Chapter 16.

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Which of the following organs would be MOST likely to bleed profusely if injured?


A strangulated hernia is one that

loses its blood supply due to compression by local tissues.

Which of the following statements regarding dialysis is correct?

Patients who miss a dialysis treatment often present with weakness.

Which of the following conditions is more common in women than in men?


Chronic renal failure is a condition that

is often caused by hypertension or diabetes.

Pain that radiates to the right lower quadrant from the umbilical area, nausea and vomiting, and anorexia are MOST indicative of:


Erosion of the protective layer of the stomach or duodenum secondary to overactivity of digestive juices results in:

an ulcer.

Esophageal varices MOST commonly occur in patients who:

drink a lot of alcohol.

A 59-year-old male presents with a sudden onset of severe lower back pain. He is conscious and alert, but very restless and diaphoretic. Your assessment reveals a pulsating mass to the left of his umbilicus. You should:

administer oxygen and prepare for immediate transport.

Pain that is localized to the lower back and/or lower abdominal quadrants is MOST suggestive of:

an aortic aneurysm.

A young female presents with costovertebral angle tenderness. She is conscious and alert with stable vital signs. Which of the following organs is MOST likely causing her pain?


You respond to the residence of a 70-year-old male who complains of weakness and severe shortness of breath. His wife tells you that he is a dialysis patient, but has missed his last two treatments. After applying high-flow oxygen, you auscultate his lungs and hear diffuse rhonchi. The patient is conscious, but appears confused. His blood pressure is 98/54 mm Hg, his pulse rate is 120 beats/min and irregular, and his respirations are 24 breaths/min and labored. You should:

leave him in a sitting position, keep him warm, and prepare for immediate transport.

A 47-year-old male presents with severe abdominal pain of 3 hours’ duration. His abdomen is distended and guarded. Your MOST important consideration for this patient should be to:

be alert for signs and symptoms of shock.

Functions of the liver include:

production of substances necessary for blood clotting.

In contrast to the parietal peritoneum, the visceral peritoneum

is supplied by nerves of the autonomic nervous system, which are less able to localize pain or sensation.

In the presence of ileus, the only way the stomach can empty itself is by:


Solid abdominal organs include the:

spleen, kidneys, and pancreas.

Most patients with abdominal pain prefer to:

lie on their side with their knees drawn into the abdomen.

The kidneys help to regulate blood pressure by:

removing sodium, and thus water, from the body.

Pain that may be perceived at a distant point on the surface of the body, such as the back or shoulder, is called:

referred pain.

Which of the following organs lies in the retroperitoneal space?


The MOST important treatment for a patient with severe abdominal pain and signs of shock includes:

transporting the patient without delay.

When assessing a patient with abdominal pain, you should:

palpate the abdomen in a clockwise direction beginning with the quadrant after the one the patient indicates is painful.

A 35-year-old mildly obese woman is complaining of localized pain in the right upper quadrant with referred pain to the right shoulder. The MOST likely cause of her pain is:

acute cholecystitis.

The MOST common and significant complication associated with an acute abdomen is


Peritonitis may result in shock because:

fluid shifts from the bloodstream into body tissues.

Elderly patients with abdominal problems may not exhibit the same pain response as younger patients because of:

age-related deterioration of their sensory systems.

An important aspect in the treatment of a patient with severe abdominal pain is to:

rovide emotional support en route to the hospital.

Which of the following statements regarding gastrointestinal bleeding is correct?

Bleeding within the gastrointestinal tract is a symptom of another disease, not a disease itself.

A 30-year-old woman with a history of alcoholism presents with severe upper abdominal pain and is vomiting large amounts of bright red blood. Her skin is cool, pale, and clammy; her heart rate is 120 beats/min and weak; and her blood pressure is 70/50 mm Hg. Your MOST immediate action should be to:

protect her airway from aspiration.

Which of the following is characteristic of peptic ulcer disease (PUD)?

burning or pain in the stomach that subsides immediately after eating

Patients with acute abdominal pain should not be given anything to eat or drink because:

substances in the stomach increase the risk of aspiration.

You are dispatched to an apartment complex for a young male with abdominal pain. Your priority upon arriving at the scene should be to:

assess the scene for potential hazards.

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