Chapter 15 (PSYCH Exam 3)

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Historically, why has little attention been paid to childhood psychopathy?

Childhood disorders were viewed as childhood versions of adult disorders

Suppose you were the director of a mental health center that provided treatment for children. Based on research, you would expect that

more boys would be diagnosed with maladjustment disorders than girls

Among children, the most commonly diagnosed disorders are

attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and separation anxiety disorders

What complicates the diagnosis of maladaptive behavior in childhood?

Behavior that is problematic for a child of one age is normal behavior for a child of a different age.

A crucial aspect of developmental psychopathology is understanding individual maladaptaion

in the context of normal developmental changes.

Which of the following protects children from environmental influences, but also makes them more vulnerable?

Dependence on adults

A young child who tries to kill him/herself

may have unrealistic beliefs about death and not really understand what it means to die

What was the greatest problem that emerged as a classification system for childhood disorders was being developed?

The same classification system that had been developed for adults was used for children.

Children with ADHD that have symptoms of hyperactivity

are usually viewed negatively by their peers because of their behaviors.

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

is the most frequent psychological referral to mental health facilities.

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is characterized by

difficulties that interfere with effective task-oriented behavior.

Georder is in second grade and is having trouble. He frequently is out of his seat, looking at the other work of other students and annoying them by making comments. He interrupts the teacher, blurts out answers before she finishes the question, and usually needs directions repeated multiple times. At home, his mother says he is always "on the go". The most likely diagnosis for George is

attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

Which of the following is not a symptom of ADHD?
A. anxiety
B. restlessness
C. distractibility
D. overactivity

A. Anxiety

Currently, the cause of ADHD is believed to be

both biological and psychological factors

Treatment of ADHD with drugs such as Ritalin is thought to be effective as it

increases the ability to concentrate

What is the advantage of using Pemoline to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder instead of Ritalin?

Pemoline has fewer side effects

The evidence suggests that medication for ADHD

work well for the short-term but show little long-term effects

In studies looking at the effectiveness of treatment for ADHD, what was found?

While good results are achieved when medication is combined with therapy, behavioral methods have been quite successful short-term.

As children with ADHD become adolescents and adults,

many continue to experience symptoms

What two childhood disorders are characterized by aggressive or antisocial behavior?

Oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder

the term ”juvenile delinquent” is

defined by the legal system

Brad has been diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). The disorder began around age 12 and is characterized by disobedient and hostile behavior toward authority figures. What aspect of this case is unusual?

it is unusual for the onset of ODD to occur at age 12

In order of diagnosis, ____ occurs before antisocial personality just as ____ occurs before conduct disorder.

conduct disorder, ODD

What is the relationship between oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder?

Children who develop conduct disorder often have oppositional defiant disorder first.

Which behavior pattern is extremely unlikely to be found in a child with conduct disorder?

Constant worry about minor issues

Girls with conduct disorder

are at risk for teen pregnancy.

What is the self-perpetuating cycle in conduct disorder?

A genetic predisposition leads to a low IQ and difficult temperament, which leads to poor parenting and an insecure attachment, which leads to conduct disorder.

Which of the following is a risk factor for ODD and conduct disorder?

Parental psychopathology

The development of conduct disorder in adolescence

is not associated with lasting behavioral problems as much as early-onset conduct disorder

Which of the following statements about early-onset conduct disorder is true?

The majority will continue to have, at minimum, social dysfunction as adults.

Artiss developed conduct disorder early. Bertram developed conduct disorder late. This suggests that

Artiss will have a higher likelihood of adult antisocial personality disorder

Research on the families of children with conduct disorder suggests that

antisocial behavioral patterns may be learned.

The parenting in families of children with conduct disorders typically involves

rejection and neglect.

Divorce, hostility, and lack of monitoring are family characteristics most closely associated with

conduct disorder

. Punitive approaches to antisocial youth are

likely to make problems worse.

The cohesive family model is a treatment strategy for the child with conduct disorder that

proposes that dysfunctional interactions have served to maintain the child’s problematic behavior.

Effective treatments for conduct disorder usually involve

parental participation.

Separation anxiety disorder is best illustrated by which of the following people?

Isabella, who worries that her father will die if she is not near him.

The most common childhood anxiety disorder is ________.

separation anxiety disorder

Which statement about separation anxiety disorder is accurate?

The child with separation anxiety is likely to be immature and lack self-confidence

Children with separation anxiety disorder

fear separation from major attachment figures and worry they will die once separation occurs.

Childhood anxiety disorders are associated with which of the following factors?

Refusing to go to school.

Evidence that culture plays a role in the development of childhood anxiety disorders comes from the fact that

children from cultures that favor inhibition and compliance report more fears

Anxiety disorders of childhood

typically do not lead to problems later in life.

What type of behavioral therapy is most likely to be used in the treatment of child with an anxiety disorder?

Behavior therapy that includes assertiveness training and desensitization using graded real-life situations.

Childhood and adult depression differ in what way?

Irritability is often seen as a major symptom in childhood depression

Research on the effects of parental depression

suggests that parental psychopathology leads to changes in parenting behavior that has lasting effects on children.

It is believed that depressed mothers negatively affect their infants because they

respond less sensitively to their children and show more irritable behavior.

Childhood depression is likely to persist because

an attributional style is adopted that maintains a negative mood state.

Juliet is a depressed child. When she wins a prize at school for her art project, how is she likely to explain it?

I got lucky.

Research on the effectiveness of antidepressants for the treatment of childhood depression

has been inconclusive.

Studies of the effectiveness of antidepressant medication with children have

produced inconsistent results.

Suicidal behavior in children and adolescents

may be increased by taking SSRIs.

After her parents’ divorce, Julia began wetting the bed. She wets the bed almost nightly and is embarrassed about it in the morning. What disorder would this 7-year-old be diagnosed with?

Secondary functional enuresis

Throughout his young life, Quincy, age 7, rarely wakes up in the morning to a dry bed. Quincy would be diagnosed as having

primary functional enuresis.

Functional enuresis

is seen in boys more commonly than girls.

Drugs used to treat enuresis are thought to

decrease the deepest stage of sleep.

What has been found to be the most effective approach to the treatment of enuresis?

Conditioning procedures

As a camp counselor, you are surprised when you hear that one of your young campers takes a hormone replacement drug intranasally to treat a psychological disorder. The disorder is most likely


Compared to enuresis, encopresis is

diagnosed at an earlier age.

Which child below best illustrates the typical child with functional encopresis?

A 7-year-old boy who soils himself when under stress.

It is important to do a thorough physical examination, to rule out medical problems, before diagnosing encopresis because these children often

suffer from constipation.

Which of the following is not listed in the DSM-5 under elimination disorders?

Sleepwalking disorder

Which of the following is TRUE concerning sleepwalking disorder?

Takes place during non-REM sleep.


are usually not noticed by the individual performing the act

Cross-cultural studies of tics find that

the average age of tic onset appears to be universal.


is a vocal tic involving yelling obscenities

Which of the following is a symptom of Tourette’s syndrome?


Orlando, 14, frequently twists his head uncontrollably and yelps or grunts. If he has not done this for several hours, he has a sensation that can only be relieved by engaging in these movements and sounds. Orlando has had this problem since he was 8. The most likely diagnosis is

Tourette’s syndrome.

Moat tics

are usually associated with severe behavioral problems

The most effective medical treatment for Tourette’s syndrome is

neuroleptics such as haloperidol.

________ are a group of severely disabling conditions in children that are considered to be the result of structural differences in the brain and usually apparent at birth or as the child begins to develop

Neurodevelopmental disorders

Autism is

a severe and puzzling disorder.

The hallmark symptom of autism is

lack of interest in other people.

Autism is similar to schizophrenia in its

cause being due in part to genetic vulnerability.

We are likely to find that many of the children with autistic disorder

were identified as having the disorder before they were 3 years old.

William is an autistic child. He is probably

relatively withdrawn and uncommunicative.

Children with ________ are believed to be "mind blind," that is, they cannot take the attitude of or "see" things as others do. They are also deficient at locating and orienting to sounds in their environment.

Autistic disorder

Which of the following is a possible explanation for the seeming lack of emotion in autistic children?

They lack social understanding.

Children with autism often have additional problems such as

encopresis and sleep problems

In autistic children, head banging, spinning in circles, and rocking are behaviors that

are common forms of self-stimulation

Despite what is shown in movies like Rain Man, most autistic children would not cope well being brought to a Las Vegas casino for the first time, because

they often show aversion to auditory stimulation and prefer a limited and solitary routine.

Which of the following would be most distressing to a child with autism?

Altering a familiar environment


is one of the most strongly genetic disorders in the DSM-5.

has been suggested that the symptoms seen in autism might reflect a problem with the function of the

glutamate neurotransmitter system.

Which of the following has been associated with autism?

Defective genes or radiation damage

Drug treatment for autistic disorder has been found to be

of some value in reducing aggressive behaviors.

The extremely intensive experimental behavior program designed by Ivar Lovaas for children with autism

helped almost half of the children in the treatment program achieve normal intellectual functioning.

Despite studies such as by Ivar Lovaas, the overall prognosis for children with autism is


Jenny has an IQ in the average range. However, at school she is doing very poorly. She has consistently scored at two or more grade levels below the grade she is actually in. From this, a diagnostician would hypothesize that Jenny

most likely has a learning disability

By definition, learning disorders

are not due to a physical defect

The most widely known and studied learning disorder is


A learning disability usually is identified

because a child shows a disparity between his or her actual academic achievement and expected academic achievement.

An asymmetry in brain development has been hypothesized to be a cause of

learning disabilities.

When symptoms of intellectual disability are not apparent until after age 17,

the diagnosis would be dementia, not intellectual disability

The intellectual level of adults with mild intellectual disability are most comparable to:

an average 11-year-old.

Ron works as a custodian’s helper at a school, under supervision of the custodian. Ron can read and write his name, and can read first-grade books. He moves slowly and sometimes with difficulty. Ron most likely has

moderate intellectual disability.

Genetic factors

are clearly involved in the more severe forms of retardation.

Individuals with Down syndrome typically show which of the following characteristics?

They have large tongues and short fingers.

The long held belief that children with Down syndrome are especially placid and loving

has been shown to be invalid by research

The incidence of Down syndrome increases

as the age of the parents increases

Children born with phenylketonuria,

appear normal at first

Phenylketonuria can be used to illustrate

how nature and nurture interact.

Urine testing allows for the early detection of ________ and its treatment, which consists of ________.

phenylketonuria; a low-phenylalanine diet

Microcephaly and macrocephaly have what in common?

They involve alterations in head size and shape

Shortly after birth, Darren’s head began to grow. At age 5, a shunt was placed in his skull to drain fluid. He has seizures, trouble seeing, and is mildly mentally retarded. Darren’s most likely diagnosis is


The current trend for treatment of the intellectually disabled is

to keep even the most severely disabled in the community rather than institutions.

One of the most important factors in the treatment of children and adolescents is

. parental willingness to be involved in treatment

Which of the following statements about factors associated with treatment of children and adolescents is correct?

Psychotherapy and behavior therapy are equally effective in children and adolescents and with adults.

Which of the following is a legal term used to describe individuals between the ages of 8 and 18 who commit illegal acts?

Juvenile Delinquency

_______________ are the most common types of medications used in the treatment of ADHD.


__________________ is the most common of the childhood anxiety disorders.

Separation anxiety disorder

The diagnoses of Depression and Bipolar Disorder in children and adolescents have __________ in number of the past few years, although diagnosing them has become controversial.


The parrot-like repetition of speech seen in some children with autism is also called __________ .


Many children with ______ become preoccupied with and form strong attachments to unusual objects such as rocks.


The most common chromosomal abnormality seen in Down syndrome is the
__________ of chromosome 21.


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