Chapter 15 Terms APUSH

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Andrew Johnson – (POLITICAL)

Johnson was Lincoln’s vice president; & President after the assassination. He was a Jacksonian Democrat; from Tennessee but after the seccesion from the Union he stayed in the Senate because his loyalty lay with the Union; a month after Lincoln’s death he began his Reconstruction vision which offered amnesty to Southerners who promised to keep their allegiance to the Constitution, however the Southern elite were exempt from this because Johnson blamed them for seccession

Presidential Reconstruction Plan- (POLITICAL)

The Presidential Reconstruction Plan was Johnson’s plant to offer amnesty to all Southerners who took an oath of allegiance to the Constitution, except for the Southern elite class which he blamed for secession and ultimately the war; he appointed provisional leaders for the southern states. Within a few months the former states of the Confederacy had met the President’s terms.

40 Acres and a Mule- (Cultural)

The program, started when General William T. Sherman reserved large tracts for liberated slaves, in the south, primarily South Carolina and Georgia; they were distributed 40 acre plots; the freedmen assumed the land was theirs but when the war ended resettlement began, the responsibility of the Freedmen’s Bureau

Black Codes- (Political)

The Black Codes were laws passed by southern states after the Civil War denying ex-slaves the complete civil rights enjoyed by whites and intended to force blacks back to plantations and impoverished lifestyles.

Carpetbaggers and Scalawags – (Cultural)

Carpetbaggers were essentially displaced veterans who quickly becoming a drag on society. They carried around everything they owned in cheap suitcases called carpetbags. They were union army vets who were skilled. Scalawags were ex-confederates who supported reconstruction. They were also former slaves, whigs, and democrats, who liked republicanism.

13th Amendment – (Political)

The 13th amendment passed in 1865. It freed all slaves and abolished slavery and involuntary servitude in the United States.

14th Amendment – (Political)

The 14th Amendment passed by anxious Republicans to enshrine black civil rights that gave citizenship to anyone born on U.S. soil and vaguely defined rights of a citizen.

15th Amendment – (Political)

The 15th amendment quickly passed by Republicans that forbade either the federal government or the states from denying citizens the right to vote on the basis of race, color, or "previous conditions of servitude". Set up the foundation for future equal opportunity laws.

Radical Republicans- (Political)

The Radical Republicans were Northerners led by Sumner and Stevens who wanted the prosecution of the war without conscription and wanted to give the acquired land to free blacks.

Radical Reconstruction – (Political)

The Republicans idea for reconstructions was that the South should be divided into five military districts, each under the command of a Union general. Certain established requirements for readmission of ex-Confederate states to the Union would be created.

Tenure of Office Act – (Political)

This was part of the reconstruction act and it required the removal of officials who needed Senate confirmation. Congress wanted to protect Stanton who was part of Johnson’s cabinet and supported radical reconstruction. Congress also wanted to reconstruct the presidency and the south.

Johnson’s Impeachment – (Political)

Andrew Johnson’s impeachment was the result of Stanton’s dismissal by the President, this was the last straw for the House Republicans. Johnson was just barely acquitted. As a result for the rest of his term he was powerless to alter the course of Reconstruction and the country.

Nathan Bedford Forrest – (Cultural)

A decorated Confederate cavalry general. As one of Tennessee’s irreconcilable Confederate sympathizers, the KKK looked to him to be their political leader.

Ku Klux Klan – (Cultural)

The KKK was a group of mostly Southerners who were extremely racist against African Americans, and disliked all other cultures and races. They originated in Tennessee in 1865. General Forrest was in charge of this group. The members of this group dominated the democratic party. They also released a campaign that terrified the republicans. The Ku Klux Klan went around blackmailing many republican politicians and burned black schools and churches.

Election of 1868 – (Political)

The winner of the Election of 1868 was Ulysses S. Grant who won because of the impeachment controversy that sullied Johnson, made him look like the most powerful American leader. He supported radical reconstruction. His opponent during this election was Horatio Seymour, the democrat nominee.

Woman’s Rights- (Cultural)

The movement for Woman’s suffrage was led by Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Advocates were outraged by the Fifteenth Amendment, which granted suffrage to former slaves but not to women. They held peaceful protests across the country and became a very powerful force, ultimately they achieved their goal.

Republican Rule in the South – (Political)

Between 1868 and 1871, all of the southern states had made all of the requirements that allowed them to rejoin the Union. They protected federal troops and republican organizations. Reconstruction administrations were able to stay in power for a few months. African American supported them because they constituted the majority of registered votes. It resulted in cultural differences, new found black leadership, new programs, and new schools and churches.

African American Leadership – (Cultural)

The first African American Leaders came together to make this organization. They were supported by blacks from the north and anti-slavery army veterans. African Americans were able to be a part of legislatures, especially in South Carolina. During reconstruction 20 blacks in total were a part of the state administrations.

Freedman’s Bureau – (Political)

This federal bureau was an intervention by the federal government that aided ex-slaves during the transition from war to peace, and slavery to freedom. It was given direct federal funding and its agents were authorized to investigate the mistreatment of blacks.

Sharecropping – (Economic)

Sharecropping was a system of work for freedmen who were employed in the cotton industry. This system traded a freedmen’s labor for the use of a house, land, and sometimes further accommodations.They would usually give half or more of their grown crop to their landlords.

Election of 1872 – (Political)

The election in which Grant was up for reelection against Democrat- and Liberal Republican-nominated Horace Greeley. Greeley had gained some support from Grant’s party after he was shunned by some. Greeley, however, was a poor campaigner, and as a result, Grant won the election overwhelmingly.

Ulysses S. Grant – (Political)

Grant was the former head of the union army and president. He supported reconstruction, but when it failed he didn’t pursue alternatives. He was part of a scandal that involved Whiskey Ring, which was a network of liquor distillers and treasury agents who defrauded the government. He was put in trial and almost thrown into jail until Orville Babcock defended him.

Political Crisis of 1877 – (Political)

Republicans wanted a person who did not have any corruption to their name, so they nominated Rutherford B. Hayes and the Democrats nominated Samuel J. Tilden. This election did not have anything to do with reconstruction, but it dealt with fixing centralism and it’s problems. Hayes won this election by one electoral vote.

Home Rule- (Cultural)

A rallying cry by southern Democrats painting Reconstruction governments as illegitimate and their own party being the only ones able to restore the South to "home rule".

Questions

Why did the size of the Klu Klux Klan increase to such a great size? Why was reconstruction in the south so difficult?

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