Chapter 15 Quiz

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"PASTE" is an alternate assessment tool for ______.
-seizure patients
-respiratory patients
-stroke patients
-cardiac patients

-respiratory patients Page 607, Patient Assessment

A 30-year-old male presents with acute shortness of breath, widespread hives, and facial swelling. He denies any past medical history and takes no medications. During your assessment, you hear wheezing over all the lung fields. His blood pressure is 90/50 mm Hg and his heart rate 110 beats/min. In addition to giving him high-flow oxygen, the MOST important treatment for this patient is:
-a beta-antagonist
-an antihistamine

-epinephrine Page 598, Causes of Dyspnea

A 59-year-old male with history of emphysema complains of an acute worsening of his dyspnea and pleuritic chest pain following a forceful cough. Your assessment reveals that he has a barrel-shaped chest, unilaterally diminished breath sounds, and tachycardia. What is the MOST likely cause of this patient’s condition?
-Rupture of the diaphragm
-Exacerbatuon of his COPD
-Spontaneous pneumotorax
-Acute pulmonary embolism

-Spontaneous pneumothorax Page 599, Causes of Dyspnea

A pleural effusion is MOST accurately defined as:
-fluid accumulation outside the lung
-diffuse collapsing of the alveoli
-a bacterial infection of the lung tissue
-a unilaterally collapsed lung

-fluid accumulation outside the lung Page 599, Causes of Dyspnea

Asthma is caused by a response of the:
-respiratory system
-endocrine system
-immune system
-cardiovascular system

-immune system Page 595, Causes of Dyspnea

Crackles (rales) are caused by ______.
-severe bronchoconstriction
-air passing through fluid
-narrowing of the upper airways
-mucus in the larger airways

-air passing through fluid Page 604, Patient Assessment

His parents tell you that their son has had a chest infection for the past two days and when they took him to their family doctor, they were told it was likely due to the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). They have kept him well hydrated, but the infection seems to have gotten worse. On auscultation, you hear decreased air entry bilaterally with fine expiratory wheezes and the occasional coarse wet crackle. Based on this information, your patient is most likely suffering from:

-bronchiolitis Page 591-592, Causes of Dyspnea

In order for efficient pulmonary gas exchange to occur:
-the percentage of inhaled carbon dioxide must exceed the percentage of inhaled oxygen.
-the pulmonary capillaries must be completely constricted and the alveoli must be collapsed.
-there must be low quantities of pulmonary surfactant to allow for full alveolar expansion.
-oxygen and carbon dioxide must be able to freely diffuse across the alveolar-capillary membrane.

-oxygen and carbon dioxide must be able to freely diffuse across the alveolar-capillary membrane. Page 586, Physiology of Respiration

In what area of the lungs does respiration occur?

-Alveoli Page 585, Anatomy of the Respiratory System

Treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) would MOST likely be contraindicated in which of the following situations?
-Shortness of breath and a blood pressure of 76/56 mm Hg.
-Pulmonary edema, history of hypertension, and anxiety.
-Difficulty breathing, two-word dyspnea, and tachycardia.
-Conscious and alert patient with an oxygen saturation of 85%.

-Shortness of breath and a blood pressure of 76/56 mm Hg. Page 615, Treatment of Specific Conditions

When auscultating the lungs of a patient with respiratory distress, you hear adventitious sounds. This means that the patient has:
-abnormal breath sounds
-normal breath sounds
-diminished breath sounds
-an absence of breath sounds

-abnormal breath sounds Page 604, Patient Assessment

Which of the following conditions would be LEAST likely to result in hypoxia?
-Severe anxiety
-Pulmonary edema
-Pleural effusion
-Narcotic overdose

-Severe anxiety Page 589-590, Causes of Dyspnea

Which of the following is a genetic disorder that predisposes the patient to repeated lung infections?
-Severe acute respiratory syndrome
-Cystic fibrosis
-Celiac sprue
-Multiple sclerosis

-Cystic fibrosis Page 618, Treatment of Specific Conditions

Which of the following is MOST characteristic of adequate breathing?
-20 breaths/min with shallow movement of the chest wall and pallor
-24 breaths/min with bilaterally equal breath sounds and pink skin
-22 breaths/min with an irregular pattern of breathing and cyanosis
-30 breaths.min with supraclavicular retractions and clammy skin

-24 breaths/min with bilaterally equal breath sounds and pink skin Page 587, Pathophysiology

Which of the following must be assessed in every respiratory patient?
-Blood glucose levels
-Lung sounds
-Orthostatic vital signs
-Distal pulse, motor, sensation

-Lung sounds Page 604, Patient Assessment

While ascultating an elderly woman’s breath sounds, you hear low-pitched "rattling" sounds at the bases of both of her lungs. This finding is MOST consistent with which of the following conditions?
-Aspiration pneumonia
-Early pulmonary edema
-Acute asthma attack
-Widespread atelectasis

-Aspiration pneumonia Page 618, Patient Assessment

You are assessing an asthma patient with his prescribed metered-dose inhaler. After the patient takes a deep breath and depresses the inhaler, you should:
-instruct him to hold his breath for as long as he comfortably can
-allow him to breathe room air and assess his oxygen saturation
-advise him to exhale forcefully to ensure medication absorption

-instruct him to hold his breath for as long as he comfortably can Page 612, Emergency Medical Care

You are attending to a 3-year-old male patient who is presenting with severe shortness of breath. His parents report that he has had a cough and cold with a low grade fever for the past two days. They became worried today, as his level of distress has increased dramatically. On assessment, the patient is sitting upright and making high-pitched noises with each breath. Based on this information, the patient is most likely suffering from:
-inflammation of the lower respiratory tract and bronchospasm.
-inflammation of the bronchioles.
-viral infection of the upper respiratory tract.
-bacterial infection of the epiglottis.

-viral infection of the upper respiratory tract. Page 590-591, Causes of Dyspnea

You are attending to a 54-year-old female patient in a homelss shelter. The patient tells you that she had the flu a couple of weeks ago, and she has not gotten over it. She has been tired and keeps waking up at night, sweating. She has been coughing up green sputum occasionally and has been experiencing episodes of chest pain that get worse when she breathes. Based on this information, your patient is most likely suffering from:
-influenza Type A
-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

-tuberculosis Page 593, Causes of Dyspnea

Your patient has a chronic respiratory condition. His stimulus to breathe is triggered by low oxygen levels in the blood. This is known as the ______.
-alternate drive
-hypoxic drive
-CO2 drive
-COPD drive

-hypoxic drive Page 589, Pathophysiology

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