Chapter 16 - Advertising and Public Relations

15. Advertising that aims to create a more favorable view of a company as a whole in the eyes of various stakeholders
is called _____ advertising.
a. institutional
b. product
c. organizational d. pioneer
e. advocacy

a. institutional

16. Parisian Dry Cleaners airs a series of radio ads that claim, "We are the fastest dry cleaners in town." This campaign would best be described as _____ advertising.
a. pioneer
b. target
c. product
d. institutional
e. advocacy

d. institutional

17. The University of Iowa runs a series of ads throughout the Midwest on how friendly and helpful its faculty, staff, and students are as well as how outstanding its academic programs are. This type of promotion would best be characterized as _____.
a. public relations
b. product advertising
c. advocacy advertising
d. institutional advertising e. comparative advertising

d. institutional advertising e. comparative advertising

18. When a company promotes its position on a public issue, this is specifically referred to as _____ advertising.
a. institutional
b. product
c. advocacy
d. issue
e. competitive

c. advocacy

19. When Anheuser-Busch ran an advertising campaign featuring the slogan, "Know when to say when," it was using: a. competitive advertising.
b. public relations.
c. product advertising.
d. public service awareness.
e. advocacy advertising.

e. advocacy advertising.

20. Tropicana orange juice has a television commercial where a young boy is drinking orange juice at dinner. He remarks that he likes the great taste of Tropicana anytime. The element of the commercial that focuses on drinking orange juice at dinner would be best classified as _____, while the focus on the great taste of Tropicana would be best classified as _____.
a. comparative advertising; informative advertising
b. pioneer advertising; competitive advertising
c. institutional advertising; stimulating primary demand
d. product advertising; institutional
e. comparative advertising; competitive advertising

b. pioneer advertising; competitive advertising

21. The two major types of product advertising are:
a. institutional advertising and advocacy advertising.
b. pioneer advertising and competitive advertising.
c. competitive advertising and comparative advertising.
d. advocacy advertising and competitive advertising.
e. informative advertising and comparative advertising.

b. pioneer advertising and competitive advertising.

22. The "Got milk?" print campaign is advertising that stimulates demand for a(n) _____, known as _____ advertising.
a. product category; pioneer
b. product brand; competitive
c. product category; institutional
d. brand category; pioneer
e. product; comparative

a. product category; pioneer

23. Which of the following lists forms of competitive advertising?
a. Pioneer, comparative, and reminder advertising
b. Reminder, repetitive, and reinforcement advertising
c. Comparative, reminder, and reinforcement advertising
d. Institutional, product, and comparative advertising
e. Product, pioneer, and reminder advertising

c. Comparative, reminder, and reinforcement advertising

24. When Volvo's advertising campaign mentions that the Volvo CX60 has the highest safety rating of any European sedan, it is using _____ advertising.
a. advocacy
b. comparative
c. competitive
d. defensive
e. institutional

c. competitive

25. Coors Inc. advertises that its beer is the only one that is kept cold from the brewery to the store. This type of advertising is called _____.
a. advocacy advertising
b. competitive advertising
c. comparative advertising
d. defensive advertising
e. institutional advertising

b. competitive advertising

26. Tercile Products Company advertises a specific product heavily, and Carbone Products Company wants to offset the effects of that advertising. In this case, Carbone would most likely employ _____ advertising.
a. competitive
b. pioneer
c. institutional
d. primary
e. target

a. competitive

27. Soft drink companies advertise
rival brands by name. This type of advertising is best described as _____. a. pioneer
b. advocacy
c. comparative
d. defensive
e. selective

c. comparative

28. Brands that are promoted through comparative advertising are most likely to be _____.
a. market leaders
b. brands that are attempting to compete with market leaders
c. primarily services rather than tangible goods
d. attempting to compete on a non-price basis e. competing in a less competitive market

b. brands that are attempting to compete with market leaders

29. The advertising campaign for Crest toothpaste lets consumers know about its newest flavor, and also mentions its history as an established brand. The ad also mentions Crest's advantages and benefits. Crest's advertising would be classified as _____.
a. repetitive advertising
b. reminder advertising
c. pioneer advertising
d. advocacy advertising
e. reinforcement advertising

b. reminder advertising

30. An advertisement for a multivitamin that claims, "We still bring you everything you need to get through your day in one pill," would most likely be considered as _____ advertising.
a. reinforcement
b. advocacy
c. comparative
d. reminder
e. institutional

d. reminder

31. Reinforcement advertising is primarily targeted at:
a. new potential target markets.
b. users of competitors' brands and products.
c. anyone who uses that type of product.
d. all the stakeholders of an organization.
e. the current users of a particular product.

e. the current users of a particular product.

32. Dial Soap's advertising slogan "Aren't you glad you use Dial? Don't you wish everybody did?" exemplifies the use of _____ advertising.
a. reinforcement
b. offensive
c. comparative
d. institutional
e. defensive

a. reinforcement

33. The target audience for an advertising campaign is the: a. information base on which to develop the campaign.
b. geographic distribution of persons.
c. people at whom advertisements are aimed.
d. overall goal of the advertising campaign.
e. sales objective to be achieved by the campaign.

c. people at whom advertisements are aimed.

34. The first stage in the development of any advertising campaign is:
a. creating the message.
b. setting the budget.
c. identifying the advertising target audience.
d. defining the advertising objectives.
e. creating the advertising platform.

c. identifying the advertising target audience.

35. The last stage in the development of any advertising campaign is:
a. creating the advertising platform.
b. developing the media plan.
c. creating the advertising message.
d. evaluating the effectiveness of advertising.
e. defining the advertising objectives.

d. evaluating the effectiveness of advertising.

36. After the target audience for an advertising campaign has been identified and analyzed, marketers should then proceed by:
a. creating the advertising platform.
b. determining the financial resources available.
c. defining the advertising objectives.
d. developing a media plan.
e. creating an advertising message.

c. defining the advertising objectives.

37. After the advertising budget is determined, the next step in creating an advertising campaign is:
a. creating the advertising message.
b. creating the advertising platform.
c. evaluating the advertising objectives.
d. executing the campaign.
e. developing the media plan.

e. developing the media plan.

38. The step in developing an advertising campaign that directly precedes campaign execution is:
a. defining advertising objectives.
b. creating the advertising platform.
c. evaluating advertising effectiveness.
d. developing a media plan.
e. creating the advertising message.

e. creating the advertising message.

39. Suppose State Farm Insurance stated, "We want our advertising to increase our customer base for home and automobile insurance by 10 percent by the end of the fiscal year." This would be considered a(n) _____.
a. target audience goal
b. advertising platform
c. percent-of-sales approach
d. advertising objective
e. media plan goal

d. advertising objective

40. When developing an advertising campaign, benchmarks need to be included in the _____.
a. campaign platform.
b. evaluation of the advertising effectiveness.
c. statement of advertising objectives.
d. media plan. e. budget.

c. statement of advertising objectives.

41. Why should a benchmark statement be included in advertising objectives?
a. Shareholders want to see where a company is in relation to competition.
b. It is useful in determining whether retailers have increased their sales over the year.
c. It gives an indication of how the advertising message is best presented.
d. Without a reference point, it is difficult to determine to what degree objectives have been accomplished.
e. Objectives become more easily attainable when such a statement is included.

d. Without a reference point, it is difficult to determine to what degree objectives have been accomplished.

42. The owner of a professional baseball team asks the account representative of an advertising agency to develop an advertising campaign to bring more teenagers to the ballpark. At this point, the account representative logically begins to discuss establishing _____ for the campaign.
a. the target audience
b. a budget
c. a media plan
d. objectives
e. advertising directives

a. the target audience

43. Dan is responsible for developing the promotional campaign for Under Armour's new line of footwear for teens. He will be writing advertising campaign objectives that are aimed at making the target customers' attitudes more favorable toward Under Armour, which should be stated in terms of _____.
a. communication
b. sales
c. demand
d. market
e. survey

a. communication

44. If an advertising campaign is aimed at increasing brand awareness and consumers' knowledge of a product's features, the advertising objective should be stated in terms of _____.
a. market share
b. dollar sales
c. unit sales
d. communication
e. long-run goals

b. dollar sales

45. An advertising platform is the:
a. basic issue or selling point that an advertiser wishes to include in an advertising campaign.
b. objective of the advertising campaign stated in precise and measurable terms.
c. form in which the basic issues of the campaign should be presented.
d. broad objectives of the advertising campaign.
e. group of customers on whom research is conducted regarding the use of the product being advertised.

a. basic issue or selling point that an advertiser wishes to include in an advertising campaign.

46. The basic issues or selling points that an advertiser wants to include in an advertising campaign form the:
a. advertising objectives.
b. target audience objectives.
c. media plan.
d. advertising message.
e. advertising platform.

e. advertising platform.

47. Before launching a new advertising campaign, marketers for Healthy Choice frozen dinners must determine the selling points that they want to include in the advertisements. The identification and organization of these selling points is called the _____.
a. advertising appropriation
b. objective-and-task approach
c. advertising platform
d. advertising objective
e. advertising budget

c. advertising platform

48. Frederick Griffith of Griffith's department stores tells his marketing director that he is tired of the constant price- centered advertising by the firm's agency. "We have the best customer service in town, and I feel that is what we should be hanging our hats on," he states. This statement is most appropriate for use in which of the following stages of campaign development?
a. Determining the appropriations
b. Creating the platform
c. Identifying the target
d. Defining objectives
e. Developing the media plan

b. Creating the platform

49. An advertising platform should
important to consumers and should be features that:
a. competitive products lack.
b. can be seen easily in a photograph.
c. are familiar concepts to those in the target market.
d. competitive products have as well.
e. are reasonably inexpensive to develop.

d. competitive products have as well.

50. Chloe is employed by an advertising agency and is currently working on the advertising platform for a client. The most effective method of determining platform issues is to use _____.
a. opinions of personnel within the firm
b. opinions of advertising experts
c. a survey of customers
d. opinions of expert marketers in the industry
e. a chart that compares the issues addressed by the advertising campaign of a competing brand with that of the brand to be advertised

c. a survey of customers

51. What is an advertising platform most commonly based upon?
a. The opinions of employees within the firm or the advertising agency
b. Data collected from past marketing research about the brand
c. Customer surveys about what they consider the most important issues
d. Retailer information about potential consumers of the product
e. The advertising appropriation for that particular ad campaign

c. Customer surveys about what they consider the most important issues

52. The total amount of money a marketer allocates for advertising for a specific time period is the _____.
a. media plan
b. advertising appropriation
c. objective-and-task approach
d. promotion grant
e. advertising platform

b. advertising appropriation

53. Advertising appropriations are largest for _____.
a. business products
b. convenience goods
c. high-priced products
d. specialty goods
e. books

b. convenience goods

54. Sony Corporation has a particular approach for determining its advertising appropriation. A problem with this technique, however, is that the people in the marketing department have difficulty estimating the level of effort needed to achieve certain goals. This problem is characteristic of the _____ approach.
a. reliable-appropriation
b. match-competition
c. arbitrary
d. objective-and-task
e. percent-of-sales

d. objective-and-task

55. The main problem with using the objective-and-task approach to setting an advertising budget is that:
a. it is based on the idea that sales create advertising rather than advertising creates sales.
b. it often results in overspending or underspending of the firm's resources.
c. it does not achieve full potential in terms of stimulating demand.
d. the marketer may experience difficulty when trying to estimate accurately the level of effort needed to achieve goals.
e. it is difficult to determine the objectives of the campaign.

d. the marketer may experience difficulty when trying to estimate accurately the level of effort needed to achieve goals.

56. Danielle Robinson, account representative for EXpert Advertising, tells D'Orazio Tile Products that she is proposing to use 5 full-page, four-color ads in home-decorating magazines to achieve an increase in consumer and builder inquiries of 15 percent. This approach is an example of _____ method of determining advertising expenditure levels.
a. competitive parity
b. percent of sales
c. arbitrary
d. affordability
e. objective-and-task

e. objective-and-task

57. To determine how much money to spend on advertising, marketers for a new brand of caffeinated energy drink decided that they wanted the advertising to create awareness of the new flavor in 80 percent of the energy drink market within one month of introduction. The marketers then determined how much it would cost to reach this goal. This is an example of _____approach toward determining advertising budgets.
a. objective-and-task
b. percent of sales
c. competition matching
d. arbitrary allocation
e. past-year comparison

a. objective-and-task

58. When using the percentage-of-sales approach for determining the advertising appropriation, marketers:
a. base their funding on a percentage of the competitors' sales.
b. multiply the firm's past sales by a set percentage they want to spend.
c. set sales objectives for the upcoming period and base appropriations on these goals.
d. multiply the firm's past sales, plus a factor for expected changes in sales by a standard percentage.
e. use an industry standard to determine what percentage of their profits they want to allocate to advertising.

d. multiply the firm's past sales, plus a factor for expected changes in sales by a standard percentage.

59. If Target were to base its advertising appropriation on the amount that Walmart spends, it would be using the _____ approach.
a. objective-and-task
b. percent-of-sales
c. industry-standard
d. arbitrary
e. competition-matching

e. competition-matching

60. Colin McKinney, director of marketing for Greenwald Industrial Products, complains to his advertising director that the continuing slump in orders has apparently been perpetuated by the firm's failure to have the necessary advertising expenditures. Based on this information, Greenwald is most likely using the _____ approach to determine its advertising expenditures.
a. percent-of-sales
b. objective-and-task
c. competition-matching
d. arbitrary
e. judgmental

a. percent-of-sales

61. Alan is the CEO of Greensprings Landscaping Corp. At the recent budget planning meeting, Alan stated that last year's sales were down from the previous period. He then went on to say that Greensprings would have a budget of $100,000 for advertising in the coming year. In this instance, Alan was using the _____.
a. arbitrary approach
b. executive decision process
c. objective-and-task approach
d. percentage-of-sales approach
e. competition-matching approach

a. arbitrary approach

62. An advantage of the percent-of-sales approach for determining the advertising appropriation is that _____.
a. it is objective
b. marketers can accurately estimate the level of effort needed to attain certain objectives.
c. it is scientific
d. it is logical and inexpensive
e. it is easy to implement

e. it is easy to implement

63. After developing the budget for advertising the Kia Soul automobile, marketing managers at Kia Inc. determined what proportion of that budget would be spent on television, radio, and magazine advertisements based on the cost effectiveness of each. This subsequent allocation of the budget is known as a(n) _____ plan.
a. advertisement-allocation
b. media
c. arbitrary allocation
d. objective-and-task
e. percent-of-sales

b. media

64. A list of the exact magazines, newspapers, and television stations in which an advertisement will appear, along with the dates and times, is a(n) _____.
a. advertising plan
b. media plan
c. advertising message
d. advertising appropriation
e. media platform

b. media plan

65. The primary goal of a media planner is to:
a. choose the best commercial spots available.
b. develop a message that works well with the firm's target market.
c. achieve the appropriate message reach and frequency.
d. use a wide variety of media to ensure the entire target audience is exposed.
e. reach the largest number of people in the target market within the budget constraints.

e. reach the largest number of people in the target market within the budget constraints.

66. The percentage of consumers in the target audience actually exposed to a particular advertisement in a stated period of time is the definition of _____.
a. frequency
b. exposure
c. reach
d. targeting
e. push

c. reach

67. The maker of Huggies diapers is developing a media plan that involves trying to expose its target audience to its new advertisement about ten times. This is advertising _____.
a. reach
b. repetition
c. frequency
d. targeting
e. exposure

c. frequency

68. Which of the following statements applies to media planning?
a. Characteristics of the product are the most important consideration in selecting the media for a campaign.
b. The message content affects the types of media used for an advertising campaign.
c. The location of the advertising target is irrelevant in media planning.
d. Total media dollars spent on advertising have decreased over the last 30 years.
e. Regardless of the message to be conveyed, newspapers are one medium that is appropriate for almost any circumstances.

b. The message content affects the types of media used for an advertising campaign.

69. A tool that allows an advertiser to compare the costs of several media vehicles within a specific medium relative to the number of persons reached by each vehicle is called a(n) _____.
a. cost comparison indicator
b. media comparison selector
c. unit-price selector
d. cost/person index
e. vehicle/price indicator

a. cost comparison indicator

70. Dominos is looking into magazine advertising for its pizza. The company wants to reach as many people as possible, but due to budget constraints Dominos must reach consumers as efficiently as possible. What can Domino's use to evaluate various magazines?
a. A cost comparison indicator
b. The total circulation of the magazines
c. A list of the costs of a one-page ad in various magazines d. The advertising appropriations for each magazine
e. An index of advertisement exposure

a. A cost comparison indicator

71. The cost per thousand impressions (CPM) indicator shows:
a. the cost to expose 1,000 people to a television commercial.
b. the cost to expose 1,000 people to a one-page magazine advertisement.
c. the return on investment marketers get for their advertising dollar.
d. the cost to expose a million people to any type of advertisement.
e. how one media source compares to a different source for reaching target markets.

b. the cost to expose 1,000 people to a one-page magazine advertisement.

72. The three general types of media schedules are:
a. pulsing, beating, and continuous.
b. short, medium, and long-term.
c. morning, afternoon, and evening.
d. pulsing, continuous, and flighting.
e. light, heavy, and alternating.

d. pulsing, continuous, and flighting.

73. A schedule in which advertisements run for set periods of time, alternating with periods in which no ads run is known as _____ schedule.
a. continuous
b. skipping
c. pulsing
d. flighting
e. alternating

d. flighting

74. Disney decided to run its new commercials for all of its theme parks several times a day for three weeks and then
not at all for two weeks. It will schedule for its advertising.
a. flighting
b. varying
c. continuous
d. pulsing
e. beating

a. flighting

75. If during an advertising campaign a certain portion of advertising runs continuously, and then during specific periods additional advertising is used to intensify the level of communication, a(n) _____ media schedule is being used.
a. beating
b. alternating
c. flighting
d. continuous with emphasis
e. pulsing

e. pulsing

76. During the duration of an advertising campaign, Verizon Wireless ran television advertisements at a steady rate throughout the week and intensified its message with newspaper advertising in many major newspapers in the Sunday paper. Verizon Wireless used a(n)_____ media schedule.
a. flighting
b. continuous
c. pulsing
d. alternating
e. multimedia

c. pulsing

77. Brian and Tiffany are discussing the media plan for the opening of their new laundromat called Soap and Suds. While talking to Tiffany, Brian agrees that _____ has a tremendous impact. However, he feel that the upfront costs for such a campaign cannot be covered, at present, in their modest budget.
a. radio
b. outdoor
c. television
d. the Internet
e. newspaper

c. television

78. As Oscar Meyer puts together its advertising campaign for the summer, it will need to keep in mind that its desire to use outdoor advertising will have strong effects on its selection of the advertising _____.
a. message
b. budget
c. platform
d. audience analysis
e. objectives

a. message

79. A marketer who wants to include detailed information in advertisements would most likely use _____.
a. radio
b. television
c. outdoor displays
d. magazines
e. mass transit

d. magazines

80. The verbal portion of an advertisement, including headlines, body, and signature, is called the _____.
a. artwork
b. copy
c. storyboard
d. layout
e. script

b. copy

81. An ad's _____ is designed to attract readers' attention and develop interest so that they will read the entire advertisement.
a. signature
b. layout
c. headline
d. artwork
e. subheadline

c. headline

82. Todd is developing a print advertisement for Afflac. He knows that the _____ is a critical component of the copy because _____.
a. headline; it determines the final layout design
b. headline; it is often the only part of the advertisement that is read
c. artwork; it takes up the most space
d. tag line; it links the copy to the signature
e. slogan; it links the artwork to the signature

b. headline; it is often the only part of the advertisement that is read

83. As Will reads the copy for South Beach Hotel's upcoming magazine ad in Southern Living, he worries that no one will spend the time to read all the details of the facilities his resort has to offer. Wanting to have the greatest impact, Will focuses his creative efforts on the _____.
a. copy
b. body
c. text
d. signature
e. headline

e. headline

84. The identification of an advertisement's sponsor is the _____.
a. copy
b. signature
c. trademark
d. layout
e. subheadline

b. signature

85. The advertising department for
this point, the layout contains a
illustration to show the product, and a paragraph to explain the advantages and benefits of the product. What other important element should be included?
a. Headline
b. Subheadline
c. Signature
d. Artwork
e. Body copy

c. Signature

86. Rachel is considering advertising her new restaurant on the radio to attract more customers. She knows that in order to attract listeners' attention on the radio it will be important for her to:
a. use a high level of repetition.
b. buy a really long time slot to get all the information in.
c. be both informal and conversational in tone.
d. use a quick speaker to attract attention to the commercial.
e. say the restaurant's name and location three separate times.

c. be both informal and conversational in tone.

87. Steve is aware of the growth in
advertising on digital devices can alienate some consumers. Steve has uncovered recent research stating that young consumers are more likely to be receptive to advertising appearing on their digital devices if the source is _____; _____ is been given, and the messages are _____.
a. known; a coupon; exciting.
b. trusted; permission; entertaining.
c. liked; permission; with a monetary benefit.
d. trusted; a discount; educational.
e. known; a discount; humorous.

b. trusted; permission; entertaining.

88. When a copywriter and an artist combine the copy with the visual material for a television commercial, it usually is done through use of a _____.
a. parallel format
b. commercial layout
c. layout procedure
d. storyboard
e. visual-impact process

d. storyboard

89. Artwork, a major part of most advertisements, consists of the:
a. illustration and the signature.
b. illustration and the layout.
c. illustration and type of print used in the headlines.
d. layout and the signature.
e. method by which all the components are put together.

b. illustration and the layout.

90. The _____ design element of an advertisement is used to attract attention, communicate an idea quickly, or communicate ideas that are difficult to put into words; the _____ is the physical arrangement of the illustration, headline, subheadline, body copy, and the signature.
a. illustration; layout
b. headline; layout
c. layout; design
d. layout; storyboard
e. signature; layout

a. illustration; layout

91. Brittany is choosing the type of media for a new promotional campaign for Halls cough drops. She knows that each type of media has both benefits and disadvantages. She is considering the Internet as a form of media. Which of the following is NOT a disadvantage of the Internet as a promotional medium?
a. The costs of precise targeting are high.
b. The effects of promotion can be difficult to measure.
c. There are concerns about privacy.
d. The message must be short and simple.
e. There are concerns about security.

d. The message must be short and simple.

92. Julie Reese is working on developing a magazine advertisement for Planet Fitness, a health and fitness club. She knows what she wants the advertisement to say and the illustrations she wants to use, but she is having a tough time putting it all together. Julie is having trouble determining the _____.
a. storyboard
b. artwork
c. copy
d. presentation
e. layout

e. layout

93. The effectiveness of an advertising campaign can be measured:
a. only after the campaign has been carried out completely and results have been tabulated.
b. only before the campaign begins, to prevent unnecessary expenditures.
c. during the campaign to determine whether more or less funds should be allocated, but not after the campaign.
d. several weeks after the beginning of the campaign to determine whether the campaign is headed in the right direction.
e. before, during, and after the campaign through the use of pretests, inquiries, and posttests.

e. before, during, and after the campaign through the use of pretests, inquiries, and posttests.

94. An evaluation performed before an advertising campaign begins is a _____.
a. consumer exam
b. posttest
c. recognition test
d. pretest
e. recall test

d. pretest

95. Mike Stevens wonders whether the creative idea of using the character "Tom T. Turtle" as an image for marketing a new line of running shoes will be successful. He should suggest to his account representative that a(n) _____ be used to pretest the campaign.
a. storyboard
b. survey
c. experiment
d. GSR test
e. consumer jury

e. consumer jury

96. A consumer jury is a:
a. group of consumers who have purchased the product before they evaluate its effectiveness.
b. panel of potential buyers of the advertised product brought together to pretest an advertising message.
c. panel of buyers who review and evaluate an advertising message after it has been circulated in certain regions.
d. group of consumers who determine whether or not consumers have been treated fairly by companies.
e. marketing research firm which ranks the effectiveness of advertisements.

b. panel of potential buyers of the advertised product brought together to pretest an advertising message.

97. General Mills used a panel of consumers to evaluate its Cheerios campaign featuring children who read the cereal box and try to persuade their parents to watch their cholesterol. These consumers judged the advertisements prior to the execution of the advertising campaign. This is an example of a(n) _____.
a. pretest
b. inquiry
c. recognition test
d. recall test
e. posttest

a. pretest

98. Matt was in a group considered to be actual or potential purchasers of a new mountain bike produced by Specialized Sports. He and the other consumers were shown three different advertisements and asked to judge several dimensions of each one. Matt was part of a(n) _____.
a. posttest consumer group
b. panel of advertising experts
c. consumer jury
d. customer ad panel
e. ad preview group

c. consumer jury

99. Measuring effectiveness during a campaign is usually accomplished by using _____.
a. pretests
b. posttests
c. consumer juries
d. inquiries
e. sales force surveys

d. inquiries

100. Recognition and recall tests are posttest methods based on _____.
a. mail surveys
b. memory
c. inquiries
d. preferences
e. in-depth interviews

b. memory

101. Some of the posttest methods for measuring advertising effectiveness are based on how well consumers remember advertising and include (1) recognition tests and (2) recall tests. What is the basic difference between these two approaches?
a. The actual ads are shown in the former but not in the latter.
b. The former method relies on memory alone, and the latter shows the actual ads.
c. One uses a consumer jury; the other uses random individuals.
d. The respondents are given class clues in the latter but not in the former.
e. One is used primarily by the government, and the other is used by private businesses.

a. The actual ads are shown in the former but not in the latter.

102. Carla is stopped by a researcher at a shopping mall and asked which was the last television commercial she remembers seeing. This is an example of a(n) _____.
a. unaided recall test
b. pretest
c. recognition test
d. aided recall test
e. memory test

a. unaided recall test

103. When respondents are shown a list of various products, brands, and company names and then asked about
advertisements they have seen
a. unaided recall test
b. pretest
c. recognition test
d. aided recognition test
e. aided recall test

e. aided recall test

104. What is the primary justification marketers use for conducting recognition and recall tests?
a. Researchers find that recalling an advertisement has a strong link to purchasing a product.
b. People have unfavorable views of advertising and are unlikely to purchase advertised products.
c. Consumers tend to enjoy participating in these tests and are likely to purchase the products as a result.
d. People are more likely to buy a product they have seen advertised than one they have not seen advertised.
e. There is a strong link between advertisement recall/recognition and word-of-mouth communication.

a. Researchers find that recalling an advertisement has a strong link to purchasing a product

105. When individuals' behaviors are tracked from television sets to checkout counters using equipment provided by the marketer, this is known as _____.
a. family behavior recording
b. single-source data
c. individual consumer jury
d. advertisement exposure data
e. detailed market research

b. single-source data

106. Darcy presents an identification card at the supermarket checkout and has a microcomputer attached to her TV. Information from both of these is sent to a research facility. Darcy is providing:
a. family behavior recording.
b. individual consumer opinion.
c. single-source data.
d. advertisement exposure data.
e. detailed market research.

c. single-source data.

107. An advertising campaign is typically developed by an individual or a few persons within the firm, an advertising department within the organization, or _____.
a. an advertising agency
b. a group of media specialists
c. a group of multi-skilled managers
d. a "special projects" group
e. freelance advertising consultants

a. an advertising agency

108. Grant is responsible for the marketing promotions of a small firm of consultants. It is most likely that his firm will use _____ to create and implement its advertising campaigns.
a. an advertising agency
b. a group of multi-skilled managers
c. an advertising department
d. a freelance specialist
e. one or two individuals

e. one or two individuals

109. When an organization uses an advertising agency, _____develops the advertising campaign.
a. the agency's specialists
b. the firm and the agency working jointly
c. the firm suggests ideas and the agency chooses among them
d. the advertising department within an organization
e. an individual or a few persons within the firm

b. the firm and the agency working jointly

110. _____ provide businesses with copywriters, artists, production coordinators, media experts, researchers, and other highly skilled specialists.
a. Public relation firms
b. Media companies
c. Advertising agencies
d. Production companies
e. Promotion experts

c. Advertising agencies

111. Advertising agencies typically receive:
a. large fees from the companies whose ads they develop and place.
b. a 15 percent commission from the company whose product they are helping advertise.
c. a 10 percent commission from the advertising company and 10 percent from the media they use.
d. a 25 percent commission paid by the media from which it makes purchases.
e. a 15 percent commission paid by the media from which it makes purchases.

e. a 15 percent commission paid by the media from which it makes purchases.

112. The Bentley Agency places $2,500 in radio spots and $17,500 in television spots for Darnell Insurance in June. For its efforts this month, the agency "traditionally" would receive _____ in compensation from the two media.
a. $2,500
b. $10,000
c. $1,000
d. $5,500
e. $3,000

e. $3,000

113. _____ is a broad set of communication activities used to create and maintain favorable relations between the organization and its stakeholders.
a. Advertising
b. Trade relations
c. A press strategy
d. Public relations
e. Publicity

d. Public relations

114. Monroe works for NASCAR where his responsibilities include maintaining favorable relationships between the organization and its stakeholders. Monroe is most likely employed in _____.
a. sales
b. advertising
c. human resources
d. public relations
e. digital media marketing

d. public relations

115. Which of the following is not a public relations tool?
a. Feature article
b. Company magazine
c. News release
d. Annual report
e. Product sample

e. Product sample

116. Toyota's sponsorship of a major Professional Golf Association tournament would be an example of a(n) _____ tool.
a. advertising
b. public relations
c. sales promotion
d. publicity
e. personal selling

b. public relations

117. A major benefit of using event sponsorship is that it:
a. enhances personal selling efforts.
b. provides excellent support for advertisements.
c. can provide large amounts of free media coverage.
d. is cost-free.
e. neutralizes the effects of unfavorable public relations.

c. can provide large amounts of free media coverage.

118. Which of the following is the most important consideration when choosing an event to sponsor?
a. Reasonable association between the event and the company's product
b. The length of the event
c. When the event occurs
d. Whether or not the event is a national or an international event
e. The specific name of the event

a. Reasonable association between the event and the company's product

119. Recently the local television station communicated a news story about the new specialized medical mart opened by Cleveland Clinic. The story provided information about the various services that the new medical mart would offer and how to get in touch with the service providers. This story is most likely an example of _____.
a. institutional advertising
b. publicity
c. public announcement
d. sales promotion
e. direct marketing

b. publicity

120. Kohl's, a department store featuring clothing and houseware, communicates in news story form about its organization and its efforts to support local children's hospitals. This information is transmitted through mass media at no charge and is therefore called _____.
a. news reporting
b. public announcement
c. mass communications
d. free advertising
e. publicity

e. publicity

121. Which of the following is the most commonly used type of publicity-based public relations tool?
a. News release
b. Captioned photograph
c. Feature article
d. Press conference
e. Letter to the editor

a. News release

122. A single page of typewritten copy that has 300 words or less and describes a company event or product is called a _____.
a. press story
b. feature article
c. captioned paragraph
d. news release
e. publicity bulletin

d. news release

123. The public relations department at Lowe's Home Improvement submits one page of typewritten copy to national newspapers and news web sites to announce its one-day, nationwide clean-up-local-parks event. This is an example of a _____.
a. feature article
b. public update
c. news release
d. media bulletin
e. publicity stunt

c. news release

124. If a company calls a meeting to announce a major news event, this is known as a _____.
a. media call
b. press conference
c. news release
d. press release
e. public service announcement

b. press conference

125. To announce its development of a solid fuel titanium rocket for the U.S. missile defense system, Unijet management feels it needs to get wide media coverage. Under these circumstances, which of the following would be its best alternative?
a. Captioned photograph
b. Feature article
c. Editorial letters
d. Television advertisement
e. Press conference

e. Press conference

126. If researchers at Merck Pharmaceuticals develop a cure for prostate cancer, the best way to announce this to the public and get wide media coverage would be through a:
a. captioned paragraph.
b. press release.
c. feature article.
d. sponsorship.
e. press conference.

e. press conference.

127. Brian is responsible for the promotions and public relations of his firm, which produces rubber tires. A recent development in technology may change the way in which the rubber for tires is produced, allowing it to be sourced from the roots of dandelion plants. Brian would like to have a story run on the evening news or in the local newspaper about this development, but he knows that this story is likely to be rejected by media personnel because the material is:
a. too long.
b. written at too high a reading level.
c. submitted by an organization that the media does not like.
d. not persuasive enough.
e. not newsworthy.

e. not newsworthy.

128. The limitations in using publicity-based public relations tools stem primarily from the fact that:
a. marketers alter the length of publicity releases.
b. publicity is never properly managed by media personnel.
c. media personnel consider only unfavorable messages as newsworthy.
d. it is time-consuming to convince media personnel that the information is newsworthy.
e. media personnel control the content of the communication.

e. media personnel control the content of the communication.

129. Which of the following is not an advantage of using publicity-based public relations tools?
a. Control by media personnel of the content and timing of messages
b. Credibility
c. Strong news value
d. Follow-up word-of-mouth communications
e. A favorable perception of being endorsed by the media

a. Control by media personnel of the content and timing of messages

130. A firm can identify changes in public opinion that affect it by conducting _____.
a. environmental monitoring
b. consumer polling
c. a consumer jury
d. a communications audit
e. a press conference

a. environmental monitoring

131. A content analysis of an organization's messages, readability studies, and readership surveys are all tools used to conduct a(n) _____.
a. consumer survey
b. public relations audit
c. environmental audit
d. communications audit
e. social audit

d. communications audit

132. Home Depot is interested in knowing how its efforts to act in a socially responsible manner through its Habitat for Humanity and disaster relief efforts have affected stakeholders' views of the company. Home Depot should conduct a(n) _____.
a. social audit
b. publicity audit
c. environmental audit
d. communications audit
e. environmental impact study

a. social audit

133. One way for a company to measure the effectiveness of its publicity-based public relations efforts is to:
a. tabulate the equivalent in advertising dollars if the time and space were purchased.
b. ask for return of reply cards.
c. calculate market share increase.
d. count the number of exposures in the media.
e. conduct an environmental audit of media alternatives.

d. count the number of exposures in the media.

134. In many instances the most appropriate way for a firm to cope with an event that leads to negative public relations is to:
a. discourage news coverage of the event.
b. deny that the event occurred.
c. facilitate news coverage of the event.
d. hire a public relations firm.
e. refrain from publicity that reports the event.

c. facilitate news coverage of the event.

135. Refer to Scenario 18.1. Toyota's television advertisements for the new Venza are examples of _____, while its Facebook ads are examples of _____ advertising.
a. publicity; product
b. institutional advertising; comparative
c. product advertising; social media
d. comparative advertising; social media
e. pioneer advertising; social media

c. product advertising; social media

136. Refer to Scenario 18.1. If the ads include both the Venza and the Ford Edge, they would be examples of _____.
a. institutional advertising
b. public relations
c. product advertising
d. comparative advertising
e. reminder advertising

d. comparative advertising

137. Refer to Scenario 18.1. Advertisements such as the one proposed above for the Camry and hybrid SUVs, are most likely an example of _____.
a. product advertising
b. comparative advertising
c. competitive advertising
d. institutional advertising
e. reminder advertising

e. reminder advertising

138. Refer to Scenario 18.1. The advertising mentioned above in which Toyota features all brands of the company would be an example of _____.
a. competitive advertising
b. institutional advertising
c. comparative advertising
d. pioneer advertising
e. product advertising

b. institutional advertising

139. Refer to Scenario 18.2. In 2008, Cal Ripken, Jr. and State Farm teamed up to promote State Farm's national teen driver safety program. The marketing division at State Farm produced a one-page document that described the partnership, which was then published in several national newspapers and on the Internet. The document from State Farm is an example of _____, while the publication in the newspapers is an example of _____.
a. public relations; publicity
b. public relations; a news release
c. publicity; advocacy advertising
d. a news release; publicity
e. publicity; a news release

d. a news release; publicity

140. Refer to Scenario 18.2. When deciding on its advertising allocation for the coming year, State Farm Insurance could choose to spend the same amount as Safe Auto, another auto insurance company, or it could allocate an amount that is 10% of last year's premiums. If State Farm uses the same amount as Safe Auto, this method of advertising appropriation is known as the _____ approach; if State Farm uses the amount based on last year's premiums, the method would be _____.
a. competition-matching; percent-of-sales
b. arbitrary; competition-matching
c. competition-matching; objective-and-task
d. arbitrary; objective-and-task
e. objective-and-task; percent-of-sales

a. competition-matching; percent-of-sales

141. Refer to Scenario 18.2. If State
budget was ineffective, it could decide to allocate 2 percent of its total annual sales to advertising. However, one problem with this method is that:
a. it makes the bookkeeping too difficult.
b. it is tied too closely to sales forecasts.
c. a sales decline leads to an increase in the advertising appropriation.
d. a drop in sales would cause a drop in the advertising budget.
e. competitors may have different advertising objectives.

d. a drop in sales would cause a drop in the advertising budget.

142. Refer to Scenario 18.2. If State Farm Bank decided that it wanted to increase its number of bank customers by 10% in the coming year, it would most likely use the _____ approach to advertising allocation.
a. arbitrary
b. competition-matching
c. objective-and-task
d. percent-of-sales
e. percent-of-customer

c. objective-and-task

143. Advertising is paid, nonpersonal communication transmitted through mass media.
a. True
b. False

True

144. Business organizations are the only major users of advertising.
a. True
b. False

False

145. Institutional advertising and promotional advertising are the two basic categories of advertising.
a. True
b. False

False

146. Advertisements that promote goods and services are called advocacy advertisements.
a. True
b. False

False

147. Product advertising is often used to stimulate demand directly.
a. True
b. False

True

148. If a commercial advertisement compares one brand of laundry detergent to another brand, this is a type of competitive advertising.
a. True
b. False

True

149. Pioneer advertising involves describing the features and benefits of a product in contrast to a direct competitor. a. True
b. False

False

150. If a restaurant, known for its delicious food and fun entertainment, does not serve alcohol, it is displaying advocacy advertising.
a. True
b. False

False

151. In a comparative advertisement, advertisers point out that their brand has characteristics that are superior to those of competing brands, but they do not actually mention the brand names of competitors.
a. True
b. False

False

152. Comparative advertisements mention the actual names of competing brands.
a. True
b. False

True

153. Reinforcement advertising tells current users how to get the most satisfaction from the brand they have chosen. a. True
b. False

True

154. Reminder advertising is not applicable to new products.
a. True
b. False

True

155. Almost all advertising campaigns are aimed at producing immediate sales.
a. True
b. False

False

156. Advertising objectives should be stated in clear, precise, and measurable terms.
a. True
b. False

True

157. The statement of advertising objectives should include a benchmark how much improvement is sought.
a. True
b. False

True

158. A marketer's advertising platform should consist of issues that are important to consumers.
a. True
b. False

True

159. The advertising platform consists of the basic issues and selling points that an advertiser wishes to include in the campaign.
a. True
b. False

True

160. The advertising platform is the foundation on which campaign messages are built.
a. True
b. False

True

161. The advertising budgets for industrial products are usually large relative to the sales of the products.
a. True
b. False

False

162. When sales go up, advertising should be increased; when sales decline, advertising should be decreased.
a. True
b. False

False

163. To assume that sales create advertising is incorrect.
a. True
b. False

True

164. The arbitrary approach to setting an advertising budget often results in inappropriate spending of the firm's resources.
a. True
b. False

True

165. The choice of media influences the content and form of the message.
a. True
b. False

True

166. A cost comparison indicator (such as CPM) should not be used to compare the cost and impact of a television commercial with the cost and impact of a newspaper advertisement.
a. True
b. False

True

167. The signature is not part of the verbal portion of an advertisement.
a. True
b. False

False

168. Radio copy should consist of short, familiar terms.
a. True
b. False

True

169. A layout includes only the illustrations used in an advertisement.
a. True
b. False

False

170. To be unbiased, a member of a consumer jury should not be a present user of the advertised product.
a. True
b. False

False

171. The effectiveness of an advertising campaign can be measured only after the completion of the campaign, when results are tabulated.
a. True
b. False

False

172. The type of posttest an advertiser uses is affected by the type of advertising objectives set by the advertiser.
a. True
b. False

True

173. In recall post-testing, respondents are shown the actual advertisement and are asked whether they recognize it.
a. True
b. False

False

174. Small firms generally depend on local newspapers and radio stations for assistance with advertising efforts.
a. True
b. False

True

175. Advertising departments may use independent research organizations or freelance specialists for some of their projects.
a. True
b. False

True

176. Ad agencies work jointly with their client firms to develop the ad campaigns.
a. True
b. False

True

177. Because ad agency personnel are outsiders to their client firms, they may not judge the firm's product objectively.
a. True
b. False

False

178. Ad agencies and firms usually work together when creating an ad campaign because the agencies would act too subjectively on their own.
a. True
b. False

False

179. Because ad agencies often get commissions on media purchases, firms can obtain some agency services at moderate prices.
a. True
b. False

True

180. Jobs such as specialists, copywriters, artists, media buyers, and technical production coordinators are included in the public relations department of a large organization.
a. True
b. False

False

181. One way an advertising agency assists a firm is by taking care of all the grunt work in order to give its clients time to do the creative work on the campaign.
a. True
b. False

False

182. Advertising agencies often have more highly skilled people than the advertising departments of firms.
a. True
b. False

True

183. Small and medium-sized firms never use advertising agencies to produce campaigns for them.
a. True
b. False

False

184. Public relations, unlike advertising, is not particularly useful for promoting an organization's image.
a. True
b. False

False

185. If a company is perceived positively by the public, employee morale is often higher.
a. True
b. False

True

186. Public relations is communication in news story form about an organization, its products, or both that is transmitted through a mass medium at no charge.
a. True
b. False

False

187. Event sponsorship can provide companies with a considerable amount of advertising.
a. True
b. False

False

188. Publicity is a subset or part of public relations.
a. True
b. False

True

189. To announce a major news event, an organization should use a news release.
a. True
b. False

False

190. A feature article is longer than a news release and is written for a particular publication.
a. True
b. False

True

191. Lack of control over the content and timing of public relations is a limitation in using publicity-based public relations tools.
a. True
b. False

True

192. A public relations audit is used to assess an organization's image among the public or to evaluate the effect of a specific public relations program.
a. True
b. False

True

193. The effectiveness of a public relations program is usually measured in terms of sales.
a. True
b. False

False

194. A major way to reduce unfavorable public relations is to reduce the number of negative events.
a. True
b. False

True

195. An effective approach for dealing with potential unfavorable public relations resulting from a negative event is to discourage news coverage.
a. True
b. False

False

Chapter 16 - Advertising and Public Relations - Subjecto.com

Chapter 16 – Advertising and Public Relations

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15. Advertising that aims to create a more favorable view of a company as a whole in the eyes of various stakeholders
is called _____ advertising.
a. institutional
b. product
c. organizational d. pioneer
e. advocacy

a. institutional

16. Parisian Dry Cleaners airs a series of radio ads that claim, "We are the fastest dry cleaners in town." This campaign would best be described as _____ advertising.
a. pioneer
b. target
c. product
d. institutional
e. advocacy

d. institutional

17. The University of Iowa runs a series of ads throughout the Midwest on how friendly and helpful its faculty, staff, and students are as well as how outstanding its academic programs are. This type of promotion would best be characterized as _____.
a. public relations
b. product advertising
c. advocacy advertising
d. institutional advertising e. comparative advertising

d. institutional advertising e. comparative advertising

18. When a company promotes its position on a public issue, this is specifically referred to as _____ advertising.
a. institutional
b. product
c. advocacy
d. issue
e. competitive

c. advocacy

19. When Anheuser-Busch ran an advertising campaign featuring the slogan, "Know when to say when," it was using: a. competitive advertising.
b. public relations.
c. product advertising.
d. public service awareness.
e. advocacy advertising.

e. advocacy advertising.

20. Tropicana orange juice has a television commercial where a young boy is drinking orange juice at dinner. He remarks that he likes the great taste of Tropicana anytime. The element of the commercial that focuses on drinking orange juice at dinner would be best classified as _____, while the focus on the great taste of Tropicana would be best classified as _____.
a. comparative advertising; informative advertising
b. pioneer advertising; competitive advertising
c. institutional advertising; stimulating primary demand
d. product advertising; institutional
e. comparative advertising; competitive advertising

b. pioneer advertising; competitive advertising

21. The two major types of product advertising are:
a. institutional advertising and advocacy advertising.
b. pioneer advertising and competitive advertising.
c. competitive advertising and comparative advertising.
d. advocacy advertising and competitive advertising.
e. informative advertising and comparative advertising.

b. pioneer advertising and competitive advertising.

22. The "Got milk?" print campaign is advertising that stimulates demand for a(n) _____, known as _____ advertising.
a. product category; pioneer
b. product brand; competitive
c. product category; institutional
d. brand category; pioneer
e. product; comparative

a. product category; pioneer

23. Which of the following lists forms of competitive advertising?
a. Pioneer, comparative, and reminder advertising
b. Reminder, repetitive, and reinforcement advertising
c. Comparative, reminder, and reinforcement advertising
d. Institutional, product, and comparative advertising
e. Product, pioneer, and reminder advertising

c. Comparative, reminder, and reinforcement advertising

24. When Volvo’s advertising campaign mentions that the Volvo CX60 has the highest safety rating of any European sedan, it is using _____ advertising.
a. advocacy
b. comparative
c. competitive
d. defensive
e. institutional

c. competitive

25. Coors Inc. advertises that its beer is the only one that is kept cold from the brewery to the store. This type of advertising is called _____.
a. advocacy advertising
b. competitive advertising
c. comparative advertising
d. defensive advertising
e. institutional advertising

b. competitive advertising

26. Tercile Products Company advertises a specific product heavily, and Carbone Products Company wants to offset the effects of that advertising. In this case, Carbone would most likely employ _____ advertising.
a. competitive
b. pioneer
c. institutional
d. primary
e. target

a. competitive

27. Soft drink companies advertise
rival brands by name. This type of advertising is best described as _____. a. pioneer
b. advocacy
c. comparative
d. defensive
e. selective

c. comparative

28. Brands that are promoted through comparative advertising are most likely to be _____.
a. market leaders
b. brands that are attempting to compete with market leaders
c. primarily services rather than tangible goods
d. attempting to compete on a non-price basis e. competing in a less competitive market

b. brands that are attempting to compete with market leaders

29. The advertising campaign for Crest toothpaste lets consumers know about its newest flavor, and also mentions its history as an established brand. The ad also mentions Crest’s advantages and benefits. Crest’s advertising would be classified as _____.
a. repetitive advertising
b. reminder advertising
c. pioneer advertising
d. advocacy advertising
e. reinforcement advertising

b. reminder advertising

30. An advertisement for a multivitamin that claims, "We still bring you everything you need to get through your day in one pill," would most likely be considered as _____ advertising.
a. reinforcement
b. advocacy
c. comparative
d. reminder
e. institutional

d. reminder

31. Reinforcement advertising is primarily targeted at:
a. new potential target markets.
b. users of competitors’ brands and products.
c. anyone who uses that type of product.
d. all the stakeholders of an organization.
e. the current users of a particular product.

e. the current users of a particular product.

32. Dial Soap’s advertising slogan "Aren’t you glad you use Dial? Don’t you wish everybody did?" exemplifies the use of _____ advertising.
a. reinforcement
b. offensive
c. comparative
d. institutional
e. defensive

a. reinforcement

33. The target audience for an advertising campaign is the: a. information base on which to develop the campaign.
b. geographic distribution of persons.
c. people at whom advertisements are aimed.
d. overall goal of the advertising campaign.
e. sales objective to be achieved by the campaign.

c. people at whom advertisements are aimed.

34. The first stage in the development of any advertising campaign is:
a. creating the message.
b. setting the budget.
c. identifying the advertising target audience.
d. defining the advertising objectives.
e. creating the advertising platform.

c. identifying the advertising target audience.

35. The last stage in the development of any advertising campaign is:
a. creating the advertising platform.
b. developing the media plan.
c. creating the advertising message.
d. evaluating the effectiveness of advertising.
e. defining the advertising objectives.

d. evaluating the effectiveness of advertising.

36. After the target audience for an advertising campaign has been identified and analyzed, marketers should then proceed by:
a. creating the advertising platform.
b. determining the financial resources available.
c. defining the advertising objectives.
d. developing a media plan.
e. creating an advertising message.

c. defining the advertising objectives.

37. After the advertising budget is determined, the next step in creating an advertising campaign is:
a. creating the advertising message.
b. creating the advertising platform.
c. evaluating the advertising objectives.
d. executing the campaign.
e. developing the media plan.

e. developing the media plan.

38. The step in developing an advertising campaign that directly precedes campaign execution is:
a. defining advertising objectives.
b. creating the advertising platform.
c. evaluating advertising effectiveness.
d. developing a media plan.
e. creating the advertising message.

e. creating the advertising message.

39. Suppose State Farm Insurance stated, "We want our advertising to increase our customer base for home and automobile insurance by 10 percent by the end of the fiscal year." This would be considered a(n) _____.
a. target audience goal
b. advertising platform
c. percent-of-sales approach
d. advertising objective
e. media plan goal

d. advertising objective

40. When developing an advertising campaign, benchmarks need to be included in the _____.
a. campaign platform.
b. evaluation of the advertising effectiveness.
c. statement of advertising objectives.
d. media plan. e. budget.

c. statement of advertising objectives.

41. Why should a benchmark statement be included in advertising objectives?
a. Shareholders want to see where a company is in relation to competition.
b. It is useful in determining whether retailers have increased their sales over the year.
c. It gives an indication of how the advertising message is best presented.
d. Without a reference point, it is difficult to determine to what degree objectives have been accomplished.
e. Objectives become more easily attainable when such a statement is included.

d. Without a reference point, it is difficult to determine to what degree objectives have been accomplished.

42. The owner of a professional baseball team asks the account representative of an advertising agency to develop an advertising campaign to bring more teenagers to the ballpark. At this point, the account representative logically begins to discuss establishing _____ for the campaign.
a. the target audience
b. a budget
c. a media plan
d. objectives
e. advertising directives

a. the target audience

43. Dan is responsible for developing the promotional campaign for Under Armour’s new line of footwear for teens. He will be writing advertising campaign objectives that are aimed at making the target customers’ attitudes more favorable toward Under Armour, which should be stated in terms of _____.
a. communication
b. sales
c. demand
d. market
e. survey

a. communication

44. If an advertising campaign is aimed at increasing brand awareness and consumers’ knowledge of a product’s features, the advertising objective should be stated in terms of _____.
a. market share
b. dollar sales
c. unit sales
d. communication
e. long-run goals

b. dollar sales

45. An advertising platform is the:
a. basic issue or selling point that an advertiser wishes to include in an advertising campaign.
b. objective of the advertising campaign stated in precise and measurable terms.
c. form in which the basic issues of the campaign should be presented.
d. broad objectives of the advertising campaign.
e. group of customers on whom research is conducted regarding the use of the product being advertised.

a. basic issue or selling point that an advertiser wishes to include in an advertising campaign.

46. The basic issues or selling points that an advertiser wants to include in an advertising campaign form the:
a. advertising objectives.
b. target audience objectives.
c. media plan.
d. advertising message.
e. advertising platform.

e. advertising platform.

47. Before launching a new advertising campaign, marketers for Healthy Choice frozen dinners must determine the selling points that they want to include in the advertisements. The identification and organization of these selling points is called the _____.
a. advertising appropriation
b. objective-and-task approach
c. advertising platform
d. advertising objective
e. advertising budget

c. advertising platform

48. Frederick Griffith of Griffith’s department stores tells his marketing director that he is tired of the constant price- centered advertising by the firm’s agency. "We have the best customer service in town, and I feel that is what we should be hanging our hats on," he states. This statement is most appropriate for use in which of the following stages of campaign development?
a. Determining the appropriations
b. Creating the platform
c. Identifying the target
d. Defining objectives
e. Developing the media plan

b. Creating the platform

49. An advertising platform should
important to consumers and should be features that:
a. competitive products lack.
b. can be seen easily in a photograph.
c. are familiar concepts to those in the target market.
d. competitive products have as well.
e. are reasonably inexpensive to develop.

d. competitive products have as well.

50. Chloe is employed by an advertising agency and is currently working on the advertising platform for a client. The most effective method of determining platform issues is to use _____.
a. opinions of personnel within the firm
b. opinions of advertising experts
c. a survey of customers
d. opinions of expert marketers in the industry
e. a chart that compares the issues addressed by the advertising campaign of a competing brand with that of the brand to be advertised

c. a survey of customers

51. What is an advertising platform most commonly based upon?
a. The opinions of employees within the firm or the advertising agency
b. Data collected from past marketing research about the brand
c. Customer surveys about what they consider the most important issues
d. Retailer information about potential consumers of the product
e. The advertising appropriation for that particular ad campaign

c. Customer surveys about what they consider the most important issues

52. The total amount of money a marketer allocates for advertising for a specific time period is the _____.
a. media plan
b. advertising appropriation
c. objective-and-task approach
d. promotion grant
e. advertising platform

b. advertising appropriation

53. Advertising appropriations are largest for _____.
a. business products
b. convenience goods
c. high-priced products
d. specialty goods
e. books

b. convenience goods

54. Sony Corporation has a particular approach for determining its advertising appropriation. A problem with this technique, however, is that the people in the marketing department have difficulty estimating the level of effort needed to achieve certain goals. This problem is characteristic of the _____ approach.
a. reliable-appropriation
b. match-competition
c. arbitrary
d. objective-and-task
e. percent-of-sales

d. objective-and-task

55. The main problem with using the objective-and-task approach to setting an advertising budget is that:
a. it is based on the idea that sales create advertising rather than advertising creates sales.
b. it often results in overspending or underspending of the firm’s resources.
c. it does not achieve full potential in terms of stimulating demand.
d. the marketer may experience difficulty when trying to estimate accurately the level of effort needed to achieve goals.
e. it is difficult to determine the objectives of the campaign.

d. the marketer may experience difficulty when trying to estimate accurately the level of effort needed to achieve goals.

56. Danielle Robinson, account representative for EXpert Advertising, tells D’Orazio Tile Products that she is proposing to use 5 full-page, four-color ads in home-decorating magazines to achieve an increase in consumer and builder inquiries of 15 percent. This approach is an example of _____ method of determining advertising expenditure levels.
a. competitive parity
b. percent of sales
c. arbitrary
d. affordability
e. objective-and-task

e. objective-and-task

57. To determine how much money to spend on advertising, marketers for a new brand of caffeinated energy drink decided that they wanted the advertising to create awareness of the new flavor in 80 percent of the energy drink market within one month of introduction. The marketers then determined how much it would cost to reach this goal. This is an example of _____approach toward determining advertising budgets.
a. objective-and-task
b. percent of sales
c. competition matching
d. arbitrary allocation
e. past-year comparison

a. objective-and-task

58. When using the percentage-of-sales approach for determining the advertising appropriation, marketers:
a. base their funding on a percentage of the competitors’ sales.
b. multiply the firm’s past sales by a set percentage they want to spend.
c. set sales objectives for the upcoming period and base appropriations on these goals.
d. multiply the firm’s past sales, plus a factor for expected changes in sales by a standard percentage.
e. use an industry standard to determine what percentage of their profits they want to allocate to advertising.

d. multiply the firm’s past sales, plus a factor for expected changes in sales by a standard percentage.

59. If Target were to base its advertising appropriation on the amount that Walmart spends, it would be using the _____ approach.
a. objective-and-task
b. percent-of-sales
c. industry-standard
d. arbitrary
e. competition-matching

e. competition-matching

60. Colin McKinney, director of marketing for Greenwald Industrial Products, complains to his advertising director that the continuing slump in orders has apparently been perpetuated by the firm’s failure to have the necessary advertising expenditures. Based on this information, Greenwald is most likely using the _____ approach to determine its advertising expenditures.
a. percent-of-sales
b. objective-and-task
c. competition-matching
d. arbitrary
e. judgmental

a. percent-of-sales

61. Alan is the CEO of Greensprings Landscaping Corp. At the recent budget planning meeting, Alan stated that last year’s sales were down from the previous period. He then went on to say that Greensprings would have a budget of $100,000 for advertising in the coming year. In this instance, Alan was using the _____.
a. arbitrary approach
b. executive decision process
c. objective-and-task approach
d. percentage-of-sales approach
e. competition-matching approach

a. arbitrary approach

62. An advantage of the percent-of-sales approach for determining the advertising appropriation is that _____.
a. it is objective
b. marketers can accurately estimate the level of effort needed to attain certain objectives.
c. it is scientific
d. it is logical and inexpensive
e. it is easy to implement

e. it is easy to implement

63. After developing the budget for advertising the Kia Soul automobile, marketing managers at Kia Inc. determined what proportion of that budget would be spent on television, radio, and magazine advertisements based on the cost effectiveness of each. This subsequent allocation of the budget is known as a(n) _____ plan.
a. advertisement-allocation
b. media
c. arbitrary allocation
d. objective-and-task
e. percent-of-sales

b. media

64. A list of the exact magazines, newspapers, and television stations in which an advertisement will appear, along with the dates and times, is a(n) _____.
a. advertising plan
b. media plan
c. advertising message
d. advertising appropriation
e. media platform

b. media plan

65. The primary goal of a media planner is to:
a. choose the best commercial spots available.
b. develop a message that works well with the firm’s target market.
c. achieve the appropriate message reach and frequency.
d. use a wide variety of media to ensure the entire target audience is exposed.
e. reach the largest number of people in the target market within the budget constraints.

e. reach the largest number of people in the target market within the budget constraints.

66. The percentage of consumers in the target audience actually exposed to a particular advertisement in a stated period of time is the definition of _____.
a. frequency
b. exposure
c. reach
d. targeting
e. push

c. reach

67. The maker of Huggies diapers is developing a media plan that involves trying to expose its target audience to its new advertisement about ten times. This is advertising _____.
a. reach
b. repetition
c. frequency
d. targeting
e. exposure

c. frequency

68. Which of the following statements applies to media planning?
a. Characteristics of the product are the most important consideration in selecting the media for a campaign.
b. The message content affects the types of media used for an advertising campaign.
c. The location of the advertising target is irrelevant in media planning.
d. Total media dollars spent on advertising have decreased over the last 30 years.
e. Regardless of the message to be conveyed, newspapers are one medium that is appropriate for almost any circumstances.

b. The message content affects the types of media used for an advertising campaign.

69. A tool that allows an advertiser to compare the costs of several media vehicles within a specific medium relative to the number of persons reached by each vehicle is called a(n) _____.
a. cost comparison indicator
b. media comparison selector
c. unit-price selector
d. cost/person index
e. vehicle/price indicator

a. cost comparison indicator

70. Dominos is looking into magazine advertising for its pizza. The company wants to reach as many people as possible, but due to budget constraints Dominos must reach consumers as efficiently as possible. What can Domino’s use to evaluate various magazines?
a. A cost comparison indicator
b. The total circulation of the magazines
c. A list of the costs of a one-page ad in various magazines d. The advertising appropriations for each magazine
e. An index of advertisement exposure

a. A cost comparison indicator

71. The cost per thousand impressions (CPM) indicator shows:
a. the cost to expose 1,000 people to a television commercial.
b. the cost to expose 1,000 people to a one-page magazine advertisement.
c. the return on investment marketers get for their advertising dollar.
d. the cost to expose a million people to any type of advertisement.
e. how one media source compares to a different source for reaching target markets.

b. the cost to expose 1,000 people to a one-page magazine advertisement.

72. The three general types of media schedules are:
a. pulsing, beating, and continuous.
b. short, medium, and long-term.
c. morning, afternoon, and evening.
d. pulsing, continuous, and flighting.
e. light, heavy, and alternating.

d. pulsing, continuous, and flighting.

73. A schedule in which advertisements run for set periods of time, alternating with periods in which no ads run is known as _____ schedule.
a. continuous
b. skipping
c. pulsing
d. flighting
e. alternating

d. flighting

74. Disney decided to run its new commercials for all of its theme parks several times a day for three weeks and then
not at all for two weeks. It will schedule for its advertising.
a. flighting
b. varying
c. continuous
d. pulsing
e. beating

a. flighting

75. If during an advertising campaign a certain portion of advertising runs continuously, and then during specific periods additional advertising is used to intensify the level of communication, a(n) _____ media schedule is being used.
a. beating
b. alternating
c. flighting
d. continuous with emphasis
e. pulsing

e. pulsing

76. During the duration of an advertising campaign, Verizon Wireless ran television advertisements at a steady rate throughout the week and intensified its message with newspaper advertising in many major newspapers in the Sunday paper. Verizon Wireless used a(n)_____ media schedule.
a. flighting
b. continuous
c. pulsing
d. alternating
e. multimedia

c. pulsing

77. Brian and Tiffany are discussing the media plan for the opening of their new laundromat called Soap and Suds. While talking to Tiffany, Brian agrees that _____ has a tremendous impact. However, he feel that the upfront costs for such a campaign cannot be covered, at present, in their modest budget.
a. radio
b. outdoor
c. television
d. the Internet
e. newspaper

c. television

78. As Oscar Meyer puts together its advertising campaign for the summer, it will need to keep in mind that its desire to use outdoor advertising will have strong effects on its selection of the advertising _____.
a. message
b. budget
c. platform
d. audience analysis
e. objectives

a. message

79. A marketer who wants to include detailed information in advertisements would most likely use _____.
a. radio
b. television
c. outdoor displays
d. magazines
e. mass transit

d. magazines

80. The verbal portion of an advertisement, including headlines, body, and signature, is called the _____.
a. artwork
b. copy
c. storyboard
d. layout
e. script

b. copy

81. An ad’s _____ is designed to attract readers’ attention and develop interest so that they will read the entire advertisement.
a. signature
b. layout
c. headline
d. artwork
e. subheadline

c. headline

82. Todd is developing a print advertisement for Afflac. He knows that the _____ is a critical component of the copy because _____.
a. headline; it determines the final layout design
b. headline; it is often the only part of the advertisement that is read
c. artwork; it takes up the most space
d. tag line; it links the copy to the signature
e. slogan; it links the artwork to the signature

b. headline; it is often the only part of the advertisement that is read

83. As Will reads the copy for South Beach Hotel’s upcoming magazine ad in Southern Living, he worries that no one will spend the time to read all the details of the facilities his resort has to offer. Wanting to have the greatest impact, Will focuses his creative efforts on the _____.
a. copy
b. body
c. text
d. signature
e. headline

e. headline

84. The identification of an advertisement’s sponsor is the _____.
a. copy
b. signature
c. trademark
d. layout
e. subheadline

b. signature

85. The advertising department for
this point, the layout contains a
illustration to show the product, and a paragraph to explain the advantages and benefits of the product. What other important element should be included?
a. Headline
b. Subheadline
c. Signature
d. Artwork
e. Body copy

c. Signature

86. Rachel is considering advertising her new restaurant on the radio to attract more customers. She knows that in order to attract listeners’ attention on the radio it will be important for her to:
a. use a high level of repetition.
b. buy a really long time slot to get all the information in.
c. be both informal and conversational in tone.
d. use a quick speaker to attract attention to the commercial.
e. say the restaurant’s name and location three separate times.

c. be both informal and conversational in tone.

87. Steve is aware of the growth in
advertising on digital devices can alienate some consumers. Steve has uncovered recent research stating that young consumers are more likely to be receptive to advertising appearing on their digital devices if the source is _____; _____ is been given, and the messages are _____.
a. known; a coupon; exciting.
b. trusted; permission; entertaining.
c. liked; permission; with a monetary benefit.
d. trusted; a discount; educational.
e. known; a discount; humorous.

b. trusted; permission; entertaining.

88. When a copywriter and an artist combine the copy with the visual material for a television commercial, it usually is done through use of a _____.
a. parallel format
b. commercial layout
c. layout procedure
d. storyboard
e. visual-impact process

d. storyboard

89. Artwork, a major part of most advertisements, consists of the:
a. illustration and the signature.
b. illustration and the layout.
c. illustration and type of print used in the headlines.
d. layout and the signature.
e. method by which all the components are put together.

b. illustration and the layout.

90. The _____ design element of an advertisement is used to attract attention, communicate an idea quickly, or communicate ideas that are difficult to put into words; the _____ is the physical arrangement of the illustration, headline, subheadline, body copy, and the signature.
a. illustration; layout
b. headline; layout
c. layout; design
d. layout; storyboard
e. signature; layout

a. illustration; layout

91. Brittany is choosing the type of media for a new promotional campaign for Halls cough drops. She knows that each type of media has both benefits and disadvantages. She is considering the Internet as a form of media. Which of the following is NOT a disadvantage of the Internet as a promotional medium?
a. The costs of precise targeting are high.
b. The effects of promotion can be difficult to measure.
c. There are concerns about privacy.
d. The message must be short and simple.
e. There are concerns about security.

d. The message must be short and simple.

92. Julie Reese is working on developing a magazine advertisement for Planet Fitness, a health and fitness club. She knows what she wants the advertisement to say and the illustrations she wants to use, but she is having a tough time putting it all together. Julie is having trouble determining the _____.
a. storyboard
b. artwork
c. copy
d. presentation
e. layout

e. layout

93. The effectiveness of an advertising campaign can be measured:
a. only after the campaign has been carried out completely and results have been tabulated.
b. only before the campaign begins, to prevent unnecessary expenditures.
c. during the campaign to determine whether more or less funds should be allocated, but not after the campaign.
d. several weeks after the beginning of the campaign to determine whether the campaign is headed in the right direction.
e. before, during, and after the campaign through the use of pretests, inquiries, and posttests.

e. before, during, and after the campaign through the use of pretests, inquiries, and posttests.

94. An evaluation performed before an advertising campaign begins is a _____.
a. consumer exam
b. posttest
c. recognition test
d. pretest
e. recall test

d. pretest

95. Mike Stevens wonders whether the creative idea of using the character "Tom T. Turtle" as an image for marketing a new line of running shoes will be successful. He should suggest to his account representative that a(n) _____ be used to pretest the campaign.
a. storyboard
b. survey
c. experiment
d. GSR test
e. consumer jury

e. consumer jury

96. A consumer jury is a:
a. group of consumers who have purchased the product before they evaluate its effectiveness.
b. panel of potential buyers of the advertised product brought together to pretest an advertising message.
c. panel of buyers who review and evaluate an advertising message after it has been circulated in certain regions.
d. group of consumers who determine whether or not consumers have been treated fairly by companies.
e. marketing research firm which ranks the effectiveness of advertisements.

b. panel of potential buyers of the advertised product brought together to pretest an advertising message.

97. General Mills used a panel of consumers to evaluate its Cheerios campaign featuring children who read the cereal box and try to persuade their parents to watch their cholesterol. These consumers judged the advertisements prior to the execution of the advertising campaign. This is an example of a(n) _____.
a. pretest
b. inquiry
c. recognition test
d. recall test
e. posttest

a. pretest

98. Matt was in a group considered to be actual or potential purchasers of a new mountain bike produced by Specialized Sports. He and the other consumers were shown three different advertisements and asked to judge several dimensions of each one. Matt was part of a(n) _____.
a. posttest consumer group
b. panel of advertising experts
c. consumer jury
d. customer ad panel
e. ad preview group

c. consumer jury

99. Measuring effectiveness during a campaign is usually accomplished by using _____.
a. pretests
b. posttests
c. consumer juries
d. inquiries
e. sales force surveys

d. inquiries

100. Recognition and recall tests are posttest methods based on _____.
a. mail surveys
b. memory
c. inquiries
d. preferences
e. in-depth interviews

b. memory

101. Some of the posttest methods for measuring advertising effectiveness are based on how well consumers remember advertising and include (1) recognition tests and (2) recall tests. What is the basic difference between these two approaches?
a. The actual ads are shown in the former but not in the latter.
b. The former method relies on memory alone, and the latter shows the actual ads.
c. One uses a consumer jury; the other uses random individuals.
d. The respondents are given class clues in the latter but not in the former.
e. One is used primarily by the government, and the other is used by private businesses.

a. The actual ads are shown in the former but not in the latter.

102. Carla is stopped by a researcher at a shopping mall and asked which was the last television commercial she remembers seeing. This is an example of a(n) _____.
a. unaided recall test
b. pretest
c. recognition test
d. aided recall test
e. memory test

a. unaided recall test

103. When respondents are shown a list of various products, brands, and company names and then asked about
advertisements they have seen
a. unaided recall test
b. pretest
c. recognition test
d. aided recognition test
e. aided recall test

e. aided recall test

104. What is the primary justification marketers use for conducting recognition and recall tests?
a. Researchers find that recalling an advertisement has a strong link to purchasing a product.
b. People have unfavorable views of advertising and are unlikely to purchase advertised products.
c. Consumers tend to enjoy participating in these tests and are likely to purchase the products as a result.
d. People are more likely to buy a product they have seen advertised than one they have not seen advertised.
e. There is a strong link between advertisement recall/recognition and word-of-mouth communication.

a. Researchers find that recalling an advertisement has a strong link to purchasing a product

105. When individuals’ behaviors are tracked from television sets to checkout counters using equipment provided by the marketer, this is known as _____.
a. family behavior recording
b. single-source data
c. individual consumer jury
d. advertisement exposure data
e. detailed market research

b. single-source data

106. Darcy presents an identification card at the supermarket checkout and has a microcomputer attached to her TV. Information from both of these is sent to a research facility. Darcy is providing:
a. family behavior recording.
b. individual consumer opinion.
c. single-source data.
d. advertisement exposure data.
e. detailed market research.

c. single-source data.

107. An advertising campaign is typically developed by an individual or a few persons within the firm, an advertising department within the organization, or _____.
a. an advertising agency
b. a group of media specialists
c. a group of multi-skilled managers
d. a "special projects" group
e. freelance advertising consultants

a. an advertising agency

108. Grant is responsible for the marketing promotions of a small firm of consultants. It is most likely that his firm will use _____ to create and implement its advertising campaigns.
a. an advertising agency
b. a group of multi-skilled managers
c. an advertising department
d. a freelance specialist
e. one or two individuals

e. one or two individuals

109. When an organization uses an advertising agency, _____develops the advertising campaign.
a. the agency’s specialists
b. the firm and the agency working jointly
c. the firm suggests ideas and the agency chooses among them
d. the advertising department within an organization
e. an individual or a few persons within the firm

b. the firm and the agency working jointly

110. _____ provide businesses with copywriters, artists, production coordinators, media experts, researchers, and other highly skilled specialists.
a. Public relation firms
b. Media companies
c. Advertising agencies
d. Production companies
e. Promotion experts

c. Advertising agencies

111. Advertising agencies typically receive:
a. large fees from the companies whose ads they develop and place.
b. a 15 percent commission from the company whose product they are helping advertise.
c. a 10 percent commission from the advertising company and 10 percent from the media they use.
d. a 25 percent commission paid by the media from which it makes purchases.
e. a 15 percent commission paid by the media from which it makes purchases.

e. a 15 percent commission paid by the media from which it makes purchases.

112. The Bentley Agency places $2,500 in radio spots and $17,500 in television spots for Darnell Insurance in June. For its efforts this month, the agency "traditionally" would receive _____ in compensation from the two media.
a. $2,500
b. $10,000
c. $1,000
d. $5,500
e. $3,000

e. $3,000

113. _____ is a broad set of communication activities used to create and maintain favorable relations between the organization and its stakeholders.
a. Advertising
b. Trade relations
c. A press strategy
d. Public relations
e. Publicity

d. Public relations

114. Monroe works for NASCAR where his responsibilities include maintaining favorable relationships between the organization and its stakeholders. Monroe is most likely employed in _____.
a. sales
b. advertising
c. human resources
d. public relations
e. digital media marketing

d. public relations

115. Which of the following is not a public relations tool?
a. Feature article
b. Company magazine
c. News release
d. Annual report
e. Product sample

e. Product sample

116. Toyota’s sponsorship of a major Professional Golf Association tournament would be an example of a(n) _____ tool.
a. advertising
b. public relations
c. sales promotion
d. publicity
e. personal selling

b. public relations

117. A major benefit of using event sponsorship is that it:
a. enhances personal selling efforts.
b. provides excellent support for advertisements.
c. can provide large amounts of free media coverage.
d. is cost-free.
e. neutralizes the effects of unfavorable public relations.

c. can provide large amounts of free media coverage.

118. Which of the following is the most important consideration when choosing an event to sponsor?
a. Reasonable association between the event and the company’s product
b. The length of the event
c. When the event occurs
d. Whether or not the event is a national or an international event
e. The specific name of the event

a. Reasonable association between the event and the company’s product

119. Recently the local television station communicated a news story about the new specialized medical mart opened by Cleveland Clinic. The story provided information about the various services that the new medical mart would offer and how to get in touch with the service providers. This story is most likely an example of _____.
a. institutional advertising
b. publicity
c. public announcement
d. sales promotion
e. direct marketing

b. publicity

120. Kohl’s, a department store featuring clothing and houseware, communicates in news story form about its organization and its efforts to support local children’s hospitals. This information is transmitted through mass media at no charge and is therefore called _____.
a. news reporting
b. public announcement
c. mass communications
d. free advertising
e. publicity

e. publicity

121. Which of the following is the most commonly used type of publicity-based public relations tool?
a. News release
b. Captioned photograph
c. Feature article
d. Press conference
e. Letter to the editor

a. News release

122. A single page of typewritten copy that has 300 words or less and describes a company event or product is called a _____.
a. press story
b. feature article
c. captioned paragraph
d. news release
e. publicity bulletin

d. news release

123. The public relations department at Lowe’s Home Improvement submits one page of typewritten copy to national newspapers and news web sites to announce its one-day, nationwide clean-up-local-parks event. This is an example of a _____.
a. feature article
b. public update
c. news release
d. media bulletin
e. publicity stunt

c. news release

124. If a company calls a meeting to announce a major news event, this is known as a _____.
a. media call
b. press conference
c. news release
d. press release
e. public service announcement

b. press conference

125. To announce its development of a solid fuel titanium rocket for the U.S. missile defense system, Unijet management feels it needs to get wide media coverage. Under these circumstances, which of the following would be its best alternative?
a. Captioned photograph
b. Feature article
c. Editorial letters
d. Television advertisement
e. Press conference

e. Press conference

126. If researchers at Merck Pharmaceuticals develop a cure for prostate cancer, the best way to announce this to the public and get wide media coverage would be through a:
a. captioned paragraph.
b. press release.
c. feature article.
d. sponsorship.
e. press conference.

e. press conference.

127. Brian is responsible for the promotions and public relations of his firm, which produces rubber tires. A recent development in technology may change the way in which the rubber for tires is produced, allowing it to be sourced from the roots of dandelion plants. Brian would like to have a story run on the evening news or in the local newspaper about this development, but he knows that this story is likely to be rejected by media personnel because the material is:
a. too long.
b. written at too high a reading level.
c. submitted by an organization that the media does not like.
d. not persuasive enough.
e. not newsworthy.

e. not newsworthy.

128. The limitations in using publicity-based public relations tools stem primarily from the fact that:
a. marketers alter the length of publicity releases.
b. publicity is never properly managed by media personnel.
c. media personnel consider only unfavorable messages as newsworthy.
d. it is time-consuming to convince media personnel that the information is newsworthy.
e. media personnel control the content of the communication.

e. media personnel control the content of the communication.

129. Which of the following is not an advantage of using publicity-based public relations tools?
a. Control by media personnel of the content and timing of messages
b. Credibility
c. Strong news value
d. Follow-up word-of-mouth communications
e. A favorable perception of being endorsed by the media

a. Control by media personnel of the content and timing of messages

130. A firm can identify changes in public opinion that affect it by conducting _____.
a. environmental monitoring
b. consumer polling
c. a consumer jury
d. a communications audit
e. a press conference

a. environmental monitoring

131. A content analysis of an organization’s messages, readability studies, and readership surveys are all tools used to conduct a(n) _____.
a. consumer survey
b. public relations audit
c. environmental audit
d. communications audit
e. social audit

d. communications audit

132. Home Depot is interested in knowing how its efforts to act in a socially responsible manner through its Habitat for Humanity and disaster relief efforts have affected stakeholders’ views of the company. Home Depot should conduct a(n) _____.
a. social audit
b. publicity audit
c. environmental audit
d. communications audit
e. environmental impact study

a. social audit

133. One way for a company to measure the effectiveness of its publicity-based public relations efforts is to:
a. tabulate the equivalent in advertising dollars if the time and space were purchased.
b. ask for return of reply cards.
c. calculate market share increase.
d. count the number of exposures in the media.
e. conduct an environmental audit of media alternatives.

d. count the number of exposures in the media.

134. In many instances the most appropriate way for a firm to cope with an event that leads to negative public relations is to:
a. discourage news coverage of the event.
b. deny that the event occurred.
c. facilitate news coverage of the event.
d. hire a public relations firm.
e. refrain from publicity that reports the event.

c. facilitate news coverage of the event.

135. Refer to Scenario 18.1. Toyota’s television advertisements for the new Venza are examples of _____, while its Facebook ads are examples of _____ advertising.
a. publicity; product
b. institutional advertising; comparative
c. product advertising; social media
d. comparative advertising; social media
e. pioneer advertising; social media

c. product advertising; social media

136. Refer to Scenario 18.1. If the ads include both the Venza and the Ford Edge, they would be examples of _____.
a. institutional advertising
b. public relations
c. product advertising
d. comparative advertising
e. reminder advertising

d. comparative advertising

137. Refer to Scenario 18.1. Advertisements such as the one proposed above for the Camry and hybrid SUVs, are most likely an example of _____.
a. product advertising
b. comparative advertising
c. competitive advertising
d. institutional advertising
e. reminder advertising

e. reminder advertising

138. Refer to Scenario 18.1. The advertising mentioned above in which Toyota features all brands of the company would be an example of _____.
a. competitive advertising
b. institutional advertising
c. comparative advertising
d. pioneer advertising
e. product advertising

b. institutional advertising

139. Refer to Scenario 18.2. In 2008, Cal Ripken, Jr. and State Farm teamed up to promote State Farm’s national teen driver safety program. The marketing division at State Farm produced a one-page document that described the partnership, which was then published in several national newspapers and on the Internet. The document from State Farm is an example of _____, while the publication in the newspapers is an example of _____.
a. public relations; publicity
b. public relations; a news release
c. publicity; advocacy advertising
d. a news release; publicity
e. publicity; a news release

d. a news release; publicity

140. Refer to Scenario 18.2. When deciding on its advertising allocation for the coming year, State Farm Insurance could choose to spend the same amount as Safe Auto, another auto insurance company, or it could allocate an amount that is 10% of last year’s premiums. If State Farm uses the same amount as Safe Auto, this method of advertising appropriation is known as the _____ approach; if State Farm uses the amount based on last year’s premiums, the method would be _____.
a. competition-matching; percent-of-sales
b. arbitrary; competition-matching
c. competition-matching; objective-and-task
d. arbitrary; objective-and-task
e. objective-and-task; percent-of-sales

a. competition-matching; percent-of-sales

141. Refer to Scenario 18.2. If State
budget was ineffective, it could decide to allocate 2 percent of its total annual sales to advertising. However, one problem with this method is that:
a. it makes the bookkeeping too difficult.
b. it is tied too closely to sales forecasts.
c. a sales decline leads to an increase in the advertising appropriation.
d. a drop in sales would cause a drop in the advertising budget.
e. competitors may have different advertising objectives.

d. a drop in sales would cause a drop in the advertising budget.

142. Refer to Scenario 18.2. If State Farm Bank decided that it wanted to increase its number of bank customers by 10% in the coming year, it would most likely use the _____ approach to advertising allocation.
a. arbitrary
b. competition-matching
c. objective-and-task
d. percent-of-sales
e. percent-of-customer

c. objective-and-task

143. Advertising is paid, nonpersonal communication transmitted through mass media.
a. True
b. False

True

144. Business organizations are the only major users of advertising.
a. True
b. False

False

145. Institutional advertising and promotional advertising are the two basic categories of advertising.
a. True
b. False

False

146. Advertisements that promote goods and services are called advocacy advertisements.
a. True
b. False

False

147. Product advertising is often used to stimulate demand directly.
a. True
b. False

True

148. If a commercial advertisement compares one brand of laundry detergent to another brand, this is a type of competitive advertising.
a. True
b. False

True

149. Pioneer advertising involves describing the features and benefits of a product in contrast to a direct competitor. a. True
b. False

False

150. If a restaurant, known for its delicious food and fun entertainment, does not serve alcohol, it is displaying advocacy advertising.
a. True
b. False

False

151. In a comparative advertisement, advertisers point out that their brand has characteristics that are superior to those of competing brands, but they do not actually mention the brand names of competitors.
a. True
b. False

False

152. Comparative advertisements mention the actual names of competing brands.
a. True
b. False

True

153. Reinforcement advertising tells current users how to get the most satisfaction from the brand they have chosen. a. True
b. False

True

154. Reminder advertising is not applicable to new products.
a. True
b. False

True

155. Almost all advertising campaigns are aimed at producing immediate sales.
a. True
b. False

False

156. Advertising objectives should be stated in clear, precise, and measurable terms.
a. True
b. False

True

157. The statement of advertising objectives should include a benchmark how much improvement is sought.
a. True
b. False

True

158. A marketer’s advertising platform should consist of issues that are important to consumers.
a. True
b. False

True

159. The advertising platform consists of the basic issues and selling points that an advertiser wishes to include in the campaign.
a. True
b. False

True

160. The advertising platform is the foundation on which campaign messages are built.
a. True
b. False

True

161. The advertising budgets for industrial products are usually large relative to the sales of the products.
a. True
b. False

False

162. When sales go up, advertising should be increased; when sales decline, advertising should be decreased.
a. True
b. False

False

163. To assume that sales create advertising is incorrect.
a. True
b. False

True

164. The arbitrary approach to setting an advertising budget often results in inappropriate spending of the firm’s resources.
a. True
b. False

True

165. The choice of media influences the content and form of the message.
a. True
b. False

True

166. A cost comparison indicator (such as CPM) should not be used to compare the cost and impact of a television commercial with the cost and impact of a newspaper advertisement.
a. True
b. False

True

167. The signature is not part of the verbal portion of an advertisement.
a. True
b. False

False

168. Radio copy should consist of short, familiar terms.
a. True
b. False

True

169. A layout includes only the illustrations used in an advertisement.
a. True
b. False

False

170. To be unbiased, a member of a consumer jury should not be a present user of the advertised product.
a. True
b. False

False

171. The effectiveness of an advertising campaign can be measured only after the completion of the campaign, when results are tabulated.
a. True
b. False

False

172. The type of posttest an advertiser uses is affected by the type of advertising objectives set by the advertiser.
a. True
b. False

True

173. In recall post-testing, respondents are shown the actual advertisement and are asked whether they recognize it.
a. True
b. False

False

174. Small firms generally depend on local newspapers and radio stations for assistance with advertising efforts.
a. True
b. False

True

175. Advertising departments may use independent research organizations or freelance specialists for some of their projects.
a. True
b. False

True

176. Ad agencies work jointly with their client firms to develop the ad campaigns.
a. True
b. False

True

177. Because ad agency personnel are outsiders to their client firms, they may not judge the firm’s product objectively.
a. True
b. False

False

178. Ad agencies and firms usually work together when creating an ad campaign because the agencies would act too subjectively on their own.
a. True
b. False

False

179. Because ad agencies often get commissions on media purchases, firms can obtain some agency services at moderate prices.
a. True
b. False

True

180. Jobs such as specialists, copywriters, artists, media buyers, and technical production coordinators are included in the public relations department of a large organization.
a. True
b. False

False

181. One way an advertising agency assists a firm is by taking care of all the grunt work in order to give its clients time to do the creative work on the campaign.
a. True
b. False

False

182. Advertising agencies often have more highly skilled people than the advertising departments of firms.
a. True
b. False

True

183. Small and medium-sized firms never use advertising agencies to produce campaigns for them.
a. True
b. False

False

184. Public relations, unlike advertising, is not particularly useful for promoting an organization’s image.
a. True
b. False

False

185. If a company is perceived positively by the public, employee morale is often higher.
a. True
b. False

True

186. Public relations is communication in news story form about an organization, its products, or both that is transmitted through a mass medium at no charge.
a. True
b. False

False

187. Event sponsorship can provide companies with a considerable amount of advertising.
a. True
b. False

False

188. Publicity is a subset or part of public relations.
a. True
b. False

True

189. To announce a major news event, an organization should use a news release.
a. True
b. False

False

190. A feature article is longer than a news release and is written for a particular publication.
a. True
b. False

True

191. Lack of control over the content and timing of public relations is a limitation in using publicity-based public relations tools.
a. True
b. False

True

192. A public relations audit is used to assess an organization’s image among the public or to evaluate the effect of a specific public relations program.
a. True
b. False

True

193. The effectiveness of a public relations program is usually measured in terms of sales.
a. True
b. False

False

194. A major way to reduce unfavorable public relations is to reduce the number of negative events.
a. True
b. False

True

195. An effective approach for dealing with potential unfavorable public relations resulting from a negative event is to discourage news coverage.
a. True
b. False

False

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