chapter 16 physics

Thermal convection applies mainly to _________.

fluids

Heat travels from the Sun to Earth by the process of _________.

radiation

The relation f ~ T tells us that high temperature sources emit electromagnetic waves of _________.

high frequency

How does the peak frequency of radiant energy relate to the absolute temperature of the radiating source?

The peak frequency increases as temperature increases.

Which will normally warm faster: a black pot of cold water or a silvered pot of cold water? Which will cool faster?

black , black

Solar power is the rate at which _________.

solar energy is received from the Sun

Which of the following most prevents the escape of terrestrial radiation?

Water vapor

Newton's law of cooling applies to objects that undergo _________.

cooling or warming

Which will undergo the greater rate of cooling: a red-hot poker in a warm oven or a red-hot poker in a cold room (or do both cool at the same rate)?

The poker in the cold room cools fastest.

How much radiant energy from the Sun, on average, reaches each square meter at the top of Earth's atmosphere each second? What is the average solar power, averaged over a whole year, which reaches the United States?

1.4 kJ, 0.18 kW/m2

What is terrestrial radiation?

Terrestrial radiation is infrared radiation emitted by Earth's surface.

On a cold day your feet feel warmer on a rug than on a tile floor because a rug

is a poorer conductor.

Energy transfer by convection is primarily restricted to

fluids

At the same temperature, which has greater average speed in the air?

very light molecules

Sun's radiant energy is composed of shorter wavelengths than Earth's due to Sun's greater

Surface temperature

What happens to the temperature of something that radiates energy without absorbing the same amount in return?

it cools

Objects that emit radiation relatively well

absorb radiation relatively well.

When an object absorbs as much as it radiates

it remains at about the same temperature.

If a pizza absorbs more energy than it emits, its temperature

increases

A liter of cold water will warm faster in sunlight in a

black pot

The temperature of outer space is

about 2.7 kelvin

A good absorber of radiation is a

good emitter of radiation.

A blueberry pie will be a net absorber of energy when its temperature is

lower than its surroundings.

If the composition of the upper atmosphere were altered to permit a greater amount of terrestrial radiation to escape, Earth would be

cooler

The heat we enjoy on a sunny day is due mainly to the Sun's

enormous size

Substances absorb heat energy by the process of

radiation. conduction. convection.

Heat normally flows from objects of high

temperature to objects of low temperature.

When a hot object makes thermal contact with a cold object, the direction of

internal energy flow is from hot to cold

thermometric property

measurable property that changes as temperature changes

heat

flow (transfer) of energy because a difference in temperature

unit of heat energy

1 calorie is how much heat is needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree celcius Q= m x c x change in T heat=mass x materialx change in Temperature

thermal inertia

how much heat (1 cal) per

specific heat

number of degrees of freedom

ways molecules can have kinetic energy

translation rotation vibration

newtons law of cooling / heating

rate of heat flow proportional to temperature difference

3 methods of heat transfer

conduction : neighbor atoms to neighbor atoms convection: neighborhoods of atoms move to new neighborhoods radiation: phone calls to other neighbors

weins law

frequency of the peak directly proportional to Temperature (kevlin) black body radiation

temperature

proportional to the average "translational" kinetic energy of random molecular motion (motion that carries the molecule from one place to another) rotational and vibrating dont define temperature

internal energy

the grand total of all the energies inside a substance there is more internal energy in the larger volume of water

calorie

the amount of heat required to change the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree celscius

insulators

poor conductors that impede(delay) the transfer of heat examples: wool, wood, styrofoam,straw, paper, cork

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Thermal convection applies mainly to _________.

fluids

Heat travels from the Sun to Earth by the process of _________.

radiation

The relation f ~ T tells us that high temperature sources emit electromagnetic waves of _________.

high frequency

How does the peak frequency of radiant energy relate to the absolute temperature of the radiating source?

The peak frequency increases as temperature increases.

Which will normally warm faster: a black pot of cold water or a silvered pot of cold water? Which will cool faster?

black , black

Solar power is the rate at which _________.

solar energy is received from the Sun

Which of the following most prevents the escape of terrestrial radiation?

Water vapor

Newton’s law of cooling applies to objects that undergo _________.

cooling or warming

Which will undergo the greater rate of cooling: a red-hot poker in a warm oven or a red-hot poker in a cold room (or do both cool at the same rate)?

The poker in the cold room cools fastest.

How much radiant energy from the Sun, on average, reaches each square meter at the top of Earth’s atmosphere each second? What is the average solar power, averaged over a whole year, which reaches the United States?

1.4 kJ, 0.18 kW/m2

What is terrestrial radiation?

Terrestrial radiation is infrared radiation emitted by Earth’s surface.

On a cold day your feet feel warmer on a rug than on a tile floor because a rug

is a poorer conductor.

Energy transfer by convection is primarily restricted to

fluids

At the same temperature, which has greater average speed in the air?

very light molecules

Sun’s radiant energy is composed of shorter wavelengths than Earth’s due to Sun’s greater

Surface temperature

What happens to the temperature of something that radiates energy without absorbing the same amount in return?

it cools

Objects that emit radiation relatively well

absorb radiation relatively well.

When an object absorbs as much as it radiates

it remains at about the same temperature.

If a pizza absorbs more energy than it emits, its temperature

increases

A liter of cold water will warm faster in sunlight in a

black pot

The temperature of outer space is

about 2.7 kelvin

A good absorber of radiation is a

good emitter of radiation.

A blueberry pie will be a net absorber of energy when its temperature is

lower than its surroundings.

If the composition of the upper atmosphere were altered to permit a greater amount of terrestrial radiation to escape, Earth would be

cooler

The heat we enjoy on a sunny day is due mainly to the Sun’s

enormous size

Substances absorb heat energy by the process of

radiation. conduction. convection.

Heat normally flows from objects of high

temperature to objects of low temperature.

When a hot object makes thermal contact with a cold object, the direction of

internal energy flow is from hot to cold

thermometric property

measurable property that changes as temperature changes

heat

flow (transfer) of energy because a difference in temperature

unit of heat energy

1 calorie is how much heat is needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree celcius Q= m x c x change in T heat=mass x materialx change in Temperature

thermal inertia

how much heat (1 cal) per

specific heat

number of degrees of freedom

ways molecules can have kinetic energy

translation rotation vibration

newtons law of cooling / heating

rate of heat flow proportional to temperature difference

3 methods of heat transfer

conduction : neighbor atoms to neighbor atoms convection: neighborhoods of atoms move to new neighborhoods radiation: phone calls to other neighbors

weins law

frequency of the peak directly proportional to Temperature (kevlin) black body radiation

temperature

proportional to the average "translational" kinetic energy of random molecular motion (motion that carries the molecule from one place to another) rotational and vibrating dont define temperature

internal energy

the grand total of all the energies inside a substance there is more internal energy in the larger volume of water

calorie

the amount of heat required to change the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree celscius

insulators

poor conductors that impede(delay) the transfer of heat examples: wool, wood, styrofoam,straw, paper, cork

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