Chapter 15 Practice Questions

The sensory neurons within the olfactory organ are stimulated by ________ in the air.
A) pressure
B) chemicals
C) proteins
D) water
E) dust

chemicals

Olfactory glands
A) house the sense of smell.
B) support the olfactory epithelium.
C) react to aromatic molecules.
D) coat the olfactory epithelium with a pigmented mucus.
E) group as olfactory bulbs.
Answer: D

coat the olfactory epithelium with a pigmented mucus.

Before an olfactory receptor can detect an odorant, it has to
A) contact a specialized olfactory cell.
B) bind to receptors in olfactory dendrites.
C) gate open ion channels.
D) respond to applied pressure.
E) be transported to the olfactory bulbs.

bind to receptors in olfactory dendrites.

All of the following are true of olfactory pathways except
A) they project first to the mammillary bodies and then to the thalamus.
B) the first synapse is in the olfactory bulb.
C) information flows to the olfactory cortex, hypothalamus, and limbic system.
D) they reach the forebrain without first synapsing in the thalamus.
E) they exhibit a considerable amount of convergence.

they project first to the mammillary bodies and then to the thalamus.

Some neural tissues retain stem cells and thus the capacity to divide and replace lost neurons. Which of these special senses can replace its damaged neural receptors?

olfaction

Olfactory receptors send axons through the cribriform plate. They synapse on neurons in the
A) medulla oblongata.
B) medial geniculate.
C) cerebral cortex.
D) olfactory bulb.
E) olfactory tract.

olfactory bulb.

Which of the following is not a component of the lamina propria of the olfactory organ?
A) areolar tissue
B) blood vessels
C) nerves
D) olfactory glands
E) olfactory epithelium

olfactory epithelium

Axons leaving the olfactory epithelium collect into ________ or more bundles that penetrate the cribriform plate of the ethmoid.

20

Olfactory information is first received by which part of the brain?

cerebrum

How would a molecule that mimics cAMP not affect an olfactory receptor?
A) It would increase sodium permeability.
B) It would open chemically gated sodium channels.
C) It would depolarize the olfactory receptor.
D) It could trigger an afferent action potential.
E) It would decrease sodium permeability.

It would decrease sodium permeability.

Olfactory organs are located in the nasal cavity inferior to the perforated bony structure known as the
A) superior nasal concha.
B) sphenoid bone.
C) cribriform plate.
D) nasal septum.
E) frontal bone.

cribriform plate.

The olfactory organ consists of the ________ and the lamina propria.
A) olfactory bulb
B) olfactory nerve
C) olfactory epithelium
D) cribriform plate
E) olfactory tract

olfactory epithelium

The olfactory receptor cell can be activated by as few as ________ odorant molecules.
A) 1
B) 2
C) 3
D) 4
E) 5

4

The olfactory receptors are highly modified
A) neurons.
B) epithelial cells.
C) goblet or mucous cells.
D) olfactory glands.
E) areolar connective tissue cells.

neurons

Gustatory receptors are found in the taste buds of all the following papillae except
A) vallate.
B) foliate.
C) fungiform.
D) filiform.

filiform.

Each gustatory cell extends ________ (or taste hairs) into the surrounding fluids through a narrow taste pore.
A) papillae
B) flagella
C) cilia
D) microvilli

microvilli

A typical gustatory cell survives for only about ________ days before it is replaced.
A) 1
B) 3
C) 5
D) 10
E) 20

10

The sense of taste is also known as
A) gustation.
B) olfaction.
C) equilibrium.
D) proprioception.
E) interoception.

gustation.

Gustatory receptors are not located
A) on the inferior surface of the tongue.
B) in the epiglottis.
C) on the superior surface of the tongue.
D) in the larynx.
E) in the pharynx.

on the inferior surface of the tongue.

An adult has approximately ________ taste buds, each of which contains ________ different receptor cells.
A) 50; 10,000
B) 5,000; 40-100
C) 500,000; 4
D) 500; 40-100
E) 50,000; 10,000

5,000; 40-100

All of the following compose the epithelial projections found on the tongue except
A) fungiform papillae.
B) circumvallate papillae.
C) filiform papillae.
D) gustatory papillae.
E) None of the answers is correct.

gustatory papillae.

Which of the following is not one of the six primary taste sensations?
A) sweet
B) peppery
C) sour
D) salty
E) umami

peppery

The taste sensation that is triggered by the amino acids and small peptides is known as
A) sweet.
B) umami.
C) salty.
D) peppery.
E) sour.

umami.

The largest numbers of taste buds in adults are associated with the
A) pharynx.
B) larynx.
C) filiform papillae.
D) fungiform papillae.
E) circumvallate papillae.

circumvallate papillae.

The function of gustatory receptors parallels that of
A) light receptors in the eye.
B) mechanoreceptors in the ear.
C) olfactory receptors.
D) lamellar corpuscles.
E) Meissner corpuscles.

olfactory receptors.

Taste receptors are distributed in which of the following places?
A) surface of the epiglottis
B) surface of the tongue
C) portions of the pharynx
D) All of the answers are correct.
E) None of the answers is correct.

All of the answers are correct.

Taste buds are monitored by cranial nerves
A) IX, X, and XI.
B) VII, VIII, and IX.
C) VII, IX, and X.
D) V, VII, and IX.
E) IX, XI, and XII.

VII, IX, and X.

A patient who experienced head trauma has lost the ability to taste spicy food. You should expect damage to cranial nerve

V.

Stimulation of nociceptive receptors within the trigeminal nerve might produce a perception of
A) intensely sweet.
B) intensely sour.
C) quite salty.
D) peppery hot.
E) decidedly bitter.

peppery hot.

The membrane proteins that respond to chemical stimuli to produce sweet, bitter, and umami sensations are called
A) photoreceptors.
B) proprioceptors.
C) nociceptors.
D) transducins.
E) gustducins.

gustducins.

All of the following are true of the lacrimal glands except that they
A) produce a strongly hypertonic fluid.
B) produce most of the volume of tears.
C) produce lysozyme.
D) produce watery, slightly alkaline secretions.
E) are located in recesses in the frontal bones.

produce a strongly hypertonic fluid.

The palpebrae do not
A) remove dust and debris.
B) contain tarsal glands.
C) cover and protect the eye.
D) keep the eye lubricated.
E) produce tears.

produce tears

The palpebrae are connected at the
A) eyelids.
B) lateral and medial angles of the eye.
C) lacrimal caruncle.
D) medial canthus only.
E) conjunctiva.

lateral and medial angles of the eye.

A structure that is located at the medial angle of the eye and contains glands that contribute to a gritty deposit is the
A) palpebra.
B) lacrimal caruncle.
C) lacrimal gland.
D) Meibomian gland.
E) conjunctiva.

lacrimal caruncle.

Which of the following produces a lipid-rich secretion that prevents the upper and lower eyelids from sticking together at their edges?
A) palpebra
B) lacrimal caruncle
C) chalazion
D) tarsal gland
E) conjunctiva

tarsal gland

The ________ covers most of the exposed surface of the eye.
A) conjunctiva
B) cornea
C) iris
D) anterior chamber
E) canthus

conjunctiva

All of the following is a function of tears except
A) lubricates the eye.
B) washes away debris.
C) provides oxygen.
D) nourishes the cornea and conjunctiva.
E) maintains acidic environment.

maintains acidic environment.

The opening in the iris through which light passes is the
A) conjunctiva.
B) cornea.
C) pupil.
D) anterior chamber.
E) posterior chamber.

pupil

________ glands are modified sebaceous glands located along the margin of the eyelid that secrete a lipid-rich product.
A) Tarsal
B) Lacrimal
C) Mucous
D) Palpebral
E) Conjunctival

Tarsal

The gap that separates the free margins of the upper and lower eyelids is the
A) cornea.
B) palpebral fissure.
C) conjunctiva.
D) lacrimal punctum.
E) medial angle of the eye.

palpebral fissure.

________, or pinkeye, results from damage to or irritation of the conjunctival surface.
A) Cataract
B) Conjunctivitis
C) Myopia
D) Hyperopia
E) Emmetropia

Conjunctivitis

The cornea is part of the
A) fibrous layer.
B) iris.
C) neural layer.
D) uvea.
E) fibrous layer and the neural layer.

fibrous layer.

All of the following are true of the fibrous layer of the eye except that it
A) consists of the sclera, limbus, and cornea.
B) provides mechanical support and some protection for the eye.
C) produces aqueous humor.
D) contributes substantial focusing power.
E) is where extrinsic eye muscles insert.

produces aqueous humor.

Which of the following is not true of the vascular layer of the eye?
A) provides a route for blood vessels and lymphatics that supply tissues of the eye
B) regulates the amount of light entering the eye
C) secretes and reabsorbs the aqueous humor
D) controls the shape of the lens
E) contains photoreceptors

contains photoreceptors

The vitreous body
A) fills the anterior cavity.
B) helps to stabilize the eye and give physical support to the retina.
C) is removed and recycled every few hours.
D) All of the answers are correct.
E) None of the answers is correct.

helps to stabilize the eye and give physical support to the retina.

The transparent portion of the fibrous layer is the
A) conjunctiva.
B) cornea.
C) iris.
D) pupil.
E) canthus.

cornea.

The part of the eye that determines eye color is the
A) lens
B) cornea.
C) iris.
D) pupil.
E) retina

iris.

The space between the cornea and the iris is the
A) anterior chamber.
B) posterior chamber.
C) canal of Schlemm.
D) aqueous humor.
E) pupil.

anterior chamber

The space between the iris and ciliary body and the lens is the
A) anterior chamber.
B) posterior chamber.
C) pupil.
D) canal of Schlemm.
E) vitreous body.

posterior chamber.

Which of the following descriptions best matches the term aqueous humor?
A) gelatinous fluid that fills posterior chamber
B) secreted in bright light
C) constantly produced and recycled
D) produced by lacrimal glands
E) surround the retina

constantly produced and recycled

The gelatinous material found in the posterior cavity is the
A) vitreous humor.
B) aqueous humor.
C) ora serrata.
D) perilymph.
E) tears.

vitreous humor.

An area of the retina that contains only cones and is the site of sharpest vision is the
A) outer segment.
B) inner segment.
C) fovea centralis.
D) optic disc.
E) tapetum lucidum.

fovea centralis.

Identify the structure labeled "7."

cornea

Identify the space labeled "1."
A) posterior cavity
B) posterior chamber
C) pupil
D) anterior chamber
E) iris

anterior chamber

Identify the structure labeled "9."
A) ciliary zonule
B) optic disc
C) sclera
D) fovea
E) pupil

ciliary zonule

Identify the structure labeled "12."
A) pupil
B) optic disc
C) sclera
D) fovea
E) retina

retina

Identify the structure labeled "14."
A) pupil
B) optic disc
C) sclera
D) fovea centralis
E) suspensory ligaments

fovea centralis

Pupillary muscle groups are controlled by the ANS. Parasympathetic activation causes pupillary ________, and sympathetic activation causes ________.
A) dilation; constriction
B) dilation; dilation
C) constriction; dilation
D) constriction; constriction
E) vasoconstriction; vasoconstriction

constriction; dilation

What structure changes the shape of the lens for far and near vision?
A) aqueous humor
B) ciliary body
C) iris
D) extrinsic eye muscles
E) none, because the lens is rigid

ciliary body

A sudden rise of room brightness would cause
A) contraction of the pupillary constrictor muscles.
B) contraction of the pupillary dilator muscles.
C) conversion of 11-trans to 11-cis retinal.
D) an increase in the size of the pupil.
E) All of the answers are correct.

contraction of the pupillary constrictor muscles.

A ray of light entering the eye will encounter these structures in which order?
A) cornea - aqueous humor - lens - vitreous body - retina - choroid
B) vitreous body - retina - choroids - aqueous humor - lens - cornea
C) cornea - aqueous humor - vitreous body - lens - choroids - retina
D) cornea - lens - aqueous humor - vitreous body - retina - choroid

cornea - aqueous humor - lens - vitreous body - retina - choroid

The ciliary muscle contracts to
A) control the amount of light reaching the retina.
B) adjust the shape of the lens for distant vision.
C) adjust the shape of the lens for close vision.
D) control the production of aqueous humor.
E) adjust the shape of the cornea and vitreous.

adjust the shape of the lens for close vision.

The human lens focuses light on the photoreceptor cells by
A) moving up and down.
B) moving in and out.
C) changing shape.
D) opening and closing.
E) dilating and constricting.

When light encounters a medium of different density, it is bent or A) reflected. B) refracted. C) absorbed. D) transduced. E) propagated.

When light encounters a medium of different density, it is bent or
A) reflected.
B) refracted.
C) absorbed.
D) transduced.
E) propagated.

refracted.

In the human eye, most refraction occurs when light passes through the
A) iris.
B) cornea.
C) lens.
D) aqueous humor.
E) vitreous humor.

cornea.

Why do things look blurry underwater without dive goggles or a mask?
A) The water magnifies the image because it is denser than the lens of the eye.
B) Light moves more slowly through the water, causing images to appear larger and closer.
C) Rather than air, light is moving from water into the cornea and is thus refracted too little for a sharp focus.
D) The cornea does not function in water, causing the image to appear larger and closer.
E) Light waves are scattered by the water before reaching the eye, causing the image to appear blurry and unclear.

Rather than air, light is moving from water into the cornea and is thus refracted too little for a sharp focus.

In which of the following cases would the focal distance be greater?
A) an object 10 inches away from your nose
B) an object 20 feet away
C) It doesn't matter, focal distance doesn't change with how far away an object is.

an object 10 inches away from your nose

In which of the following cases would the focal distance be greater?
A) a round lens
B) a flat lens
C) It doesn't matter, focus distance doesn't change with the shape of the lens.

a flat lens

The neural layer contains all of the following except
A) ganglion cells.
B) photoreceptor cones.
C) supporting cells.
D) photoreceptor rods.
E) blood vessels.

blood vessels.

________ cells connect photoreceptors to ganglion cells.
A) Rod
B) Cone
C) Bipolar
D) Amacrine
E) Horizontal

Bipolar

________ are photoreceptor cells that are most useful in dim light.
A) Rods
B) Cones

Rods

________ are photoreceptors that convey our ability to see color.
A) Rods
B) Cones

Cones

An elongate outer layer containing membranous discs and a narrow connecting stalk that attaches the outer segment to the middle layer describes a(n)
A) bipolar cell.
B) photoreceptor.
C) ganglion cell.
D) amacrine cell.
E) horizontal cell.

photoreceptor

The visible spectrum for humans extends between a wavelength of 400 nm and ________ nm.
A) 100
B) 500
C) 600
D) 700
E) 900

700

There are three different types of cones, each one sensitive to different light energies. These cones are designated
A) red, yellow, and blue.
B) red, green, and blue.
C) red, green, and yellow.
D) red, white, and blue.

red, green, and blue.

A ________ is a basic unit or packet of light energy.
A) wavelength
B) color
C) photon
D) rhodopsin
E) vibration

photon

The visual receptors of the retina are called
A) photoreceptors.
B) ganglion cells.
C) bipolar cells.
D) amacrine cells.
E) horizontal cells.

photoreceptors.

Considering the wavelengths of light received and abundance of various photoreceptors, which color is best received by the retina?
A) purple
B) yellow
C) bright red
D) blue
E) green

yellow

When all three cone populations are stimulated equally, we perceive
A) red.
B) blue.
C) green.
D) white.
E) blackness.

white

Visual pigments are derivatives of the compound
A) retinal.
B) opsin.
C) rhodopsin.
D) transducin.
E) cGMP.

rhodopsin

A pigment synthesized from vitamin A is
A) retinal.
B) opsin.
C) rhodopsin.
D) transducin.
E) cGMP.

retinal

The first step in the process of photoreception is
A) the bleaching of rods.
B) the bleaching of cones.
C) absorption of a photon by a visual pigment.
D) inhibition of the sodium pumps.
E) release of neurotransmitter.

absorption of a photon by a visual pigment.

Which of the following is not true about rhodopsin?
A) called visual purple
B) bleached during photoreception
C) is the visual pigment in rods
D) consists of opsin + retinal
E) activates transducin

activates transducin

All of the following occur when a rod is stimulated by light, except
A) ganglion cells pick up changes in activity in the bipolar cells.
B) the retinal changes to a more linear shape.
C) neurotransmitter release changes.
D) Na+ permeability changes.
E) ATP is hydrolyzed.

ATP is hydrolyzed.

All of the following are true regarding the retina except
A) Ganglion cells send axons to the brain as cranial nerve II.
B) Axons carrying its output synapse in the lateral geniculate bodies in the thalamus.
C) It has photoreceptors that do not respond to dim light.
D) It has photoreceptors that do not respond to red light.
E) All of the information from the retina goes directly to the occipital cortex.

All of the information from the retina goes directly to the occipital cortex.

Which of the following statements concerning vision is false?
A) Approximately half of the fibers in each optic nerve cross to opposite sides of the brain at the optic chiasm.
B) Fibers of the optic nerve synapse at the lateral geniculates of the thalamus.
C) The image that is formed on the retina is inverted.
D) The entire retina receives equal representation in the visual cortex.
E) The visual cortex of the brain receives the entire field of vision.

The entire retina receives equal representation in the visual cortex.

In the retina, the correct sequence of neural wiring is
A) rod - bipolar cell - ganglion cell - thalamus.
B) cone - bipolar cell - pigmented cell - inferior colliculus.
C) cone - bipolar cell - horizontal cell - pigmented cell.
D) rod - bipolar cell - pigmented cell - thalamus.
E) rod - bipolar cell - amacrine cell - pigmented cell.

rod - bipolar cell - ganglion cell - thalamus.

A person suffering from ________ can see objects that are close, but distant objects appear blurred.
A) myopia
B) hyperopia
C) cataracts
D) color blindness
E) vertigo

myopia

A person suffering from ________ can see distant objects more clearly than those that are close.
A) myopia
B) hyperopia
C) cataracts
D) color blindness
E) vertigo

hyperopia

All of the following descriptions applies/apply to the term myopia except
A) nearsightedness.
B) corrected with diverging lens.
C) image focused in front of retina.
D) the eyeball is elongated.
E) the eyeball is too shallow.

the eyeball is too shallow.

The senses of equilibrium and hearing are provided by receptors of the
A) membranous endolymph.
B) organ of Schlemm.
C) internal ear.
D) bony labyrinth.
E) perilymph.

internal ear.

When an external force bends the stereocilia of the inner ear hair cells,
A) the force is converted into mechanical energy.
B) the hair cells are temporarily damaged.
C) there is a change in the transmembrane potential of the hair cells.
D) dizziness results.
E) the cells become unresponsive.

there is a change in the transmembrane potential

The external ear ends at the
A) vestibule.
B) cochlea.
C) ossicles.
D) tympanic membrane.
E) pinna.

tympanic membrane.

The auditory ossicles connect the
A) tympanic membrane to the oval window.
B) tympanic membrane to the round window.
C) oval window to the round window.
D) stapedius to the tympanic membrane.
E) otitis to the media.

tympanic membrane to the oval window.

The middle ear communicates with the nasopharynx through the
A) auricle.
B) membranous labyrinth.
C) bony labyrinth.
D) pharyngotympanic tube
E) auditory meatus.

pharyngotympanic tube

Which of the following descriptions best matches the term stapes?
A) moves up and down when the stapedius muscle contracts
B) auditory ossicle attached to tympanic membrane
C) bending it produces receptor potential in hair cells
D) necessary for the static sense of equilibrium
E) seals the oval window

seals the oval window

The ________ ear collects sounds waves and transmits them to the ________ ear, which contains auditory ossicles.
A) inner; middle
B) outer; middle
C) outer; inner
D) middle; inner
E) None of the answers is correct.

outer; middle

The external acoustic meatus includes all of the following except the
A) tympanic membrane.
B) eardrum.
C) tympanon.
D) ceruminous glands.
E) auditory tube.

auditory tube.

Which of the following anatomical sequences is correct?
A) tympanum - incus - malleus - stapes - oval window - round window
B) tympanum - incus - malleus - stapes - round window - oval window
C) tympanum - malleus - incus - stapes - oval window - round window
D) tympanum - incus - stapes - malleus - oval window - round window
E) tympanum - malleus - incus - stapes - round window - oval window

tympanum - malleus - incus - stapes - oval window - round window

Which of the following descriptions best matches the term ossicles?
A) move up and down when the stapes moves back and forth
B) transmit movement of the tympanic membrane to the inner ear
C) bending these produces receptor potential in hair cells
D) tiny weights necessary for the static sense of equilibrium
E) seal the oval window

transmit movement of the tympanic membrane to the inner ear

Identify the structures labeled "8."
A) cochlea
B) auditory ossicles
C) auricle
D) tympanic membrane
E) vestibule

auditory ossicles

Which structure contains the receptors for hearing?
A) 6
B) 8
C) 9
D) 10
E) 11

11

Identify the structure that is covered up by the stapes.
A) 4
B) 5
C) 6
D) 8
E) 9

4

Identify the structure labeled "3."
A) cochlea
B) semicircular canals
C) auricle
D) tympanic membrane
E) vestibule

tympanic membrane

Sound waves are converted into mechanical movements by the
A) auditory ossicles.
B) cochlea.
C) oval window.
D) round window.
E) tympanic membrane.

tympanic membrane

The vibrations received by the tympanic membrane are transferred to the oval window by the
A) auditory ossicles.
B) cochlea.
C) oval window.
D) tensor tympani.
E) stapedius muscle.

auditory ossicles.

Sound travels directly to the eardrum through the
A) pinna.
B) external auditory canal.
C) cochlea.
D) vestibule.
E) ear ossicles.

external auditory canal.

________ glands produce a secretion commonly called earwax.
A) Sudoriferous
B) Ceruminous
C) Mammary
D) Sweat
E) Apocrine sweat

Ceruminous

Which structure is known as the vestibule?
A) 6
B) 8
C) 9
D) 10
E) 11

6

The ________ is a region of dense bone that surrounds and protects the membranous labyrinth.
A) bony callus
B) bony labyrinth
C) membranous callus
D) vestibule
E) auditory ossicle

bony labyrinth

The formal term for the sense of gravity, rotation, and linear acceleration is the sense of
A) proprioception.
B) hearing.
C) nociception.
D) equilibrium.
E) vision.

equilibrium.

________ fills the membranous labyrinth.
A) Interstitial fluid
B) Perilymph
C) Endolymph
D) CSF
E) Plasma

Endolymph

Gravity and linear acceleration are sensed in the
A) semicircular canals.
B) cochlea.
C) statoconia.
D) saccule and utricle.
E) organ of Corti.

saccule and utricle.

The sensory receptors of the semicircular canals are located in the
A) saccules.
B) ampullae.
C) perilymph.
D) utricles.
E) cupulae.

ampullae.

Movement of the endolymph in the semicircular canals
A) produces a rushing sound.
B) allows us to hear low tones.
C) signals rotational movements.
D) signals body position with respect to gravity.
E) signals linear acceleration.

signals rotational movements

The hair cells of the utricle and saccule are clustered in
A) ampullae.
B) cristae.
C) cupulae.
D) maculae.
E) otoconia.

maculae.

Perception of gravity and linear acceleration depends on
A) changes in the pressure exerted by the cupula on hair cells.
B) vibrations of the tectorial membrane striking hair cells.
C) the force exerted by otoliths on hair cells of the maculae in the utricle or saccule.
D) the movement of endolymph within the semicircular canals.
E) All of the answers are correct.

the force exerted by otoliths on hair cells of the maculae in the utricle or saccule.

Which of the following descriptions best matches the term otoliths?
A) move up and down when the stapes moves back and forth
B) transmit movement of the tympanic membrane to the inner ear
C) bending these produces receptor potential in hair cells
D) tiny weights necessary for the static sense of equilibrium
E) seal the oval window

tiny weights necessary for the static sense of equilibrium

The ________ convey(s) information about head position with respect to gravity.
A) cochlea
B) utricle
C) ampulla
D) saccule
E) utricle and saccule

utricle and saccule

The elevated ridges within the ampullae of the semicircular canals that support the hair cells are known as a
A) concha.
B) cupula.
C) crista ampullaris.
D) macula.
E) papilla.

crista ampullaris.

When you spin quickly, you may feel dizzy. Which component of the inner ear generates the sensations that can lead to this feeling?
A) semicircular canal
B) utricle
C) saccule
D) maculae
E) spiral ganglion

semicircular canal

Which of the following descriptions best matches the term stereocilia?
A) move up and down when the stapes moves back and forth
B) transmit movement of the tympanic membrane to the inner ear
C) bending these produces receptor potential in hair cells
D) tiny weights necessary for the static sense of equilibrium
E) seal the oval window

bending these produces receptor potential in hair cells

The quantity of neurotransmitter that is released by a hair cell corresponds to all of the following except
A) responds to almost any mechanical stimulation of the hair cell.
B) is sensitive to which way stereocilia are bent with respect to the kinocilium.
C) determines if a sensory neuron will be excited.
D) is greatest when the hair cell is at a neutral position.
E) None of the answers is correct.

is greatest when the hair cell is at a neutral position

The structure that overlies the organ of Corti is the
A) basilar membrane.
B) tectorial membrane.
C) stapedius.
D) perilymph.
E) endolymph.

tectorial membrane.

The structure that supports the organ of Corti is the
A) tectorial membrane.
B) basilar membrane.
C) membranous labyrinth.
D) vestibular duct.
E) tympanic membrane.

basilar membrane.

Which of the following descriptions best matches the term basilar membrane?
A) moves up and down when the stapes moves back and forth
B) separates the cochlear duct from the scala vestibuli
C) supports the olfactory organ
D) tiny duct necessary for the static sense of equilibrium
E) covers over the oval window

moves up and down when the stapes moves back and forth

The hair cells of the cochlear duct are located in the
A) semicircular canal.
B) utricle.
C) saccule.
D) organ of Corti.
E) spiral ganglion.

organ of Corti.

The cell bodies of sensory neurons that innervate the hair cells of the cochlea form the ________ ganglion.
A) vestibular
B) spiral
C) cochlear
D) acoustic
E) auditory

spiral

The frequency of a perceived sound depends on
A) the frequency of kinocilia vibration.
B) the number of hair cells that are stimulated.
C) which part of the cochlear duct is stimulated.
D) the amplitude of the wave.
E) the frequency of vibration of the tectorial membrane.

hich part of the cochlear duct is stimulated.

A sound with a frequency of 12,000 hertz would be
A) very loud.
B) barely audible.
C) high-pitched.
D) low-pitched.
E) barely audible and low-pitched.

high-pitched.

A loud noise does not cause
A) a large movement of the tympanic membrane.
B) an alerting reaction leading to sympathetic activation.
C) a large number of hair cells to be stimulated.
D) a big pressure pulse entering the cochlear duct at that oval window.
E) the generation of a wave with a high frequency.

the generation of a wave with a high frequency.

The vestibular nuclei at the boundary of the pons and the medulla function in all of the following except that they
A) integrate the vestibular information arriving from each side of the head.
B) relay vestibular information to the cerebellum.
C) relay vestibular information to the cerebral cortex.
D) send commands to motor nuclei in the brain stem and spinal cord.
E) send information to the vestibular complex of the inner ear.

send information to the vestibular complex of the inner ear.

Interference with the transfer of vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the oval window is ________ deafness.
A) tone
B) conductive
C) nerve
D) neural
E) vertigo

conductive

An abnormal illusion of movement is called
A) conductive hearing loss.
B) nerve hearing loss.
C) vertigo.
D) cataracts.
E) myopia.

vertigo.

The abnormality that develops when a lens loses its transparency is known as
A) myopia.
B) hyperopia.
C) cataracts.
D) color blindness.
E) vertigo.

cataracts.

Where do the special senses originate? (Module 15.1A)
A) Special senses originate at the axon of the sensory neuron.
B) Special senses originate at the interneurons of the brain.
C) Special senses originate at the sensory receptor.
D) Special senses originate in the thalamus where sensations are relayed.
E) Special senses originate in the association areas of the cerebral cortex.

Special senses originate at the sensory receptor.

What is a generator potential? (Module 15.1B)
A) A generator potential is an action potential produced by sensory neurons.
B) A generator potential is the depolarization of sensory neurons capable of generating an action potential.
C) A generator potential is the repolarization of sensory neurons capable of generating ac action potential.
D) A generator potential is an electrical stimulus that propagates from the sensory neuron to the CNS.
E) A generator potential is a very strong stimulus in a sensory receptor that causes the inside of the cell to become positive.

A generator potential is the depolarization of sensory neurons capable of generating an action potential.

Compare olfactory receptors with receptors for the other special senses. (Module 15.1C)
A) Olfactory receptors are at the surface of the olfactory epithelium and can generate a fast action potential, whereas receptors for the other special senses are deep and slower to generate an action potential.
B) Olfactory receptors are chemoreceptors and respond to dissolved chemicals, whereas the receptors for the other special senses are mechanoreceptors.
C) Olfactory receptors have short axons because of their close proximity to the olfactory bulb, whereas the receptors for the other special senses have long axons because they are further away from the CNS.
D) Olfactory receptors do not require the CNS for processing the signal, whereas the receptors for the other special senses require processing by the CNS.
E) Olfactory receptors are the dendrites of specialized excitable olfactory neurons, whereas the receptors for the other special senses are receptor cells with inexcitable membranes and form synapses with the processes of sensory neurons.

Olfactory receptors are the dendrites of specialized excitable olfactory neurons, whereas the receptors for the other special senses are receptor cells with inexcitable membranes and form synapses with the processes of sensory neurons.

Describe olfaction.
A) Olfaction is the sense of smell.
B) Olfaction is the sense of taste.
C) Olfaction is the sense of equilibrium.
D) Olfaction is the sense of sight.
E) Olfaction is the sense of hearing.

Olfaction is the sense of smell.

Define gustation.
A) Gustation is the sense of smell.
B) Gustation is the sense of taste.
C) Gustation is the sense of equilibrium.
D) Gustation is the sense of sight.
E) Gustation is the sense of hearing.

Gustation is the sense of taste.

Describe filiform papillae. (Module 15.3B)
A) Filiform papillae are taste buds.
B) Filiform papillae are gustatory receptors.
C) Filiform papillae are epithelial projections shaped like small buttons. Each one contains about five taste buds.
D) Filiform papillae are epithelial projections that are relatively large and surrounded by deep folds containing as many as 100 taste buds.
E) Filiform papillae are epithelial projections that are slender and conical. They provide friction for the tongue to move objects in the mouth, but they do not contain taste buds.

Filiform papillae are epithelial projections that are slender and conical. They provide friction for the tongue to move objects in the mouth, but they do not contain taste buds.

Which taste receptors offer a survival advantage when tasting something for the first time? (Module 15.3C)
A) bitter and sour receptors
B) salty receptors
C) sweet receptors
D) water receptors
E) umami receptors

bitter and sour receptors

What are gustducins? (Module 15.4A)
A) Gustducins are gustatory sensory neurons that transmit the gustatory signals.
B) Gustducins are taste buds.
C) Gustducins are ion-gated channels on the gustatory receptor cell that respond to sodium ions from salt solutions or hydrogen ions from acidic or sour solutions to induce depolarization in the cell.
D) Gustducins are G protein complexes that use second messengers to produce the depolarization in the cell from sweet, bitter, and umami sensations.
E) Gustducins are epithelial projections on the surface and sides of the tongue that may contain taste buds.

Gustducins are G protein complexes that use second messengers to produce the depolarization in the cell from sweet, bitter, and umami sensations.

Identify the cranial nerves that carry gustatory information. (Module 15.4B)
A) trigeminal, facial, and accessory nerves
B) facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves
C) glossopharyngeal, trigeminal, and abducens nerves
D) hypoglossal, glossopharyngeal, and accessory nerves
E) hypoglossal, olfactory, and trochlear nerves

facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves

What are the first structures that form during eye development? (Module 15.5A)
A) optic nerve
B) retina
C) optic vesicles
D) cornea
E) optic cups

optic vesicles

Which structures develop into the retina? (Module 15.5B)
A) optic vesicles
B) cornea
C) optic nerve
D) inner and outer layers of the optic cup
E) lacrimal apparatus

inner and outer layers of the optic cup

Which cells develop into the photoreceptors?
A) optic vesicles
B) cornea
C) ependymal cells of the inner layer of the optic cup
D) ependymal cells of the outer layer of the optic cup
E) nervous tissue of the outer layer of the optic cup

ependymal cells of the outer layer of the optic cup

Which layer of the eye would be the first affected by inadequate tear production?
A) pupil
B) iris
C) retina
D) sclera
E) conjunctiva

conjunctiva

Name the three layers of the eye.
A) outer corneal layer, middle aqueous humor layer, inner vitreous humor layer
B) outer corneal layer, middle vitreous humor layer, inner aqueous humor layer
C) outer fibrous layer, middle vascular layer, deep inner layer
D) outer vascular layer, middle fibrous layer, deep inner layer
E) outer scleral layer, middle corneal layer, deep retinal layer

outer fibrous layer, middle vascular layer, deep inner layer

What gives eyes their characteristic color?
A) the density and distribution of melanocytes in the pupil
B) the density and distribution of melanocytes in the iris
C) the density and distribution of blood vessels in the vascular layer
D) the density and distribution of blood vessels in the retina
E) the density and distribution of melanocytes in the retina

the density and distribution of melanocytes in the iris

Where in the eye is aqueous humor located?
A) in the anterior cavity, between the cornea and the retina
B) in the posterior cavity, between the lens and the retina
C) in the anterior cavity, between the cornea and the lens
D) in the posterior cavity, between the cornea and the lens
E) in the anterior cavity, between the ciliary body and the ora serrata

in the anterior cavity, between the cornea and the lens

Which eye structure does not contain blood vessels?
A) cornea
B) iris
C) sclera
D) retina
E) choroid

cornea

What happens to the pupils when light intensity decreases?
A) the pupils constrict to let in more light
B) the pupils dilate to let in more light
C) the pupils constrict to let in less light
D) the pupils dilate to let in less light
E) the pupils reflect more light onto the lens

the pupils dilate to let in more light

Light passing through the eye along the visual axis strikes what part of the retina?
A) optic nerve
B) optic disc
C) fovea centralis
D) ganglion cells
E) bipolar cells

fovea centralis

How could a diet deficient in vitamin A affect vision? A) Deficiency in vitamin A reduces the amount of aqueous humor available to circulate to the tissues of the anterior chamber.
B) Deficiency in vitamin A reduces the amount of retinal that the body could produce, thereby interfering with night vision.
C) Deficiency in vitamin A reduces the amount of opsin that can be produced, reducing the wavelengths of light that can be absorbed.
D) Deficiency in vitamin A reduces the amount of red cones, causing red-green color blindness.
E) Deficiency in vitamin A blocks the production of all cone pigments, causing total color blindness.

Deficiency in vitamin A reduces the amount of retinal that the body could produce, thereby interfering with night vision.

Identify the three types of cones.
A) red, green and yellow cones
B) red, blue and yellow cones
C) red, green and blue cones
D) white, red and green cones
E) black, white, and color cones

red, green and blue cones

What is the eye's blind spot?
A) macula
B) fovea centralis
C) neural layer of the retina
D) optic disc
E) lens

optic disc

Compare rods with cones.
A) Rods are active in dim light, and objects appear black and white. Cones require intense light, and objects appear in color.
B) Rods require intense light, and objects appear black and white. Cones are active in dim light, and objects appear in color.
C) Rods are active in dim light, and objects appear in color. Cones require intense light, and objects appear in black and white.
D) Rods require intense light, and objects appear in color. Cones are active in dim light, and objects appear in black and white.
E) Both rods and cones require intense light. Rods allow color vision and cones allow objects to appear black and white.

Rods are active in dim light, and objects appear black and white. Cones require intense light, and objects appear in color.

Define focal point.
A) Focal point is when all light rays entering the pupil are entering parallel.
B) Focal point is the distance between the lens and the retina.
C) Focal point is when light is refracted as it passes from the air into the corneal tissues.
D) Focal point is the point at which the light rays from an object intersect on the retina.
E) Focal point is the point at which the light rays from an object intersect on the lens.

Focal point is the point at which the light rays from an object intersect on the retina.

When the ciliary muscles are relaxed, are you viewing something close up or something in the distance?
A) something close up
B) something in the distance

something in the distance

Why does the near point of vision typically increase with age?
A) Elasticity of the lens decreases with age.
B) Elasticity of the lens increases with age.
C) The number of photoreceptors decreases with age.
D) The amount of refraction changes because the liquid inside the eye decreases with age.
E) The amount of refraction changes because the liquid inside the eye increases with age.

Elasticity of the lens decreases with age.

Visual pigments undergo which three changes during photoreception?
A) activation, bleaching, and reassembly
B) activation, bleaching, and deactivation
C) depolarization, repolarization, and hyperpolarization
D) activation, denaturation, and reassembly
E) detection, bleaching, and absorption

activation, bleaching, and reassembly

When during photoreception is ATP required? (Module 15.12C)
A) activation
B) absorbing a photon
C) release of neurotransmitters
D) depolarization of the membrane
E) conversion of 11-trans retinal back to 11-cis retinal

conversion of 11-trans retinal back to 11-cis retinal

What are the two configurations of retinal?
A) linear form and planar form
B) linear form and ring form
C) R enantiomer and S enantiomer
D) bent 11-cis form and the linear 11-trans form
E) depolarized form and repolarized form

bent 11-cis form and the linear 11-trans form

Define optic radiation.
A) Optic radiation refers to the bundles of commissural fibers linking the visual cortex on the left side of the cerebrum with the visual cortex on the right side of the cerebrum.
B) Optic radiation refers to the bundles of association fibers linking the visual cortex with the visual association area on the same side of the cerebral cortex.
C) Optic radiation refers to bundles of projection fibers linking the lateral geniculate bodies of the thalamus with the visual cortex in each cerebral hemisphere.
D) Optic radiation refers to bundles of projection fibers linking the basal nuclei of the cerebrum with the visual association areas.
E) Optic radiation refers to bundles of association fibers linking the visual cortex with the visual association area in each cerebral hemisphere.

Optic radiation refers to bundles of projection fibers linking the lateral geniculate bodies of the thalamus with the visual cortex in each cerebral hemisphere.

Where are visual images perceived?
A) visual association areas of the cerebral cortex
B) visual cortex of the occipital lobe
C) insula of the cerebrum
D) lateral geniculate bodies of the thalamus
E) lateral geniculate bodies of the thalamus and the insula of the cerebrum

visual cortex of the occipital lobe

Define emmetropia.
A) It is the term for normal vision.
B) It is the term for nearsightedness.
C) It is the term for farsightedness.
D) It is the term for color blindness.
E) It is the term for visual correction.

It is the term for normal vision.

Which type of lens would correct hyperopia?
A) diverging lens (with at least one concave surface)
B) converging lens (with at least one convex surface)

converging lens (with at least one convex surface)

What kind of stimuli can the internal ear sense?
A) touch
B) odorants
C) visual photons of light
D) gravity and acceleration, rotation, or sound
E) dissolved chemicals

gravity and acceleration, rotation, or sound

Name the three tiny bones located in the middle ear, from lateral to medial.
A) malleus, incus, and stapes
B) malleus, stapes, and incus
C) stapes, incus, and malleus
D) stapes, malleus, and incus
E) incus, malleus, and stapes

malleus, incus, and stapes

What is the function of the auditory tube?
A) to house the adenoids
B) to resonate sounds
C) to amplify sounds before they enter the inner ear
D) to drain excess perilymph if it builds up in the inner ear
E) to allow pressure equalization on both sides of the tympanic membrane

to allow pressure equalization on both sides of the tympanic membrane

Identify the structures of the bony labyrinth.
A) The bony labyrinth contains the semicircular ducts and semicircular canals.
B) The bony labyrinth contains the utricle and saccule.
C) The bony labyrinth contains the semicircular canals, vestibule, and cochlea.
D) The bony labyrinth contains the malleus, incus, and stapes.
E) The bony labyrinth contains the cochlear duct and the cochlea.

The bony labyrinth contains the semicircular canals, vestibule, and cochlea.

How do the semicircular canals and the semicircular ducts differ? (Module 15.17B)
A) The semicircular canals are part of the membranous labyrinth, and the canals surround the semicircular ducts, which are part of the bony labyrinth.
B) The semicircular canals are part of the bony labyrinth, and they are surrounded by the semicircular ducts, which are part of the membranous labyrinth.
C) The semicircular canals are part of the membranous labyrinth, and they are surrounded by the semicircular ducts, which are part of the bony labyrinth.
D) The semicircular canals are part of the bony labyrinth, and the canals surround the semicircular ducts, which are part of the membranous labyrinth.

The semicircular canals are part of the bony labyrinth, and the canals surround the semicircular ducts, which are part of the membranous labyrinth.

Define otoliths. (Module 15.18A)
A) They are tiny auditory bones that propagate sound waves to the internal ear.
B) They are small cellular extensions that detect changes in the flow of endolymph.
C) They are flexible, gelatinous structures that are found in each ampulla of the semicircular ducts.
D) They are the extensions of hair cells embedded in the ampullary cupula.
E) They are densely packed calcium carbonate crystals that sit upon the gelatinous otolithic membrane in the maculae.

They are densely packed calcium carbonate crystals that sit upon the gelatinous otolithic membrane in the maculae.

Cite the functions of sensory receptors in the saccule and utricle. (Module 15.18B)
A) Sensory receptors in the saccule and utricle are sensitive to high pitched sounds.
B) Sensory receptors in the saccule and utricle are sensitive to low pitched sounds.
C) Sensory receptors in the saccule and utricle are sensitive to high pitched and low pitched sounds, respectively.
D) Sensory receptors in the saccule and utricle are sensitive to rotation.
E) Sensory receptors in the saccule and utricle are sensitive to changes in horizontal movement and vertical movement, respectively.

Sensory receptors in the saccule and utricle are sensitive to changes in horizontal movement and vertical movement, respectively.

Where is the spiral organ located?
A) utricle of the internal ear
B) semicircular ducts of the internal ear
C) tympanic membrane of the middle ear
D) cochlea of the internal ear
E) saccule of the internal ear

cochlea of the internal ear

Name the fluids found within the scala vestibuli, scala tympani, and cochlear duct.
A) Perilymph fills the scala vestibuli. Endolymph fills the scala tympani and cochlear duct.
B) Perilymph fills the scala vestibuli and the scala tympani. Endolymph fills the cochlear duct.
C) Perilymph fills the cochlear duct. Endolymph fills the scala vestibuli and the scala tympani.
D) Perilymph fills the scala tympani and cochlear duct. Endolymph fills the scala vestibuli.
E) Perilymph fills the scala vestibuli and cochlear duct. Endolymph fills the scala tympani.

Perilymph fills the scala vestibuli and the scala tympani. Endolymph fills the cochlear duct.

Define decibel. (Module 15.20A)
A) Decibels are units of force.
B) Decibels are units of pressure.
C) Decibels are units of the intensity of sound.
D) Decibels are units of light.
E) Decibels are units of wavelengths.

Decibels are units of the intensity of sound.

When the basilar membrane moves, what happens to the hair cells of the spiral organ?
A) They press against the spiral ganglion.
B) They press against the basilar membrane.
C) They press against the tectorial membrane.
D) They press against the vestibular membrane.
E) They push down into the ampulla.

They press against the tectorial membrane.

Chapter 15 Practice Questions - Subjecto.com

Chapter 15 Practice Questions

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The sensory neurons within the olfactory organ are stimulated by ________ in the air.
A) pressure
B) chemicals
C) proteins
D) water
E) dust

chemicals

Olfactory glands
A) house the sense of smell.
B) support the olfactory epithelium.
C) react to aromatic molecules.
D) coat the olfactory epithelium with a pigmented mucus.
E) group as olfactory bulbs.
Answer: D

coat the olfactory epithelium with a pigmented mucus.

Before an olfactory receptor can detect an odorant, it has to
A) contact a specialized olfactory cell.
B) bind to receptors in olfactory dendrites.
C) gate open ion channels.
D) respond to applied pressure.
E) be transported to the olfactory bulbs.

bind to receptors in olfactory dendrites.

All of the following are true of olfactory pathways except
A) they project first to the mammillary bodies and then to the thalamus.
B) the first synapse is in the olfactory bulb.
C) information flows to the olfactory cortex, hypothalamus, and limbic system.
D) they reach the forebrain without first synapsing in the thalamus.
E) they exhibit a considerable amount of convergence.

they project first to the mammillary bodies and then to the thalamus.

Some neural tissues retain stem cells and thus the capacity to divide and replace lost neurons. Which of these special senses can replace its damaged neural receptors?

olfaction

Olfactory receptors send axons through the cribriform plate. They synapse on neurons in the
A) medulla oblongata.
B) medial geniculate.
C) cerebral cortex.
D) olfactory bulb.
E) olfactory tract.

olfactory bulb.

Which of the following is not a component of the lamina propria of the olfactory organ?
A) areolar tissue
B) blood vessels
C) nerves
D) olfactory glands
E) olfactory epithelium

olfactory epithelium

Axons leaving the olfactory epithelium collect into ________ or more bundles that penetrate the cribriform plate of the ethmoid.

20

Olfactory information is first received by which part of the brain?

cerebrum

How would a molecule that mimics cAMP not affect an olfactory receptor?
A) It would increase sodium permeability.
B) It would open chemically gated sodium channels.
C) It would depolarize the olfactory receptor.
D) It could trigger an afferent action potential.
E) It would decrease sodium permeability.

It would decrease sodium permeability.

Olfactory organs are located in the nasal cavity inferior to the perforated bony structure known as the
A) superior nasal concha.
B) sphenoid bone.
C) cribriform plate.
D) nasal septum.
E) frontal bone.

cribriform plate.

The olfactory organ consists of the ________ and the lamina propria.
A) olfactory bulb
B) olfactory nerve
C) olfactory epithelium
D) cribriform plate
E) olfactory tract

olfactory epithelium

The olfactory receptor cell can be activated by as few as ________ odorant molecules.
A) 1
B) 2
C) 3
D) 4
E) 5

4

The olfactory receptors are highly modified
A) neurons.
B) epithelial cells.
C) goblet or mucous cells.
D) olfactory glands.
E) areolar connective tissue cells.

neurons

Gustatory receptors are found in the taste buds of all the following papillae except
A) vallate.
B) foliate.
C) fungiform.
D) filiform.

filiform.

Each gustatory cell extends ________ (or taste hairs) into the surrounding fluids through a narrow taste pore.
A) papillae
B) flagella
C) cilia
D) microvilli

microvilli

A typical gustatory cell survives for only about ________ days before it is replaced.
A) 1
B) 3
C) 5
D) 10
E) 20

10

The sense of taste is also known as
A) gustation.
B) olfaction.
C) equilibrium.
D) proprioception.
E) interoception.

gustation.

Gustatory receptors are not located
A) on the inferior surface of the tongue.
B) in the epiglottis.
C) on the superior surface of the tongue.
D) in the larynx.
E) in the pharynx.

on the inferior surface of the tongue.

An adult has approximately ________ taste buds, each of which contains ________ different receptor cells.
A) 50; 10,000
B) 5,000; 40-100
C) 500,000; 4
D) 500; 40-100
E) 50,000; 10,000

5,000; 40-100

All of the following compose the epithelial projections found on the tongue except
A) fungiform papillae.
B) circumvallate papillae.
C) filiform papillae.
D) gustatory papillae.
E) None of the answers is correct.

gustatory papillae.

Which of the following is not one of the six primary taste sensations?
A) sweet
B) peppery
C) sour
D) salty
E) umami

peppery

The taste sensation that is triggered by the amino acids and small peptides is known as
A) sweet.
B) umami.
C) salty.
D) peppery.
E) sour.

umami.

The largest numbers of taste buds in adults are associated with the
A) pharynx.
B) larynx.
C) filiform papillae.
D) fungiform papillae.
E) circumvallate papillae.

circumvallate papillae.

The function of gustatory receptors parallels that of
A) light receptors in the eye.
B) mechanoreceptors in the ear.
C) olfactory receptors.
D) lamellar corpuscles.
E) Meissner corpuscles.

olfactory receptors.

Taste receptors are distributed in which of the following places?
A) surface of the epiglottis
B) surface of the tongue
C) portions of the pharynx
D) All of the answers are correct.
E) None of the answers is correct.

All of the answers are correct.

Taste buds are monitored by cranial nerves
A) IX, X, and XI.
B) VII, VIII, and IX.
C) VII, IX, and X.
D) V, VII, and IX.
E) IX, XI, and XII.

VII, IX, and X.

A patient who experienced head trauma has lost the ability to taste spicy food. You should expect damage to cranial nerve

V.

Stimulation of nociceptive receptors within the trigeminal nerve might produce a perception of
A) intensely sweet.
B) intensely sour.
C) quite salty.
D) peppery hot.
E) decidedly bitter.

peppery hot.

The membrane proteins that respond to chemical stimuli to produce sweet, bitter, and umami sensations are called
A) photoreceptors.
B) proprioceptors.
C) nociceptors.
D) transducins.
E) gustducins.

gustducins.

All of the following are true of the lacrimal glands except that they
A) produce a strongly hypertonic fluid.
B) produce most of the volume of tears.
C) produce lysozyme.
D) produce watery, slightly alkaline secretions.
E) are located in recesses in the frontal bones.

produce a strongly hypertonic fluid.

The palpebrae do not
A) remove dust and debris.
B) contain tarsal glands.
C) cover and protect the eye.
D) keep the eye lubricated.
E) produce tears.

produce tears

The palpebrae are connected at the
A) eyelids.
B) lateral and medial angles of the eye.
C) lacrimal caruncle.
D) medial canthus only.
E) conjunctiva.

lateral and medial angles of the eye.

A structure that is located at the medial angle of the eye and contains glands that contribute to a gritty deposit is the
A) palpebra.
B) lacrimal caruncle.
C) lacrimal gland.
D) Meibomian gland.
E) conjunctiva.

lacrimal caruncle.

Which of the following produces a lipid-rich secretion that prevents the upper and lower eyelids from sticking together at their edges?
A) palpebra
B) lacrimal caruncle
C) chalazion
D) tarsal gland
E) conjunctiva

tarsal gland

The ________ covers most of the exposed surface of the eye.
A) conjunctiva
B) cornea
C) iris
D) anterior chamber
E) canthus

conjunctiva

All of the following is a function of tears except
A) lubricates the eye.
B) washes away debris.
C) provides oxygen.
D) nourishes the cornea and conjunctiva.
E) maintains acidic environment.

maintains acidic environment.

The opening in the iris through which light passes is the
A) conjunctiva.
B) cornea.
C) pupil.
D) anterior chamber.
E) posterior chamber.

pupil

________ glands are modified sebaceous glands located along the margin of the eyelid that secrete a lipid-rich product.
A) Tarsal
B) Lacrimal
C) Mucous
D) Palpebral
E) Conjunctival

Tarsal

The gap that separates the free margins of the upper and lower eyelids is the
A) cornea.
B) palpebral fissure.
C) conjunctiva.
D) lacrimal punctum.
E) medial angle of the eye.

palpebral fissure.

________, or pinkeye, results from damage to or irritation of the conjunctival surface.
A) Cataract
B) Conjunctivitis
C) Myopia
D) Hyperopia
E) Emmetropia

Conjunctivitis

The cornea is part of the
A) fibrous layer.
B) iris.
C) neural layer.
D) uvea.
E) fibrous layer and the neural layer.

fibrous layer.

All of the following are true of the fibrous layer of the eye except that it
A) consists of the sclera, limbus, and cornea.
B) provides mechanical support and some protection for the eye.
C) produces aqueous humor.
D) contributes substantial focusing power.
E) is where extrinsic eye muscles insert.

produces aqueous humor.

Which of the following is not true of the vascular layer of the eye?
A) provides a route for blood vessels and lymphatics that supply tissues of the eye
B) regulates the amount of light entering the eye
C) secretes and reabsorbs the aqueous humor
D) controls the shape of the lens
E) contains photoreceptors

contains photoreceptors

The vitreous body
A) fills the anterior cavity.
B) helps to stabilize the eye and give physical support to the retina.
C) is removed and recycled every few hours.
D) All of the answers are correct.
E) None of the answers is correct.

helps to stabilize the eye and give physical support to the retina.

The transparent portion of the fibrous layer is the
A) conjunctiva.
B) cornea.
C) iris.
D) pupil.
E) canthus.

cornea.

The part of the eye that determines eye color is the
A) lens
B) cornea.
C) iris.
D) pupil.
E) retina

iris.

The space between the cornea and the iris is the
A) anterior chamber.
B) posterior chamber.
C) canal of Schlemm.
D) aqueous humor.
E) pupil.

anterior chamber

The space between the iris and ciliary body and the lens is the
A) anterior chamber.
B) posterior chamber.
C) pupil.
D) canal of Schlemm.
E) vitreous body.

posterior chamber.

Which of the following descriptions best matches the term aqueous humor?
A) gelatinous fluid that fills posterior chamber
B) secreted in bright light
C) constantly produced and recycled
D) produced by lacrimal glands
E) surround the retina

constantly produced and recycled

The gelatinous material found in the posterior cavity is the
A) vitreous humor.
B) aqueous humor.
C) ora serrata.
D) perilymph.
E) tears.

vitreous humor.

An area of the retina that contains only cones and is the site of sharpest vision is the
A) outer segment.
B) inner segment.
C) fovea centralis.
D) optic disc.
E) tapetum lucidum.

fovea centralis.

Identify the structure labeled "7."

cornea

Identify the space labeled "1."
A) posterior cavity
B) posterior chamber
C) pupil
D) anterior chamber
E) iris

anterior chamber

Identify the structure labeled "9."
A) ciliary zonule
B) optic disc
C) sclera
D) fovea
E) pupil

ciliary zonule

Identify the structure labeled "12."
A) pupil
B) optic disc
C) sclera
D) fovea
E) retina

retina

Identify the structure labeled "14."
A) pupil
B) optic disc
C) sclera
D) fovea centralis
E) suspensory ligaments

fovea centralis

Pupillary muscle groups are controlled by the ANS. Parasympathetic activation causes pupillary ________, and sympathetic activation causes ________.
A) dilation; constriction
B) dilation; dilation
C) constriction; dilation
D) constriction; constriction
E) vasoconstriction; vasoconstriction

constriction; dilation

What structure changes the shape of the lens for far and near vision?
A) aqueous humor
B) ciliary body
C) iris
D) extrinsic eye muscles
E) none, because the lens is rigid

ciliary body

A sudden rise of room brightness would cause
A) contraction of the pupillary constrictor muscles.
B) contraction of the pupillary dilator muscles.
C) conversion of 11-trans to 11-cis retinal.
D) an increase in the size of the pupil.
E) All of the answers are correct.

contraction of the pupillary constrictor muscles.

A ray of light entering the eye will encounter these structures in which order?
A) cornea – aqueous humor – lens – vitreous body – retina – choroid
B) vitreous body – retina – choroids – aqueous humor – lens – cornea
C) cornea – aqueous humor – vitreous body – lens – choroids – retina
D) cornea – lens – aqueous humor – vitreous body – retina – choroid

cornea – aqueous humor – lens – vitreous body – retina – choroid

The ciliary muscle contracts to
A) control the amount of light reaching the retina.
B) adjust the shape of the lens for distant vision.
C) adjust the shape of the lens for close vision.
D) control the production of aqueous humor.
E) adjust the shape of the cornea and vitreous.

adjust the shape of the lens for close vision.

The human lens focuses light on the photoreceptor cells by
A) moving up and down.
B) moving in and out.
C) changing shape.
D) opening and closing.
E) dilating and constricting.

When light encounters a medium of different density, it is bent or A) reflected. B) refracted. C) absorbed. D) transduced. E) propagated.

When light encounters a medium of different density, it is bent or
A) reflected.
B) refracted.
C) absorbed.
D) transduced.
E) propagated.

refracted.

In the human eye, most refraction occurs when light passes through the
A) iris.
B) cornea.
C) lens.
D) aqueous humor.
E) vitreous humor.

cornea.

Why do things look blurry underwater without dive goggles or a mask?
A) The water magnifies the image because it is denser than the lens of the eye.
B) Light moves more slowly through the water, causing images to appear larger and closer.
C) Rather than air, light is moving from water into the cornea and is thus refracted too little for a sharp focus.
D) The cornea does not function in water, causing the image to appear larger and closer.
E) Light waves are scattered by the water before reaching the eye, causing the image to appear blurry and unclear.

Rather than air, light is moving from water into the cornea and is thus refracted too little for a sharp focus.

In which of the following cases would the focal distance be greater?
A) an object 10 inches away from your nose
B) an object 20 feet away
C) It doesn’t matter, focal distance doesn’t change with how far away an object is.

an object 10 inches away from your nose

In which of the following cases would the focal distance be greater?
A) a round lens
B) a flat lens
C) It doesn’t matter, focus distance doesn’t change with the shape of the lens.

a flat lens

The neural layer contains all of the following except
A) ganglion cells.
B) photoreceptor cones.
C) supporting cells.
D) photoreceptor rods.
E) blood vessels.

blood vessels.

________ cells connect photoreceptors to ganglion cells.
A) Rod
B) Cone
C) Bipolar
D) Amacrine
E) Horizontal

Bipolar

________ are photoreceptor cells that are most useful in dim light.
A) Rods
B) Cones

Rods

________ are photoreceptors that convey our ability to see color.
A) Rods
B) Cones

Cones

An elongate outer layer containing membranous discs and a narrow connecting stalk that attaches the outer segment to the middle layer describes a(n)
A) bipolar cell.
B) photoreceptor.
C) ganglion cell.
D) amacrine cell.
E) horizontal cell.

photoreceptor

The visible spectrum for humans extends between a wavelength of 400 nm and ________ nm.
A) 100
B) 500
C) 600
D) 700
E) 900

700

There are three different types of cones, each one sensitive to different light energies. These cones are designated
A) red, yellow, and blue.
B) red, green, and blue.
C) red, green, and yellow.
D) red, white, and blue.

red, green, and blue.

A ________ is a basic unit or packet of light energy.
A) wavelength
B) color
C) photon
D) rhodopsin
E) vibration

photon

The visual receptors of the retina are called
A) photoreceptors.
B) ganglion cells.
C) bipolar cells.
D) amacrine cells.
E) horizontal cells.

photoreceptors.

Considering the wavelengths of light received and abundance of various photoreceptors, which color is best received by the retina?
A) purple
B) yellow
C) bright red
D) blue
E) green

yellow

When all three cone populations are stimulated equally, we perceive
A) red.
B) blue.
C) green.
D) white.
E) blackness.

white

Visual pigments are derivatives of the compound
A) retinal.
B) opsin.
C) rhodopsin.
D) transducin.
E) cGMP.

rhodopsin

A pigment synthesized from vitamin A is
A) retinal.
B) opsin.
C) rhodopsin.
D) transducin.
E) cGMP.

retinal

The first step in the process of photoreception is
A) the bleaching of rods.
B) the bleaching of cones.
C) absorption of a photon by a visual pigment.
D) inhibition of the sodium pumps.
E) release of neurotransmitter.

absorption of a photon by a visual pigment.

Which of the following is not true about rhodopsin?
A) called visual purple
B) bleached during photoreception
C) is the visual pigment in rods
D) consists of opsin + retinal
E) activates transducin

activates transducin

All of the following occur when a rod is stimulated by light, except
A) ganglion cells pick up changes in activity in the bipolar cells.
B) the retinal changes to a more linear shape.
C) neurotransmitter release changes.
D) Na+ permeability changes.
E) ATP is hydrolyzed.

ATP is hydrolyzed.

All of the following are true regarding the retina except
A) Ganglion cells send axons to the brain as cranial nerve II.
B) Axons carrying its output synapse in the lateral geniculate bodies in the thalamus.
C) It has photoreceptors that do not respond to dim light.
D) It has photoreceptors that do not respond to red light.
E) All of the information from the retina goes directly to the occipital cortex.

All of the information from the retina goes directly to the occipital cortex.

Which of the following statements concerning vision is false?
A) Approximately half of the fibers in each optic nerve cross to opposite sides of the brain at the optic chiasm.
B) Fibers of the optic nerve synapse at the lateral geniculates of the thalamus.
C) The image that is formed on the retina is inverted.
D) The entire retina receives equal representation in the visual cortex.
E) The visual cortex of the brain receives the entire field of vision.

The entire retina receives equal representation in the visual cortex.

In the retina, the correct sequence of neural wiring is
A) rod – bipolar cell – ganglion cell – thalamus.
B) cone – bipolar cell – pigmented cell – inferior colliculus.
C) cone – bipolar cell – horizontal cell – pigmented cell.
D) rod – bipolar cell – pigmented cell – thalamus.
E) rod – bipolar cell – amacrine cell – pigmented cell.

rod – bipolar cell – ganglion cell – thalamus.

A person suffering from ________ can see objects that are close, but distant objects appear blurred.
A) myopia
B) hyperopia
C) cataracts
D) color blindness
E) vertigo

myopia

A person suffering from ________ can see distant objects more clearly than those that are close.
A) myopia
B) hyperopia
C) cataracts
D) color blindness
E) vertigo

hyperopia

All of the following descriptions applies/apply to the term myopia except
A) nearsightedness.
B) corrected with diverging lens.
C) image focused in front of retina.
D) the eyeball is elongated.
E) the eyeball is too shallow.

the eyeball is too shallow.

The senses of equilibrium and hearing are provided by receptors of the
A) membranous endolymph.
B) organ of Schlemm.
C) internal ear.
D) bony labyrinth.
E) perilymph.

internal ear.

When an external force bends the stereocilia of the inner ear hair cells,
A) the force is converted into mechanical energy.
B) the hair cells are temporarily damaged.
C) there is a change in the transmembrane potential of the hair cells.
D) dizziness results.
E) the cells become unresponsive.

there is a change in the transmembrane potential

The external ear ends at the
A) vestibule.
B) cochlea.
C) ossicles.
D) tympanic membrane.
E) pinna.

tympanic membrane.

The auditory ossicles connect the
A) tympanic membrane to the oval window.
B) tympanic membrane to the round window.
C) oval window to the round window.
D) stapedius to the tympanic membrane.
E) otitis to the media.

tympanic membrane to the oval window.

The middle ear communicates with the nasopharynx through the
A) auricle.
B) membranous labyrinth.
C) bony labyrinth.
D) pharyngotympanic tube
E) auditory meatus.

pharyngotympanic tube

Which of the following descriptions best matches the term stapes?
A) moves up and down when the stapedius muscle contracts
B) auditory ossicle attached to tympanic membrane
C) bending it produces receptor potential in hair cells
D) necessary for the static sense of equilibrium
E) seals the oval window

seals the oval window

The ________ ear collects sounds waves and transmits them to the ________ ear, which contains auditory ossicles.
A) inner; middle
B) outer; middle
C) outer; inner
D) middle; inner
E) None of the answers is correct.

outer; middle

The external acoustic meatus includes all of the following except the
A) tympanic membrane.
B) eardrum.
C) tympanon.
D) ceruminous glands.
E) auditory tube.

auditory tube.

Which of the following anatomical sequences is correct?
A) tympanum – incus – malleus – stapes – oval window – round window
B) tympanum – incus – malleus – stapes – round window – oval window
C) tympanum – malleus – incus – stapes – oval window – round window
D) tympanum – incus – stapes – malleus – oval window – round window
E) tympanum – malleus – incus – stapes – round window – oval window

tympanum – malleus – incus – stapes – oval window – round window

Which of the following descriptions best matches the term ossicles?
A) move up and down when the stapes moves back and forth
B) transmit movement of the tympanic membrane to the inner ear
C) bending these produces receptor potential in hair cells
D) tiny weights necessary for the static sense of equilibrium
E) seal the oval window

transmit movement of the tympanic membrane to the inner ear

Identify the structures labeled "8."
A) cochlea
B) auditory ossicles
C) auricle
D) tympanic membrane
E) vestibule

auditory ossicles

Which structure contains the receptors for hearing?
A) 6
B) 8
C) 9
D) 10
E) 11

11

Identify the structure that is covered up by the stapes.
A) 4
B) 5
C) 6
D) 8
E) 9

4

Identify the structure labeled "3."
A) cochlea
B) semicircular canals
C) auricle
D) tympanic membrane
E) vestibule

tympanic membrane

Sound waves are converted into mechanical movements by the
A) auditory ossicles.
B) cochlea.
C) oval window.
D) round window.
E) tympanic membrane.

tympanic membrane

The vibrations received by the tympanic membrane are transferred to the oval window by the
A) auditory ossicles.
B) cochlea.
C) oval window.
D) tensor tympani.
E) stapedius muscle.

auditory ossicles.

Sound travels directly to the eardrum through the
A) pinna.
B) external auditory canal.
C) cochlea.
D) vestibule.
E) ear ossicles.

external auditory canal.

________ glands produce a secretion commonly called earwax.
A) Sudoriferous
B) Ceruminous
C) Mammary
D) Sweat
E) Apocrine sweat

Ceruminous

Which structure is known as the vestibule?
A) 6
B) 8
C) 9
D) 10
E) 11

6

The ________ is a region of dense bone that surrounds and protects the membranous labyrinth.
A) bony callus
B) bony labyrinth
C) membranous callus
D) vestibule
E) auditory ossicle

bony labyrinth

The formal term for the sense of gravity, rotation, and linear acceleration is the sense of
A) proprioception.
B) hearing.
C) nociception.
D) equilibrium.
E) vision.

equilibrium.

________ fills the membranous labyrinth.
A) Interstitial fluid
B) Perilymph
C) Endolymph
D) CSF
E) Plasma

Endolymph

Gravity and linear acceleration are sensed in the
A) semicircular canals.
B) cochlea.
C) statoconia.
D) saccule and utricle.
E) organ of Corti.

saccule and utricle.

The sensory receptors of the semicircular canals are located in the
A) saccules.
B) ampullae.
C) perilymph.
D) utricles.
E) cupulae.

ampullae.

Movement of the endolymph in the semicircular canals
A) produces a rushing sound.
B) allows us to hear low tones.
C) signals rotational movements.
D) signals body position with respect to gravity.
E) signals linear acceleration.

signals rotational movements

The hair cells of the utricle and saccule are clustered in
A) ampullae.
B) cristae.
C) cupulae.
D) maculae.
E) otoconia.

maculae.

Perception of gravity and linear acceleration depends on
A) changes in the pressure exerted by the cupula on hair cells.
B) vibrations of the tectorial membrane striking hair cells.
C) the force exerted by otoliths on hair cells of the maculae in the utricle or saccule.
D) the movement of endolymph within the semicircular canals.
E) All of the answers are correct.

the force exerted by otoliths on hair cells of the maculae in the utricle or saccule.

Which of the following descriptions best matches the term otoliths?
A) move up and down when the stapes moves back and forth
B) transmit movement of the tympanic membrane to the inner ear
C) bending these produces receptor potential in hair cells
D) tiny weights necessary for the static sense of equilibrium
E) seal the oval window

tiny weights necessary for the static sense of equilibrium

The ________ convey(s) information about head position with respect to gravity.
A) cochlea
B) utricle
C) ampulla
D) saccule
E) utricle and saccule

utricle and saccule

The elevated ridges within the ampullae of the semicircular canals that support the hair cells are known as a
A) concha.
B) cupula.
C) crista ampullaris.
D) macula.
E) papilla.

crista ampullaris.

When you spin quickly, you may feel dizzy. Which component of the inner ear generates the sensations that can lead to this feeling?
A) semicircular canal
B) utricle
C) saccule
D) maculae
E) spiral ganglion

semicircular canal

Which of the following descriptions best matches the term stereocilia?
A) move up and down when the stapes moves back and forth
B) transmit movement of the tympanic membrane to the inner ear
C) bending these produces receptor potential in hair cells
D) tiny weights necessary for the static sense of equilibrium
E) seal the oval window

bending these produces receptor potential in hair cells

The quantity of neurotransmitter that is released by a hair cell corresponds to all of the following except
A) responds to almost any mechanical stimulation of the hair cell.
B) is sensitive to which way stereocilia are bent with respect to the kinocilium.
C) determines if a sensory neuron will be excited.
D) is greatest when the hair cell is at a neutral position.
E) None of the answers is correct.

is greatest when the hair cell is at a neutral position

The structure that overlies the organ of Corti is the
A) basilar membrane.
B) tectorial membrane.
C) stapedius.
D) perilymph.
E) endolymph.

tectorial membrane.

The structure that supports the organ of Corti is the
A) tectorial membrane.
B) basilar membrane.
C) membranous labyrinth.
D) vestibular duct.
E) tympanic membrane.

basilar membrane.

Which of the following descriptions best matches the term basilar membrane?
A) moves up and down when the stapes moves back and forth
B) separates the cochlear duct from the scala vestibuli
C) supports the olfactory organ
D) tiny duct necessary for the static sense of equilibrium
E) covers over the oval window

moves up and down when the stapes moves back and forth

The hair cells of the cochlear duct are located in the
A) semicircular canal.
B) utricle.
C) saccule.
D) organ of Corti.
E) spiral ganglion.

organ of Corti.

The cell bodies of sensory neurons that innervate the hair cells of the cochlea form the ________ ganglion.
A) vestibular
B) spiral
C) cochlear
D) acoustic
E) auditory

spiral

The frequency of a perceived sound depends on
A) the frequency of kinocilia vibration.
B) the number of hair cells that are stimulated.
C) which part of the cochlear duct is stimulated.
D) the amplitude of the wave.
E) the frequency of vibration of the tectorial membrane.

hich part of the cochlear duct is stimulated.

A sound with a frequency of 12,000 hertz would be
A) very loud.
B) barely audible.
C) high-pitched.
D) low-pitched.
E) barely audible and low-pitched.

high-pitched.

A loud noise does not cause
A) a large movement of the tympanic membrane.
B) an alerting reaction leading to sympathetic activation.
C) a large number of hair cells to be stimulated.
D) a big pressure pulse entering the cochlear duct at that oval window.
E) the generation of a wave with a high frequency.

the generation of a wave with a high frequency.

The vestibular nuclei at the boundary of the pons and the medulla function in all of the following except that they
A) integrate the vestibular information arriving from each side of the head.
B) relay vestibular information to the cerebellum.
C) relay vestibular information to the cerebral cortex.
D) send commands to motor nuclei in the brain stem and spinal cord.
E) send information to the vestibular complex of the inner ear.

send information to the vestibular complex of the inner ear.

Interference with the transfer of vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the oval window is ________ deafness.
A) tone
B) conductive
C) nerve
D) neural
E) vertigo

conductive

An abnormal illusion of movement is called
A) conductive hearing loss.
B) nerve hearing loss.
C) vertigo.
D) cataracts.
E) myopia.

vertigo.

The abnormality that develops when a lens loses its transparency is known as
A) myopia.
B) hyperopia.
C) cataracts.
D) color blindness.
E) vertigo.

cataracts.

Where do the special senses originate? (Module 15.1A)
A) Special senses originate at the axon of the sensory neuron.
B) Special senses originate at the interneurons of the brain.
C) Special senses originate at the sensory receptor.
D) Special senses originate in the thalamus where sensations are relayed.
E) Special senses originate in the association areas of the cerebral cortex.

Special senses originate at the sensory receptor.

What is a generator potential? (Module 15.1B)
A) A generator potential is an action potential produced by sensory neurons.
B) A generator potential is the depolarization of sensory neurons capable of generating an action potential.
C) A generator potential is the repolarization of sensory neurons capable of generating ac action potential.
D) A generator potential is an electrical stimulus that propagates from the sensory neuron to the CNS.
E) A generator potential is a very strong stimulus in a sensory receptor that causes the inside of the cell to become positive.

A generator potential is the depolarization of sensory neurons capable of generating an action potential.

Compare olfactory receptors with receptors for the other special senses. (Module 15.1C)
A) Olfactory receptors are at the surface of the olfactory epithelium and can generate a fast action potential, whereas receptors for the other special senses are deep and slower to generate an action potential.
B) Olfactory receptors are chemoreceptors and respond to dissolved chemicals, whereas the receptors for the other special senses are mechanoreceptors.
C) Olfactory receptors have short axons because of their close proximity to the olfactory bulb, whereas the receptors for the other special senses have long axons because they are further away from the CNS.
D) Olfactory receptors do not require the CNS for processing the signal, whereas the receptors for the other special senses require processing by the CNS.
E) Olfactory receptors are the dendrites of specialized excitable olfactory neurons, whereas the receptors for the other special senses are receptor cells with inexcitable membranes and form synapses with the processes of sensory neurons.

Olfactory receptors are the dendrites of specialized excitable olfactory neurons, whereas the receptors for the other special senses are receptor cells with inexcitable membranes and form synapses with the processes of sensory neurons.

Describe olfaction.
A) Olfaction is the sense of smell.
B) Olfaction is the sense of taste.
C) Olfaction is the sense of equilibrium.
D) Olfaction is the sense of sight.
E) Olfaction is the sense of hearing.

Olfaction is the sense of smell.

Define gustation.
A) Gustation is the sense of smell.
B) Gustation is the sense of taste.
C) Gustation is the sense of equilibrium.
D) Gustation is the sense of sight.
E) Gustation is the sense of hearing.

Gustation is the sense of taste.

Describe filiform papillae. (Module 15.3B)
A) Filiform papillae are taste buds.
B) Filiform papillae are gustatory receptors.
C) Filiform papillae are epithelial projections shaped like small buttons. Each one contains about five taste buds.
D) Filiform papillae are epithelial projections that are relatively large and surrounded by deep folds containing as many as 100 taste buds.
E) Filiform papillae are epithelial projections that are slender and conical. They provide friction for the tongue to move objects in the mouth, but they do not contain taste buds.

Filiform papillae are epithelial projections that are slender and conical. They provide friction for the tongue to move objects in the mouth, but they do not contain taste buds.

Which taste receptors offer a survival advantage when tasting something for the first time? (Module 15.3C)
A) bitter and sour receptors
B) salty receptors
C) sweet receptors
D) water receptors
E) umami receptors

bitter and sour receptors

What are gustducins? (Module 15.4A)
A) Gustducins are gustatory sensory neurons that transmit the gustatory signals.
B) Gustducins are taste buds.
C) Gustducins are ion-gated channels on the gustatory receptor cell that respond to sodium ions from salt solutions or hydrogen ions from acidic or sour solutions to induce depolarization in the cell.
D) Gustducins are G protein complexes that use second messengers to produce the depolarization in the cell from sweet, bitter, and umami sensations.
E) Gustducins are epithelial projections on the surface and sides of the tongue that may contain taste buds.

Gustducins are G protein complexes that use second messengers to produce the depolarization in the cell from sweet, bitter, and umami sensations.

Identify the cranial nerves that carry gustatory information. (Module 15.4B)
A) trigeminal, facial, and accessory nerves
B) facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves
C) glossopharyngeal, trigeminal, and abducens nerves
D) hypoglossal, glossopharyngeal, and accessory nerves
E) hypoglossal, olfactory, and trochlear nerves

facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves

What are the first structures that form during eye development? (Module 15.5A)
A) optic nerve
B) retina
C) optic vesicles
D) cornea
E) optic cups

optic vesicles

Which structures develop into the retina? (Module 15.5B)
A) optic vesicles
B) cornea
C) optic nerve
D) inner and outer layers of the optic cup
E) lacrimal apparatus

inner and outer layers of the optic cup

Which cells develop into the photoreceptors?
A) optic vesicles
B) cornea
C) ependymal cells of the inner layer of the optic cup
D) ependymal cells of the outer layer of the optic cup
E) nervous tissue of the outer layer of the optic cup

ependymal cells of the outer layer of the optic cup

Which layer of the eye would be the first affected by inadequate tear production?
A) pupil
B) iris
C) retina
D) sclera
E) conjunctiva

conjunctiva

Name the three layers of the eye.
A) outer corneal layer, middle aqueous humor layer, inner vitreous humor layer
B) outer corneal layer, middle vitreous humor layer, inner aqueous humor layer
C) outer fibrous layer, middle vascular layer, deep inner layer
D) outer vascular layer, middle fibrous layer, deep inner layer
E) outer scleral layer, middle corneal layer, deep retinal layer

outer fibrous layer, middle vascular layer, deep inner layer

What gives eyes their characteristic color?
A) the density and distribution of melanocytes in the pupil
B) the density and distribution of melanocytes in the iris
C) the density and distribution of blood vessels in the vascular layer
D) the density and distribution of blood vessels in the retina
E) the density and distribution of melanocytes in the retina

the density and distribution of melanocytes in the iris

Where in the eye is aqueous humor located?
A) in the anterior cavity, between the cornea and the retina
B) in the posterior cavity, between the lens and the retina
C) in the anterior cavity, between the cornea and the lens
D) in the posterior cavity, between the cornea and the lens
E) in the anterior cavity, between the ciliary body and the ora serrata

in the anterior cavity, between the cornea and the lens

Which eye structure does not contain blood vessels?
A) cornea
B) iris
C) sclera
D) retina
E) choroid

cornea

What happens to the pupils when light intensity decreases?
A) the pupils constrict to let in more light
B) the pupils dilate to let in more light
C) the pupils constrict to let in less light
D) the pupils dilate to let in less light
E) the pupils reflect more light onto the lens

the pupils dilate to let in more light

Light passing through the eye along the visual axis strikes what part of the retina?
A) optic nerve
B) optic disc
C) fovea centralis
D) ganglion cells
E) bipolar cells

fovea centralis

How could a diet deficient in vitamin A affect vision? A) Deficiency in vitamin A reduces the amount of aqueous humor available to circulate to the tissues of the anterior chamber.
B) Deficiency in vitamin A reduces the amount of retinal that the body could produce, thereby interfering with night vision.
C) Deficiency in vitamin A reduces the amount of opsin that can be produced, reducing the wavelengths of light that can be absorbed.
D) Deficiency in vitamin A reduces the amount of red cones, causing red-green color blindness.
E) Deficiency in vitamin A blocks the production of all cone pigments, causing total color blindness.

Deficiency in vitamin A reduces the amount of retinal that the body could produce, thereby interfering with night vision.

Identify the three types of cones.
A) red, green and yellow cones
B) red, blue and yellow cones
C) red, green and blue cones
D) white, red and green cones
E) black, white, and color cones

red, green and blue cones

What is the eye’s blind spot?
A) macula
B) fovea centralis
C) neural layer of the retina
D) optic disc
E) lens

optic disc

Compare rods with cones.
A) Rods are active in dim light, and objects appear black and white. Cones require intense light, and objects appear in color.
B) Rods require intense light, and objects appear black and white. Cones are active in dim light, and objects appear in color.
C) Rods are active in dim light, and objects appear in color. Cones require intense light, and objects appear in black and white.
D) Rods require intense light, and objects appear in color. Cones are active in dim light, and objects appear in black and white.
E) Both rods and cones require intense light. Rods allow color vision and cones allow objects to appear black and white.

Rods are active in dim light, and objects appear black and white. Cones require intense light, and objects appear in color.

Define focal point.
A) Focal point is when all light rays entering the pupil are entering parallel.
B) Focal point is the distance between the lens and the retina.
C) Focal point is when light is refracted as it passes from the air into the corneal tissues.
D) Focal point is the point at which the light rays from an object intersect on the retina.
E) Focal point is the point at which the light rays from an object intersect on the lens.

Focal point is the point at which the light rays from an object intersect on the retina.

When the ciliary muscles are relaxed, are you viewing something close up or something in the distance?
A) something close up
B) something in the distance

something in the distance

Why does the near point of vision typically increase with age?
A) Elasticity of the lens decreases with age.
B) Elasticity of the lens increases with age.
C) The number of photoreceptors decreases with age.
D) The amount of refraction changes because the liquid inside the eye decreases with age.
E) The amount of refraction changes because the liquid inside the eye increases with age.

Elasticity of the lens decreases with age.

Visual pigments undergo which three changes during photoreception?
A) activation, bleaching, and reassembly
B) activation, bleaching, and deactivation
C) depolarization, repolarization, and hyperpolarization
D) activation, denaturation, and reassembly
E) detection, bleaching, and absorption

activation, bleaching, and reassembly

When during photoreception is ATP required? (Module 15.12C)
A) activation
B) absorbing a photon
C) release of neurotransmitters
D) depolarization of the membrane
E) conversion of 11-trans retinal back to 11-cis retinal

conversion of 11-trans retinal back to 11-cis retinal

What are the two configurations of retinal?
A) linear form and planar form
B) linear form and ring form
C) R enantiomer and S enantiomer
D) bent 11-cis form and the linear 11-trans form
E) depolarized form and repolarized form

bent 11-cis form and the linear 11-trans form

Define optic radiation.
A) Optic radiation refers to the bundles of commissural fibers linking the visual cortex on the left side of the cerebrum with the visual cortex on the right side of the cerebrum.
B) Optic radiation refers to the bundles of association fibers linking the visual cortex with the visual association area on the same side of the cerebral cortex.
C) Optic radiation refers to bundles of projection fibers linking the lateral geniculate bodies of the thalamus with the visual cortex in each cerebral hemisphere.
D) Optic radiation refers to bundles of projection fibers linking the basal nuclei of the cerebrum with the visual association areas.
E) Optic radiation refers to bundles of association fibers linking the visual cortex with the visual association area in each cerebral hemisphere.

Optic radiation refers to bundles of projection fibers linking the lateral geniculate bodies of the thalamus with the visual cortex in each cerebral hemisphere.

Where are visual images perceived?
A) visual association areas of the cerebral cortex
B) visual cortex of the occipital lobe
C) insula of the cerebrum
D) lateral geniculate bodies of the thalamus
E) lateral geniculate bodies of the thalamus and the insula of the cerebrum

visual cortex of the occipital lobe

Define emmetropia.
A) It is the term for normal vision.
B) It is the term for nearsightedness.
C) It is the term for farsightedness.
D) It is the term for color blindness.
E) It is the term for visual correction.

It is the term for normal vision.

Which type of lens would correct hyperopia?
A) diverging lens (with at least one concave surface)
B) converging lens (with at least one convex surface)

converging lens (with at least one convex surface)

What kind of stimuli can the internal ear sense?
A) touch
B) odorants
C) visual photons of light
D) gravity and acceleration, rotation, or sound
E) dissolved chemicals

gravity and acceleration, rotation, or sound

Name the three tiny bones located in the middle ear, from lateral to medial.
A) malleus, incus, and stapes
B) malleus, stapes, and incus
C) stapes, incus, and malleus
D) stapes, malleus, and incus
E) incus, malleus, and stapes

malleus, incus, and stapes

What is the function of the auditory tube?
A) to house the adenoids
B) to resonate sounds
C) to amplify sounds before they enter the inner ear
D) to drain excess perilymph if it builds up in the inner ear
E) to allow pressure equalization on both sides of the tympanic membrane

to allow pressure equalization on both sides of the tympanic membrane

Identify the structures of the bony labyrinth.
A) The bony labyrinth contains the semicircular ducts and semicircular canals.
B) The bony labyrinth contains the utricle and saccule.
C) The bony labyrinth contains the semicircular canals, vestibule, and cochlea.
D) The bony labyrinth contains the malleus, incus, and stapes.
E) The bony labyrinth contains the cochlear duct and the cochlea.

The bony labyrinth contains the semicircular canals, vestibule, and cochlea.

How do the semicircular canals and the semicircular ducts differ? (Module 15.17B)
A) The semicircular canals are part of the membranous labyrinth, and the canals surround the semicircular ducts, which are part of the bony labyrinth.
B) The semicircular canals are part of the bony labyrinth, and they are surrounded by the semicircular ducts, which are part of the membranous labyrinth.
C) The semicircular canals are part of the membranous labyrinth, and they are surrounded by the semicircular ducts, which are part of the bony labyrinth.
D) The semicircular canals are part of the bony labyrinth, and the canals surround the semicircular ducts, which are part of the membranous labyrinth.

The semicircular canals are part of the bony labyrinth, and the canals surround the semicircular ducts, which are part of the membranous labyrinth.

Define otoliths. (Module 15.18A)
A) They are tiny auditory bones that propagate sound waves to the internal ear.
B) They are small cellular extensions that detect changes in the flow of endolymph.
C) They are flexible, gelatinous structures that are found in each ampulla of the semicircular ducts.
D) They are the extensions of hair cells embedded in the ampullary cupula.
E) They are densely packed calcium carbonate crystals that sit upon the gelatinous otolithic membrane in the maculae.

They are densely packed calcium carbonate crystals that sit upon the gelatinous otolithic membrane in the maculae.

Cite the functions of sensory receptors in the saccule and utricle. (Module 15.18B)
A) Sensory receptors in the saccule and utricle are sensitive to high pitched sounds.
B) Sensory receptors in the saccule and utricle are sensitive to low pitched sounds.
C) Sensory receptors in the saccule and utricle are sensitive to high pitched and low pitched sounds, respectively.
D) Sensory receptors in the saccule and utricle are sensitive to rotation.
E) Sensory receptors in the saccule and utricle are sensitive to changes in horizontal movement and vertical movement, respectively.

Sensory receptors in the saccule and utricle are sensitive to changes in horizontal movement and vertical movement, respectively.

Where is the spiral organ located?
A) utricle of the internal ear
B) semicircular ducts of the internal ear
C) tympanic membrane of the middle ear
D) cochlea of the internal ear
E) saccule of the internal ear

cochlea of the internal ear

Name the fluids found within the scala vestibuli, scala tympani, and cochlear duct.
A) Perilymph fills the scala vestibuli. Endolymph fills the scala tympani and cochlear duct.
B) Perilymph fills the scala vestibuli and the scala tympani. Endolymph fills the cochlear duct.
C) Perilymph fills the cochlear duct. Endolymph fills the scala vestibuli and the scala tympani.
D) Perilymph fills the scala tympani and cochlear duct. Endolymph fills the scala vestibuli.
E) Perilymph fills the scala vestibuli and cochlear duct. Endolymph fills the scala tympani.

Perilymph fills the scala vestibuli and the scala tympani. Endolymph fills the cochlear duct.

Define decibel. (Module 15.20A)
A) Decibels are units of force.
B) Decibels are units of pressure.
C) Decibels are units of the intensity of sound.
D) Decibels are units of light.
E) Decibels are units of wavelengths.

Decibels are units of the intensity of sound.

When the basilar membrane moves, what happens to the hair cells of the spiral organ?
A) They press against the spiral ganglion.
B) They press against the basilar membrane.
C) They press against the tectorial membrane.
D) They press against the vestibular membrane.
E) They push down into the ampulla.

They press against the tectorial membrane.

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