, first university in Greek studios, ruins of ancient Rome. Began in Italy – partially because Rome was center of classical world and archeological digs revived these works and inspired artists – Italy could recapture its distinguished past Creation of what we know as artist – previously known as craftsmen and craftspeople – now became educated in studios as young apprentices In 14th century economies changed in Italy too – banking industry and trade grew creating a larger population with money – more upper class society – those who could afford to buy art (previously it was nobility and clergy – now city/state governments and upper class)

Giotto, natural, anatomy

From _____ – what artists now learned to do was OBSERVE the _____ world, created effects of light in use of chiaroscuro, linear perspective (mathematical knowledge and observation), atmospheric perspective (b/c of appearance of blurred colors in distance), and improved representations of the body (nude body) – Sculptors would make nude models out of clay and then wrap with soaked linen to create realistic appearance of drapery over full body === also based on study of _______ and dissections of the body

Early Renaissance, Medici

_______ _________ – actually begins in early 14th century as Italy recovers from the Black Death and series of bankruptcies and bad harvests that crippled the country for several decades. In early 14th century, ______ family again rises to power in Florence, center of Renaissance – small city/state with wealth and a strong family in power. Wealthy families begin commissioning works for churches, palazzos, city buildings, and new city churches – Florence Cathedral.

Donatello

Along first generation of renaissance artist was the sculpture ________ (16.1) Saint Mark- 1411-13 -was 25 years old -shows characteristics of new era, Donatello thought methodically in a new way. Body provides framework on which fabric drapes, so must be considered first. ( Sculptors would make nude models out of clay and then wrap with soaked linen to create realistic appearance of drapery over full body also based on study of anatomy and dissections of the body- then make a copy using marble)- Donatello one of first sculptures to use this method -statue placed in a niche, does not depend on framework for support -in the round, true contrapposto sense that if St. Mark moved so would clothing (weight- right leg, left-bent), shoulders compensate (right- lower, left- higher), clothing repond to form -figure is naturalistic like Greeks tautes, but individual personality in face and body (may come from Mark’s Gospel)

Lorenzo Ghiberti, linear perspective, architecture

Donatello’s treacher: ________ _______ -establish reputation in 1401- 23 years old (won competition to design bronze doors of baptistery of cathedral in Florence.) 1425- second set of doors was commissioned from Ghiberti -between 1401-25 system of linear perspective was discovered, described, and published- he used to full advantage of the possibility it opened (16.2) The story of Jacob and Esau. 1435 -______ ________, graceful, round figures in foreground stand on pavement whose conserving lines begin to recession in space that is carried symmetrically through architecture setting sculptured in low-relief in background -Ren artist used this new conceived space to bring clarity and order to composition, 2 qualities Greek philosophy associated with beauty -Artist used architecture setting to structure their composition: Ghiberti’s innovation was conceive of ________ and figures on same scale instead of relying on miniaturized, symbolic architecture of earlier artists like Duccio

Masaccio

______ (nickname meaning Sloppy Tom)- (1400-28) young, 24 year old leading painter of early 14th c., commissioned for private altar in Santa Maria Novella (16.3) Holy Trinity with Virgin, St. John the Evangelist, and Donors- 1425 (21 x 9 feet) commissioned for private altar in Santa Maria Novella Masaccio continues Giotto’s depiction of weighty figures, use of shading, and of 3-D space to convey forms as it appears in Nature. Also includes new use of linear perspective on a 2-D surface to convey illusion of space (architectural space as setting for figures) -arranged figures in stable triangular (extends from God to two donor and god to two holy groupings) The triangular organization remain favored by Italian Renaissance artists Fresco – crucifixion scene with Mary and John on either side and donors – Lenzi family kneeling outside of space, above Christ’s head is white dove (holy spirit) and God the Father above – below is skeleton lying on a sarcophagus with inscription reminding viewers of their own death "I was what you are, and what I am you will be." Space conceived w/ new renaissance architectural style – barrel vault with coffered ceiling, composite columns w/ ionic and Corinthian capitals, vanishing point below the cross at eye level for average viewer, midpoint of ledge in which donor kneel Series of Pyramids throughout scene – God is apex or Christ’s hands Colors – minimized to red and blue – light emphasizes divine nature of Christ, brings his form to the forefront -To visitors: painting is designed to present convincing illusion that the scared scene is present before them.

architectural

-________ setting painted is new to Renaissance style- see interior that inspire Masaccio in the church of Sant’Andrea in Mantua (16.4 and .5) 1470-93 by architecture Leon Battista Alberti -nave towards apse; light in middle distance entering through dome that rise over intersection of the transept and nave -constructed in 1472, he died and it took 2 decades to finish, in the 18th century changes occurred, through interior allows us to see Alberi developed the theme and elements announced by his facade- facade, square, arch, and circle dominate. -aisles: standard basilica plan give way to square, barrel-vaulted chapels along a barrel-vaulted nave (this sequence of barrel-vaulted spaces placed at right angles to each other carries through theme announced in entryway also preparing us for the right angle crossing of the transept -roundel set in pediment of facade and over its doors is repeated on walls of nave between chapels and culminates with opening of dome. -interior space composed of geometric volumes harks back to Roman examples like Pantheon

Greek and Roman, Sandro Botticelli, Neo-Platonism

Renaissance artist (and poets) turned attention to not only Christian Themes, but also _____ and ______ gods and goddesses. _______ _______ – born in 1445, became part of Medici Academy (Medici were a ruling class of merchants)and painted many works for them until he became involved with the evil monk Savanarola. -was part of the third generation Medici Academy- where humanist scholars and artist met to discuss Classical culture and its relationship to Christianity. The reunion of these two systems gave way to rise of ____-___________

Botticelli

In second half of 15ht century ____________ painted both religious and mythological (pagan) subjects (16.6) The Birth of Venus – c. 1480, 6′ x 9′ tempera on canvas – probably a commission by Medici family for palazzo (private not public work of art ) – meant for an educated audience who would understand the Mythological symbolism Venus, born from the sea on a half shell, is blown by the wind god Zephyrus (and his wife) to the shore where she is awaiting to be clothed by Spring (wearing a dress of blooming flowers) In Neo-platonic thought, Venus was associated with the virgin Mary and Eve in the garden – her association with water was a symbol for Christ’s baptism with water by John the Baptist -painted nude, her pose is modeled after Roman sculpture of goddess, she looks to be in high relief not in-the-round, implied space is shallow, with sea and receding shoreline as a flat backdrop as in theatrical production.Botticelli’s unusual linear style and shallow modeling was an exception to Renaissance norms Painted with tempera, the colors are delicate and almost transparent due to a thin build up of layers of translucent paint Springtime – c. 1480 – celebration of Classical nude form but endowed with a distinctive character

High Renaissance, Renissance Man

______ ____________ – period of roughly 25 years from 1500-1525 – mainly incorporating the vast body of work of Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Raphael -most celebrated works of Western art were produced (all centered between Rome and Florence) -artist made brilliant creative endeavor "___________ ____"- applied to someone who is very well informed about and very good at doing, many different, often quite unrelated things. Several of the leading figures of Renaissance were artistic jacks-of-all-trades

Leonardo

__________ considered epitomy of Renaissance man – inventor, painter, musician, engineer, scientist, and sculptor – commissioned by popes, wealthy, kings, and city governments – so many notebooks and drawings or studies exist documenting his ideas and never completed projects. Considered the greatest genius who ever lived- possessed a brilliant and inquiring mind that accepted no limits). Throughout his life remained absorbed by problems of how things worked. Mirror wrote (used in notes and journal) Example: (5.21) Study of Human Proportions (related squares and circles) -interest in math evident in his rendering of perspective (Last supper- one-point perspective) -often had difficulty completing scientific projects and many of his most ambitious works were left unfinished like

triangular, Sfumato

(16.7) Madonna and Child with Saint Anne 1503-06 -painted in Florence -figures arranged in ________ grouping- Mary sits improbably on lap of her mother Anne -often Leonardo composition not meant to be realistic, rather suggest theological meaning -three figures form single lineage (Anne, Mary on her lap, Jesus- attempting to climb lamb, symbol of future sacrifice -he destabilizes triangular grouping by lower left corner into darkness, restores balance using dark tree at upper left (allusion to cross0, background uninhabited, primal landscape of rocks and water (suggest creation of world and beginning of time) -entire scene bathed in gentle light of _______ (Italian for smoke)- Leandro specify, which layer upon layer upon layer of translucent glazes a hazy atmosphere, softened contours and velvet shadows

Michelangelo

__________ – equally talented but differently – poet, painter, sculptor, and architect (1475-1564) – died at very old age of 89 – worked in different styles since he lived so long – from Renaissance to Mannerist in late 16th century – studied at Medici academy as a youth in their sculpture garden – did many commissions for Medici family in 16th century – Medici’s were his main patron when they were in Florence (and not ousted by the government). -established his reputation as a sculptor by age of 25. Pietà – 1500, Age of 25 commissioned to do the pieta for St. Peter’s

Tension and energy, contrapposto

A year later given opportunity to carve the (16.8) David (1501-04) for the Florence Cathedral -image of biblical hero David young hebrea shepherd who killed giant Goliath with a stone and slingshot. Statue reveals Michelangelo’s debt to classical sculpture, but not a restatement of Greek art (greeks know how body looks on outside, Michelangelo know how they looked on inside and worked- used his knowledge to make figure seem made of flesh, muscle, and bones) ________ and _______- readiness – he used a block of marble that had been intended for the cathedral but sat dormant for 25 years waiting. Seen as too tall (14 ft) for the exterior of the cathedral, the city council voted to place it in front of the civic building – Palazzo della Signoria and Palazzo Vecchio – became less of a religious symbol (Christ defeat over Satan) & more civic – David became symbol of small city defeating tyranny and the power of the recently ousted Medici family (who had threatened the sovereignty of the Florentine Republic – certainly borrows from Greek ideals of monumental heroic body in ________ – shows David prior to killing Goliath – waits patiently with stone and sling in hand but ready to act – he is slightly in repose but anxiou, filled with volatile energy – tension- he appears angry in one view and complacent or ready or quiet even in other views, relaxed stance with tense muscles – tree trunk support alludes to influence from Roman copies of greek sculptures Vasari anecdote of Mayor telling Michelangelo the nose is too pointy and big

Michelangelo, architectural, Old testament

(16.9) Sistine Ceiling Fresco- 1508-12 Vatican, Sistine Chapel – Pope’s private chapel Pope Julius II commissioned him to do his tomb sculpture then came up w/ idea of repainting the ceiling. Michelangelo distaste for painting resisted the plan, but was forced to capitulate. Spent four years, on scaffold 68 feet above the floor on his back painting. -named after earlier pope called Sixtus 68 ft high, 128 ft long, and 44 ft wide – ceiling depicts stories from Old Testament and portraits -fresco painting: difficulties, worked in same portions and quickly without mistakes and in cramped position . Physical challenge of making coherent composition in such a huge area – group scenes divided by illusionistic ________ elements including pilasters, cornices, lintels, and sculptural groups or individuals, like putti’s creates a large grid dividing surface into discrete zones -conceived by Pope Julius II and Michelangelo -In niches created along sides, Michelangelo portrayed ____ __________ prophets, and ancient Greek sybile, all believed to have predicted the coming of Christ. -Plan – along center spine of ceiling )of vault) 9 scenes from Genesis – begins with God Separating Light (creation of the world) through Noah and the Flood Genesis scenes alternate rhythmically in size (large, small, large, etc)- small scenes framed by 4 nude youths holding garlands and ribbons that support bronze shield painted and decorated with relief- youths known as Italian word ingudi (maybe perfected beings or angels) Flanking the central scenes are alternating Old Testament prophets & pagan sybils – Spandrels (curved triangles) depict ancestors of Jesus (as told in Gospel of Matthew) 4 Corner Spandrels – illustrate stories from old Testament often paired (or seen as metaphors) for Christ’s life -was successful and continued as papal favorite

color and light.

The Renaissance artists from Venice, such as Titian and Giorgione, were especially known for their mastery of

Michelangelo

Other _______ works – architect, sculptor -1546 Paul named Michelangelo the official architect of the Old St. Peter’s (15.2) -construction of new church based on plan by architect named Bramante, Michelangelo revised his plan. Gathering fussiness into a bold and harmonies design (16.11 and 12). -central and cross plan merged in new idea and relates symbolic cross to geometric form , square and circle. -central dome (completed after his death) by another architect, modified it -17th century the nave was lengthened and facade remodel, taken from Michelangelo conceived, organic whole pulsating contours and powerful upward thrust

c

Who were the Limbourgs? A) a Protestant religious sect B) a powerful ruling family of monarchs and popes C) artist brothers D) members of the blacksmiths’ guild in France E) leaders of the Counter-Reformation

d

Lives of the Most Excellent Architects, Painters, and Sculptors, a biography of Renaissance artists published in 1550, was written by A) Michelangelo. B) Leonardo. C) Ghiberti. D) Vasari. E) Donatello.

a

In Neo-Platonic thought, the Biblical character Eve was identified with A) Venus. B) autumn. C) evil. D) the night. E) motherhood.

a

One of the effects of the Renaissance was to change the status of artists in Europe from A) skilled crafts workers to intellectuals. B) observers of nature to designers. C) shamans to documentarians. D) monks to nobility. E) none of the above

d

The German artist Hans Holbein was court painter to A) Eleanora of Toledo. B) Philip II of Spain C) the Hapsburgs. D) King Henry VIII of England. E) Frederick the Wise of Saxony.

b

The word renaissance means A) "to know something thoroughly." B) "rebirth." C) "to create something from nothing." D) "to reinvent." E) "celebration."

c

The technology of painting with oils was developed A) by Mannerist painters. B) during the Late Renaissance. C) by northern Europeans. D) all of the above E) none of the above

25

The era known as the High Renaissance encompasses a time period of about ______ years.

a

The technique of sfumato involves the use of A) multiple layers of glazes. B) multiple vanishing points. C) elongated figures and compressed space. D) burnt charcoal. E) all of the above

e

The theme of the Sistine Chapel ceiling frescoes comes from A) scenes of everyday life. B) the Egyptian Book of the Dead. C) the story of the artist’s life. D) Plato’s Republic. E) none of the above

d

____________ organization, as seen in Masaccio’s Trinity with the Virgin, St. John the Evangelist, and Donors, was a popular device among Renaissance artists of Italy. A) Accidental B) Diagonal C) Informal D) Triangular E) all of the above

e

Leonardo da Vinci was a skilled A) engineer. B) inventor. C) painter. D) architect. E) all of the above

d

Giorgione’s painting The Tempest shows the influence of his teacher, A) Ghiberti. B) Titian. C) Botticelli. D) Bellini. E) Masaccio.

c

Michelangelo, Raphael, and Botticelli were all commissioned to make art for A) King Louis XIV. B) the silversmiths guild. C) the Medici family. D) Pope Leo X. E) the Duke of Berry.

b

One of Michelangelo’s major achievements was A) inventing a prototype of the helicopter. B) redesigning St. Peter’s cathedral. C) painting the frescoes in Pope Julius II’s private library. D) all of the above E) none of the above

c

Northern European artists began using the system of linear perspective A) before anyone else. B) much earlier than the Italians did. C) about 75 years after it was first developed. D) simultaneously with its development elsewhere. E) during the Middle Ages.

e

Artists working in the Early Renaissance period include A) Bronzino, Anguissola, and Raphael. B) Bellini, Titian, and Tintoretto. C) Grünewald, Donatello, and Michelangelo. D) Leonardo, Dürer, and Giorgione. E) Botticelli, Donatello, and Ghiberti.

a

Which 15th century invention led to the decrease in the practice of illumination by hand? A) the printing press B) the system of linear perspective C) the camera obscura D) the technology of oil painting E) all of the above

a

The Isenheim Altarpiece, with its gruesome details of Christ’s flesh wounds, originally hung in A) a hospital for patients with skin disease. B) the Duke of Berry’s castle. C) the pope’s private library in the Vatican. D) a catacomb. E) none of the above

b

The movement that divided all of Europe into Protestant and Catholic camps is called A) the Renaissance. B) the Reformation. C) the Crusades. D) Neo-Platonism. E) the Pazzi Conspiracy.

b

Vincenzo Perugia was A) Pope Julius II’s architect. B) a thief. C) a Mannerist sculptor. D) Botticelli’s primary art patron. E) a biographer of Renaissance artists.

Raphael

Renaissance: concentration of artistic energy in Rome _______ painted in fresco- School of Athens (7.3) in library of same pope, Julius II -1513 Julius succeeded by pope Giovanni de’ Medical -had increasing demand as a portraitist, Giovanni de’ Medici (Pope Leo X) wanted his done (16.13) Pope Leo X 1518 oil on wood -Pope Leo X collector of books and manuscripts, amassed a fine library -portrayed him seated before his prized illuminated manuscript, and magnifying glass in hand, his two nephews beside him -rich fabrics, tell worldly splendor of Church in Rome, keenly observed faces convey without flattery of aura of power and ambition (had a wealthy family)

Venice, Giovanni Bellini

Third greatest artistic center in Italy was _____ -________ ________ worked and taught Giorgione and Titian (two greatest Venetian painters in high Renaissance)

Giorgione, landscape, mood

_________ died in his 30’s The Tempest (16.14) 1505- iconography is unknown -unable to depict meaning or identify nude women nursing a child or soldier/shepard -important contribute to Renaissance art- earlier artist composed a scene by concentrating on figures and painted landscape as backdrop, Here however started by contracting ______ and placing figures in it. This approach paved way from great landscape paintings centuries to follow -title implies subject is really the approaching storm, closes in dramatically over city whole 2 foreground figures bathed in sunlight Giorgione’s principles interest seems to contrast of rural foreground against city in perspective, 2 drawn together by violent effects of nature. Storm and lush nature create world where nature dominates, not people, painting evokes powerful, compelling _____ of apprehension and anticipation

Titian, subdued and burnished

_______ lived long and productive life (2.33) Assumption and (5.31) Venus with the Mirror -throughout his age his brushwork became freer and colors grew more ________ and _______. His paintings seem like nothing and senseless frenzy of brush strokes up close, from far way the image has unparalleled richness

Titian

(16.15) The Annunciation 1560 oil on canvas -painted when artist was 75 -subject is moment when artist appears to Mary and tell her she been chosen to bear the Son of God. Mary turns from her prayers and lifts her veil to flush inn excitement of news. Doesn’t see behind her air opens up with forces of an explosion and golden light forms endless cherubim descended the dove of holy Spirit.

north, details

Renaissance in the ______- northern countries in western Europe didn’t happen as sudden as it did in Italy, nor were concerns the same Northern Renaissance – to return back to early 15th century -Northern Renaissance style evolved gradually out of Middle Ages, artist became increasingly entranced with myriad ______ of visible world and better at capturing them

Limbourgs, detail

(16.16) Les Tres Riches Heures 1416 -fondness for detail. book created at beginning of 15th century by three artistic brothers the _______ for duke of Berry, brother to king of France -______- this is a miniature only 9 inches high -meant for daily religious devotion, contains a calendar with each month’s painting featuring typical seasonal activity of peasantry and nobility illustration here shows February- at top of lunette (half moon), chariot of the Sun making progress through months and sign of zodiac, below depicts notion of lower-class life (everyday life- small peasant hut it occupants around a fire, garments pulled back to get max warmth . -touch of artistic license, Limbourgs removed front wall of hut so we can look in, outside we see the snowcovered landscape, sheep cluster in enclosure, peasant ruching across barnyard pulling coat over his face for warmth, see movement diagonally up slope to man chopping wood, another urging donkey uphill, church at top. Limbourgs manuscript marks high point in medieval tradition dating back hundreds of years- few decades later though printing press was invented and practice copying and illustrating books by hands due out. At same time Northern artist turned to painting on panels with oil paint

Robert Campin, intuitive, colors, details, jewel-like

_______ _______- oil painter, in Flemish city of Tournai (in present-day Belgium) (16.17) Merode Altarpiece, c. 1426 – some contemporary with Masaccio’s Holy Trinity and painted right around time that the principles of linear perspective discovered in Italy -subject the Annunciation (the same depicted by Titan) -relies on _______ perspective, which receding parallel lines converge unsystematically. Here uses it with charming inconsistency and tilting the tabletop towards us, we see everything on top of it. – Campin uses oil paint to achieve brighter more vivid _____, strong ______, lots of symbolism, treats religious subject with symbolism (Mary’s purity) but also makes it recognizable and personal for the common lay person (to understand and identify with) -rendered details, it clear color, and artist’s skillful placement of light and shadow combine to give _____-____ quality

detail, textures, skin, perspective

Northern artist: decoration and surface _____ and things derives naturally from heritage, long tradition of painting miniatures, manuscript illustration, stain glass windows, tapestries. Perfected skills at rendering precise outer appearance of subjects, capturing in paint _______ and quality of _____ to its last pore and wrinkle Italian:obsessed with structure- accurate _____ and underlying musculature of body

architectural, detail

example of Northern Painting is Rogier Van Der Weyden- (16.18)St. Luke Drawing the Virgin -Virgin Mary nursing infant Jesus (left), (right) St. Luke drawing using silverpoint -balanced with __________ setting , behind them through window we see depth in landscape -typical northern art- imute attention to ______ in room, woodwork, tiles, canopy, window panes, garments; rich colors, faces; finely modeled and human think of them as portraits -emotional warmth in picture, Mary and child exchange tender glances, St. Luke effort to capture moment -everyone caught up in looking, including distant couple gazing at the horizon Roger’s paintings is gentle, religious or it could be harsh in its emotions- harsher than of Italy -Northern artist abound in truly grim Crucifixions, gory martyrdoms of saints, and inventive punishments for sinners

Matthias Grunewald, agony

_____ ______ (German artist) active in 16th century painted Crucifixions of Christians as center of his masterpiece in… (16.19) Matthias Grünewald, Isenheim Altarpiece – c. 1510-15 Altar for hospital attached to Saint Anthony Monastery in Isenheim, Colmar, France for Crucifixion and lamentation on closed wings – 3 stages of altar Hospital catered to patients suffering from skin diseases, especially ergotism (Saint Anthony’s Fire) – the altar was placed in such a way that the patients could see it as they lay in bed Christ too has similar skin pollups and scars – identifying with the patients He is tortured and expressive, discolored flesh, contorted limbs, anguished convey by feet and hands. Patients in hospital could identify with Christ’s suffering and thus increase their faith Black sky refers to death & tradition that the sky blackened and nature died when jesus died -Mary faints, supported by St. John and Mary Magdalene weeps in agony mirror Christ’s own, John the Baptist offers only sign of hope, points calmly to dying savior in gesture foreshadowing Christ’s Resurrection -artist depicts of the extreme physical ______ were commonplace

Albrecht Durer, perspective, harmony

________ _________ (8.8) St. Jerome engraving -attempted to fuse Italian ideas and Northern love of meticulous observation -visited Italy in 1494 returned in 1505 -shared Italian preoccupation with problems of _______ , ideal beauty, and ________ -in Durer viewed Northern art as too heavy on instinct and lacked firm grounding in theory and science -end of his life summarized his philosophy of art by writing and illustration in works: Treatise on Measurement and Four Books on human Proportions

Hans Holbein, perspective

-Artist who matured from Durer was German painter ___ _______ -recognized need to grapple with issues that Durer introduced. -mastered ________ and studied Italian paintings. Under their influence his modeling softened and composition grew more monumental. Still had Northern gift for detail (16.20) The Ambassadors -his skills earned as profits earned him position as painter to King Henry VIII. -commissioned by man on left, Jean de Dinteville (French ambassador to England) and right (friend) George de Selve (French bishop) also served as ambassador -they look out from either side of table richly laden with objects symbolizing 4 humanities sciences- music, arithmetic, geometry, and astronomy -imported Islamic rug speaks of contact with world, globe reminds us that Renaissance was the age of European exploration and discovery. lute has broken string (symbolizes- Europe no longer in harmony because of issues raised by Martin Luther- Reformation: would divide into Protestant countries and Catholic countries- religious unity of Middle Ages would be gone), book open to hymn by Martin Luther -element in painting is amorphous diagonal shapes seem to float in foreground -Dinteville motto "memento mori" latin for "remember you must die". Holbein acknowledge this with human skull stretched as though made of rubber- skull painted to come into focus when painting is viewed up close- Death cuts across life and shows itself by surprise even as it reminds death will come eventually. -Stands as portrait of two men, friendship, and portrait of era

Protestant reforms

-_______ ______ of 16 century- attitude towards religious images ranging from wariness to hostility images of saints and figures, reformers felt had thought to be possess scared powers themselves -In their views, Church in Rome had encouraged those beliefs, idol to worship Walls of Protestant churches were bare. One result was Northern artist turned increasingly to everyday world around them as subject matter and one most fruitful subjects they began to explore was landscape

Protestant reforms, theme

(16.21) The Harvesters 1565 oil on panel -16th century by Netherlandish painter Pieter Bruegel the Elder -advances season to late summer, shows how for painting has come in 150 years -formed part of a cycle of depicting months of the year -foreground" group of peasants have paused for midday meal in shade of tree- sitting, chatting, and eating, they had been working in field since dawn, one man loosened his breeches and stretches out for a nap, -middle ground- unmowed portion of field stretches out , come people still working, men mowing with scythes, women stopping and gathering wheat into sheaves -beyond in open vast panorama, peaceful, domesticated landscape stretching out for eye -landscape served the Limbourg brothers as backdrop, here becomes principle of ______, grand setting which humans take appointed place and system to work and lived in, with rhythm of seasons and creation

Mannerism,

Late Renaissance in Italy in 16th century, after High Renaissance, usually dated to death of Raphael in 1520, a new movement called _______ appeared.— art which often created highly artificial styles with elongated figures, shallow pictorial space, strange use of scale and lighting, as well as intensely bright colors. (use of humor, decoration, and natural world) Maniera – Italiana for "style" or "stylishness" -painters practiced art of grace and sophistication – possibly as reaction against the harmony and balance and order of High renaissance. – reaction due to new patrons, less associated with religion – possibly due to Reformation and reaction against the Catholic church -scholars agree the Mannerism grew out of possibilities suggested by work of High Renaissance artist, like Michelangelo who influenced the next generation was enormous – secular art became overtly erotic in both subject & style – or maybe just an extension of the renaissance style and fascination or love for beauty – this became an over-stylized approach to beauty

Agnolo Bronzino

_______ _______ (16.22) Allegory (Venus,Cupid, Folly and Time) – c. 1545 Mannerism paintings – frivolous or playful work about Allegory – where figures or objects represent some sort of meaning, possibly interpreted to have a deeper moral lesson (each are a idea or concept). The allegory here is so obscure that scholars have yet to reconstruct it. -elaborate or obscure subject matter. Also typically "forbidden" erotic undercurrent- see Venus and Cupid in foreground (mother and son), there interaction hints a different sort of relationship, both arranged in erotic appraisal/ Elongated figures and twisting S-shape poses are part of Mannerist repertoire, as is illogical picture space- a shadow compressed zone filled impossible number of people. – probably commissioned by the Medici’s as a gift for Francis 1 of France, topic would have been understood by educated elite (aristocracy) – luxuriousness of details – colors, gold, fabrics, etc would have been appreciated by owners (wealthy) – emphasis on faces and expressions – Bronzino was predominantly a portrait painter – main bodies adopt the typical mannerist figura serpentinata position

Figura Serpentinata

(Latin – serpentine figure) is a style in painting and sculpture that is typical of Mannerism. It is similar, but not identical, to contrapposto, and features figures often in a spiral pose. This is an Italian phrase literally translated as serpentine figure. It is used to describe a human figure which spirals around a central axis, so that the lower limbs face in one direction and the torso almost in the opposite direction, in a graceful if sometimes contorted pose

extreme

Agnolo Bronzino- paintings are _______ examples of highly artificial and self-conscious aspect of Mannerist art.

less exotic

Example of a ____ ______ work is by Sofonisba Anguissola- brought new art of Renaissance portraiture -the first woman artist known to achieve celebrity among her contemporaries. Born about 1535 in Cremona, eldest of 6 sisters and 1 brother. -Well educated and trained in painting. Age 22 attracted admiring attention of Michelangelo (16.23) Portrait of Amilcare, Minerva, and Asdrubale Anguissola 1558 -artist’s father, sister, and brother 1557 brought new art of Renaissance portraiture- feeling of family interaction, tenderness, and affection -didn’t develope gift though, career took her to court of Spain- obtain position as portrait painter and drawing instructor, they preferred stiff and formal style- caused painting to go unfinished.

mannerism

16th century. Elongated forms (precarious balance), exaggerated contrapposto, irrational setting (ambiguous background), crowded spaces. – Artistic style throughout much of the 16th century; characterized by distortions and exaggerations

Counter-Reformation, teaching stories, emotion

The Protestant Reformation in north, drew large number of people away from Roman Catholic Church.The Catholic Counter-reformation begun in second half of 16th century till 17th, aimed to strengthen Church still had in southern countries and recover some lost ground in North -During the __________-_________ (when the catholic church attempted to reinvigorate itself to combat the interest in Lutheranism)the Church established new rules – wanted art to emphasize mysticism & spiritual ecstasy to evoke identification with the suffering of saints and martyrs and also encouraged ART that would be didactic (intend to teach), and easy to understand – focus on ________ ______ but also identifiable -insisted all representation of scared conform only to teachings of the Church and arrange the composition to make teachings evident -encouraged artist to appeal to ________, engage heaters of faithful and their own intellects

Tintoretto

(Venetian painter) ________ (16.24) The Last Supper – 1592-94- illustrates these ideas of Counter-Reformation – main theological moment of Last Supper – Christ breaking bread and giving it to his disciples, is the basis for Communion -dramatic diagonal of table carries our eye towards Christ (stands near center), his potentially obscure position in distance is compensated for by light above head -developed style from virtuosic brushwork and dramatic lighting effects of Titan’s works – dramatic lights, lighting effects, colors, ghostly figures, and a sharp, sweeping dramatic diagonal encourage the emotional effect of the painting – Christ stands almost in center position, highlighted by his golden halo and opposite him alone on the other side of the table is Judas (doesn’t glow), foreshadowing his role as against Christ (he is seated close to Jesus, but alone on opposite side of table -saints shine lesser glow from head. Witnesses from heaven crowd into scene from above, they are unseen by servants, but by us – Common man could identify himself in the scene through the inclusion of the peasants or workers tending to the meal As well as the lowered picture plane that allows the viewer to enter into the scene and participate, to a certain degree -dramatic light, theatricality, heightened emotionalism, diagonal composition- play important roles in style to come into the Baroque

renaissance vs. mannerism

Leonardo da Vinci Last Supper and Andrea Castagno, Last Supper (1450) "what was internalized, subtle, and intellectual has here become externalized, exaggerated and emotional."

Renaissance

European art movement from the 14th – 16th centuries characterized by a renewed interest in Classical art from the Greek and Roman eras. Originally began in Italy and spread to northern Europe by late 16th century.

Mannerism

From the Italian for style or stylishness, a trend in 16th century Italian art which often created highly artificial styles with elongated figures, shallow pictorial space, strange use of scale and lighting, as well as intensely bright colors.

Botticelli

Birth of Venus by _________ depicts a mythological subject but in the guise of Neo-platonic thought; that is through the blending of classical mythology and Christianity.

16th

The High Renaissance occurred during the _____ century.

David

Michelangelo’s sculpture, ________, became a political symbol for the city of Florence and its ongoing battle with the Medici family.

Vatican

The Sistine ceiling paintings by Michelangelo are located in the ______.

Matthias Grunewald

The Isenheim Altarpiece by __________ depicts a disfigured Christ on the cross suffering from a skin disease that was intended to be seen as sympathetic to its viewers.

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