Chapter 16 Endocrine

Up-regulation involves the loss of receptors and prevents the target cells from overreacting to persistently high hormone levels.

False

The hypothalamus is known to control the activity of the thyroid, which has traditionally been called the master endocrine gland.

False The hypothalamus is known to control the activity of the pituitary gland, which has traditionally been called the master endocrine gland.

Which hormone aids in water resorption?

antidiuretic hormone

Which of the following pairs correctly matches the adrenal gland zone, or area, with the class of hormones it produces?

zona glomerulosa: mineralocorticoids
zona fasciculata: catecholemines
medulla: glucocorticoids
zona reticularis: aldosterone

zona glomerulosa: mineralocorticoids The zona glomerulosa produces mineralocorticoids

When blood glucose levels are high

The pancreas releases insulin.
The pancreas releases glucagon.
The liver releases insulin.
The liver releases glucagon.
The pancreas releases glucose.

The pancreas releases insulin The pancreas responds to high blood glucose levels by releasing insulin.

A liver cell responds to insulin by

Breaking down glycogen and releasing glucose.
Releasing insulin.
Taking in glucose and converting it to glucagon.
Taking in glucose and converting it to glycogen.
Releasing glucagon.

Taking in glucose and converting it to glycogen.

What cells in the body respond to glucagon by breaking down glycogen and releasing glucose?

Intestinal cells.
Muscle cells.
Liver cells and cells in the pancreas.
Liver cells.
Cells in the pancreas.

Liver cells

Body cells that respond to insulin include

Liver cells and muscle cells only.
Intestinal cells only.
Muscle cells only.
Liver cells, as well as most other cells of the body.
Liver cells only.

Liver cells, as well as most other cells of the body.

When blood glucose levels are low

Liver cells convert more glucose to glycogen.
The pancreas releases insulin, which eventually causes blood glucose levels to increase.
The pancreas releases glucagon, which eventually causes blood glucose levels to decrease.
The pancreas releases glucagon, which eventually causes blood glucose levels to increase.
The pancreas releases insulin, which eventually causes blood glucose levels to decrease.

The pancreas releases glucagon, which eventually causes blood glucose levels to increase.

The body's tendency to maintain relatively constant internal conditions is called

homeostasis.

Oxytocin is a strong stimulant of uterine contractions.

True

LH is also referred to as a gonadotropin.

True

Growth hormone solely exerts its influence by targeting other endocrine glands to produce hormones.

False

Which of the following occurs in situations where more than one hormone produces the same effects at the target cell and their combined effects are amplified?

synergism
antagonism
permissiveness
summation

synergism Synergism of hormones occurs in situations where one or more hormones produce the same effect at the target cell and their combined effects are amplified.

The size and shape of a pea; produces hormones that stimulate other endocrine glands.

Pituitary gland (hypophysis)

Is part of the sympathetic nervous system

Adrenal medulla

Produces hormones that regulate glucose levels in the body.

Pancreas

Primary regulators of blood calcium levels.

Parathyroid glands

Produces the body's major metabolic hormones.

Thyroid gland

Which of the following is NOT a major type of stimulus that triggers endocrine glands to manufacture and release hormones?

neural
enzymatic
hormonal
humoral

enzymatic

What is the primary function of hormones?

activate extracellular enzymes
alter cell activity
cause allergic reactions
influence metabolic activity of glands by electrochemical impulses

alter cell activity The primary function of hormones is to alter cell activity by altering plasma membrane permeability or membrane potential, stimulating synthesis of enzymes or regulating molecules, activating or deactivating enzymes, inducing secretory activity, or stimulating mitosis.

Hypersecretion of what hormone can produce the effects of gigantism in the individual in the center of this image?

growth hormone (GH)

Which hormone helps the body avoid dehydration and water overload?

antidiuretic hormone

What hormone released into the blood by the posterior pituitary inhibits or prevents urine formation?

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

What gland secretes growth hormone?

anterior pituitary

Where are the hormones oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) stored?

posterior pituitary gland The axon terminals of neurons of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal tracts store and secrete ADH and oxytocin in the capillaries of the inferior hypophyseal artery.

What is required for the production of anterior pituitary gland hormones?

hormonal stimuli The anterior pituitary requires hormonal stimuli from the hypothalamus.

Which of the following is a hormone produced by the posterior pituitary?

prolactin
ADH
oxytocin
None of the listed responses is correct.

None of the listed responses is correct. None of the hormones given is produced by the posterior pituitary. the hypothalamus synthesises all of the above

What hormone is released by the anterior pituitary to target the adrenal cortex when we are under stress?

adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

Which hormone is essential to our ability to maintain our fluid levels?

aldosterone Mineralocorticoids like aldosterone regulate sodium and potassium metabolism and fluid balance.

Which of the following hormones is stimulated by stress?

prolactin
adrenocorticotropic hormone
thyroid-stimulating hormone
follicle-stimulating hormone

adrenocorticotropic hormone Adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulates the adrenal cortex to release corticosteroid hormones, most importantly glucocorticoids that help the body to resist stressors.

Which of the following is NOT an endocrine gland?

adenoid
adrenal
thyroid
pituitary

adenoid Pharyngeal tonsils, when enlarged, are commonly called adenoids and are lymphoid tissue, not endocrine glands.

Steroid hormones are synthesized from amino acids.

False Steroid hormones are lipid-based hormones synthesized from cholesterol.

All amino acid based hormones are lipid soluble and can cross the plasma membrane

False

What property of a hormone would allow it to pass unassisted through a plasma membrane?

charged
protein-based
bound to a protein complex
lipid-soluble

lipid-soluble Hormones that are lipid-soluble can dissolve through the plasma membrane.

Both "turn on" factors (hormonal, humoral, and neural stimuli) and "turn off" factors (feedback inhibition and others) may be modulated by the activity of the nervous system.

True

What allows a cell to respond to a hormone?

the presence of a specific hormone receptor Every hormone has a specific receptor that causes as action for that cell.

What area of the brain is designated by letter A?

hypothalamus

Where is thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) made?

follicular cells of the thyroid gland
anterior pituitary
hypothalamus
posterior pituitary

hypothalamus The hypothalamus regulates the release of several other hormones by producing releasing and inhibitory hormones, including TRH.

What is the name for the type of hormone, secreted by the pituitary that regulates other endocrine organs?

tropins Tropins, or tropic hormones, are hormones that regulate the secretory action of other endocrine glands.

The posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is NOT a true endocrine gland because

it is only a hormone storage area that receives hormones from the hypothalamus for release

Which anterior pituitary hormone does NOT target another endocrine gland?

luteinizing hormone
follicle-stimulating hormone
growth hormone
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

growth hormone

Which hormone has only one known effect: to stimulate milk production by the breasts?

prolactin

Johanna is significantly shorter than normal for her age. Her doctor recommends treatment with a hormone before her growth plates ossify in her long bones. Which hormone is recommended?

growth hormone

What type of cell in the thyroid gland secretes the Thyroid Hormone (TH)?

follicular cells

What hormone is released by the cells of the thyroid gland?

calcitonin

Calcitonin is the main regulator of blood calcium levels.

False the parathyroid hormone secreted by the parathyroid gland is

The endocrine gland that is probably malfunctioning if a person has a high metabolic rate is the parathyroid.

False

What type of stimulation controls parathyroid release?

humoral

Which of the following glands increases blood calcium levels?

parathyroid

The adrenal medulla is stimulated to release catecholamines during sympathetic autonomic nervous responses.

True The adrenal medulla is stimulated to release the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine during sympathetic autonomic nervous responses.

Which of the following triggers the release of glucagon?

a decrease in blood glucose levels

Which of the following best describes gluconeogenesis?

synthesis of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources

In diabetes type ____ , target cells do not respond normally to insulin.

type 2

In diabetes type ___ , no insulin is produced.

type 1

In diabetes type ____ , glucose levels remain higher than normal.

both type 1 and type 2

The hormone that raises blood sugar levels is insulin.

False

The beta cells in the pancreatic islets produce insulin.

True

Most type 2 diabetics do NOT produce insulin.

False

Chapter 16 Endocrine - Subjecto.com

Chapter 16 Endocrine

Your page rank:

Total word count: 1362
Pages: 5

Calculate the Price

- -
275 words
Looking for Expert Opinion?
Let us have a look at your work and suggest how to improve it!
Get a Consultant

Up-regulation involves the loss of receptors and prevents the target cells from overreacting to persistently high hormone levels.

False

The hypothalamus is known to control the activity of the thyroid, which has traditionally been called the master endocrine gland.

False The hypothalamus is known to control the activity of the pituitary gland, which has traditionally been called the master endocrine gland.

Which hormone aids in water resorption?

antidiuretic hormone

Which of the following pairs correctly matches the adrenal gland zone, or area, with the class of hormones it produces?

zona glomerulosa: mineralocorticoids
zona fasciculata: catecholemines
medulla: glucocorticoids
zona reticularis: aldosterone

zona glomerulosa: mineralocorticoids The zona glomerulosa produces mineralocorticoids

When blood glucose levels are high

The pancreas releases insulin.
The pancreas releases glucagon.
The liver releases insulin.
The liver releases glucagon.
The pancreas releases glucose.

The pancreas releases insulin The pancreas responds to high blood glucose levels by releasing insulin.

A liver cell responds to insulin by

Breaking down glycogen and releasing glucose.
Releasing insulin.
Taking in glucose and converting it to glucagon.
Taking in glucose and converting it to glycogen.
Releasing glucagon.

Taking in glucose and converting it to glycogen.

What cells in the body respond to glucagon by breaking down glycogen and releasing glucose?

Intestinal cells.
Muscle cells.
Liver cells and cells in the pancreas.
Liver cells.
Cells in the pancreas.

Liver cells

Body cells that respond to insulin include

Liver cells and muscle cells only.
Intestinal cells only.
Muscle cells only.
Liver cells, as well as most other cells of the body.
Liver cells only.

Liver cells, as well as most other cells of the body.

When blood glucose levels are low

Liver cells convert more glucose to glycogen.
The pancreas releases insulin, which eventually causes blood glucose levels to increase.
The pancreas releases glucagon, which eventually causes blood glucose levels to decrease.
The pancreas releases glucagon, which eventually causes blood glucose levels to increase.
The pancreas releases insulin, which eventually causes blood glucose levels to decrease.

The pancreas releases glucagon, which eventually causes blood glucose levels to increase.

The body’s tendency to maintain relatively constant internal conditions is called

homeostasis.

Oxytocin is a strong stimulant of uterine contractions.

True

LH is also referred to as a gonadotropin.

True

Growth hormone solely exerts its influence by targeting other endocrine glands to produce hormones.

False

Which of the following occurs in situations where more than one hormone produces the same effects at the target cell and their combined effects are amplified?

synergism
antagonism
permissiveness
summation

synergism Synergism of hormones occurs in situations where one or more hormones produce the same effect at the target cell and their combined effects are amplified.

The size and shape of a pea; produces hormones that stimulate other endocrine glands.

Pituitary gland (hypophysis)

Is part of the sympathetic nervous system

Adrenal medulla

Produces hormones that regulate glucose levels in the body.

Pancreas

Primary regulators of blood calcium levels.

Parathyroid glands

Produces the body’s major metabolic hormones.

Thyroid gland

Which of the following is NOT a major type of stimulus that triggers endocrine glands to manufacture and release hormones?

neural
enzymatic
hormonal
humoral

enzymatic

What is the primary function of hormones?

activate extracellular enzymes
alter cell activity
cause allergic reactions
influence metabolic activity of glands by electrochemical impulses

alter cell activity The primary function of hormones is to alter cell activity by altering plasma membrane permeability or membrane potential, stimulating synthesis of enzymes or regulating molecules, activating or deactivating enzymes, inducing secretory activity, or stimulating mitosis.

Hypersecretion of what hormone can produce the effects of gigantism in the individual in the center of this image?

growth hormone (GH)

Which hormone helps the body avoid dehydration and water overload?

antidiuretic hormone

What hormone released into the blood by the posterior pituitary inhibits or prevents urine formation?

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

What gland secretes growth hormone?

anterior pituitary

Where are the hormones oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) stored?

posterior pituitary gland The axon terminals of neurons of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal tracts store and secrete ADH and oxytocin in the capillaries of the inferior hypophyseal artery.

What is required for the production of anterior pituitary gland hormones?

hormonal stimuli The anterior pituitary requires hormonal stimuli from the hypothalamus.

Which of the following is a hormone produced by the posterior pituitary?

prolactin
ADH
oxytocin
None of the listed responses is correct.

None of the listed responses is correct. None of the hormones given is produced by the posterior pituitary. the hypothalamus synthesises all of the above

What hormone is released by the anterior pituitary to target the adrenal cortex when we are under stress?

adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

Which hormone is essential to our ability to maintain our fluid levels?

aldosterone Mineralocorticoids like aldosterone regulate sodium and potassium metabolism and fluid balance.

Which of the following hormones is stimulated by stress?

prolactin
adrenocorticotropic hormone
thyroid-stimulating hormone
follicle-stimulating hormone

adrenocorticotropic hormone Adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulates the adrenal cortex to release corticosteroid hormones, most importantly glucocorticoids that help the body to resist stressors.

Which of the following is NOT an endocrine gland?

adenoid
adrenal
thyroid
pituitary

adenoid Pharyngeal tonsils, when enlarged, are commonly called adenoids and are lymphoid tissue, not endocrine glands.

Steroid hormones are synthesized from amino acids.

False Steroid hormones are lipid-based hormones synthesized from cholesterol.

All amino acid based hormones are lipid soluble and can cross the plasma membrane

False

What property of a hormone would allow it to pass unassisted through a plasma membrane?

charged
protein-based
bound to a protein complex
lipid-soluble

lipid-soluble Hormones that are lipid-soluble can dissolve through the plasma membrane.

Both "turn on" factors (hormonal, humoral, and neural stimuli) and "turn off" factors (feedback inhibition and others) may be modulated by the activity of the nervous system.

True

What allows a cell to respond to a hormone?

the presence of a specific hormone receptor Every hormone has a specific receptor that causes as action for that cell.

What area of the brain is designated by letter A?

hypothalamus

Where is thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) made?

follicular cells of the thyroid gland
anterior pituitary
hypothalamus
posterior pituitary

hypothalamus The hypothalamus regulates the release of several other hormones by producing releasing and inhibitory hormones, including TRH.

What is the name for the type of hormone, secreted by the pituitary that regulates other endocrine organs?

tropins Tropins, or tropic hormones, are hormones that regulate the secretory action of other endocrine glands.

The posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is NOT a true endocrine gland because

it is only a hormone storage area that receives hormones from the hypothalamus for release

Which anterior pituitary hormone does NOT target another endocrine gland?

luteinizing hormone
follicle-stimulating hormone
growth hormone
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

growth hormone

Which hormone has only one known effect: to stimulate milk production by the breasts?

prolactin

Johanna is significantly shorter than normal for her age. Her doctor recommends treatment with a hormone before her growth plates ossify in her long bones. Which hormone is recommended?

growth hormone

What type of cell in the thyroid gland secretes the Thyroid Hormone (TH)?

follicular cells

What hormone is released by the cells of the thyroid gland?

calcitonin

Calcitonin is the main regulator of blood calcium levels.

False the parathyroid hormone secreted by the parathyroid gland is

The endocrine gland that is probably malfunctioning if a person has a high metabolic rate is the parathyroid.

False

What type of stimulation controls parathyroid release?

humoral

Which of the following glands increases blood calcium levels?

parathyroid

The adrenal medulla is stimulated to release catecholamines during sympathetic autonomic nervous responses.

True The adrenal medulla is stimulated to release the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine during sympathetic autonomic nervous responses.

Which of the following triggers the release of glucagon?

a decrease in blood glucose levels

Which of the following best describes gluconeogenesis?

synthesis of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources

In diabetes type ____ , target cells do not respond normally to insulin.

type 2

In diabetes type ___ , no insulin is produced.

type 1

In diabetes type ____ , glucose levels remain higher than normal.

both type 1 and type 2

The hormone that raises blood sugar levels is insulin.

False

The beta cells in the pancreatic islets produce insulin.

True

Most type 2 diabetics do NOT produce insulin.

False

Share This
Flashcard

More flashcards like this

NCLEX 10000 Integumentary Disorders

When assessing a client with partial-thickness burns over 60% of the body, which finding should the nurse report immediately? a) ...

Read more

NCLEX 300-NEURO

A client with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) tells the nurse, "Sometimes I feel so frustrated. I can’t do anything without ...

Read more

NASM Flashcards

Which of the following is the process of getting oxygen from the environment to the tissues of the body? Diffusion ...

Read more

Unfinished tasks keep piling up?

Let us complete them for you. Quickly and professionally.

Check Price

Successful message
sending