Chapter 15- Cardiovascular

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The heart pumps about _____ liters of blood a day and contracts about _____ times in a lifetime

7,000 liters; 2.5 billion

Circulation is vital because it

supplies oxygen and nutrients to and removes waste from tissues

The pulmonary circuit

send oxygen-poor blood to the lungs

The systemic circuit

sends oxygen-rich tissues

When the ventricular walls contract

the mitral and tricuspid valves close

The loose-fitting sac around the heart is the

fibrous preicardium

The skeleton of the heart consists of

fibrous connective tissue encircling the atrioventricular orifices

Which of the following is the correct sequence of parts through which blood moves from the vena cave to the lungs

right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, pulmonary valve

The inner lining of the heart


The right atrium receives blood directly from

the superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, and coronary sinus

A trail natriuretic peptide is a hormone that

is released from certain muscle cells of the heart. inhibits the release of renin and alderstone. lowers blood pressure

In mitral valve prolapse, the mitral valve

bulges into the left atrium during ventricular contraction

The pain of angina pectorals comes from a blockage in an artery that supplies the


Which of the following is true about the heart

the apex end points downward at about the 5th intercostal space

Which of the following layers of the heart and their functions are correctly matched

myocardium-cardiac muscle tissue that pumps blood out of the heart chambers

Which of the following correcting matches the valve to its function

mitral valve-permits one-way blood flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle

Blood flow to the right side of the heart muscle decreases due to constrict in of the ____, and decreased blood flow to the heart tissue can result in_____

right coronary artery; ischemia

Which of the following waves of an ECG pattern is/are correctly described

P wave depolarization of the artia

The correct sequence of parts that carry cardiac impulses is

SA node, AV node, AV bundle, Purkinje fibers

Impulses that the vagus nerve carries to the heart

are parasympathetic and decrease heart rate

The normal pacemaker of the heart is the

sinoatrial node

Listening with stethoscope just to the right near the tip of the sternum, sounds come most distinctly from the

tricuspid valve

In an ECG pattern, the P wave is caused by

depolarization of the atrial muscle fibers

In an ECG pattern, the T wave is caused by

repolarization of ventricular muscle fibers

In an ECG pattern, the PQ interval indicated show Kong it takes for the cardiac impulse to travel from the

SA node through the AV node

The effect on the heart of excess potassium ion concentration usually is

decreased rate and decrease force of contraction

An abnormally slow heart rate is termed


Which of the following is most life threatening

Ventricular Fibrillation

Which of the following might serve as a secondary pacemaker for the heart

AV node

Cells of the conducting system in the heart are more sensitive to which ion


Once cells in the SA node reach thershold

an action potential is triggered

Which of the following gasses does endothelium release

nitric oxide

A person warming up after being cold feels a warm rush as blood flows quickly to the perch real appendages, nitric oxide is important in this situation because it

relaxes the smooth muscle in the blood vessel wall

Because net inward pressure in the venular ends of the capillaries is less than net outward pressure in the arteriolar ends of capillaries

more fluid leaves the capillaries than returns

Which type of blood vessel holds the greatest volume of blood


Water and dissolved substances leave the arteriolar end of a capillary due to _____, and enter the venue end of a capillary due to _____

hydrostatic pressure being higher than osmotic pressure; osmotic pressure being higher than hydrostatic pressure

The mechanism that ensures the volume of blood discharged from the heart is equal to the volume entering its chambers is _____ law of the heart


Sympathetic stimulation increases (what does it do to the heart)

Stroke Volume

When venous pressure is too low, _____ stimulate smooth muscles in the walls of the veins to contract

sympathetic reflexes

When smoothie muscles in the walls of the arteries are stimulated to contract

blood pressure inceases

Plasma proteins in capillaries help to

maintain the osmotic pressure of the blood

The blood pressure in the large systemic arteries is greatest during

ventricular systole

Which of the following helps return blood to the heart

contracting skeletal muscles

Factors that increase heart rate and blood pressure included

emotional responses. exercise. increase in body temperature.

Arterial systolic pressure is most closely associated with

ventricular contraction

Pulse pressure is calculated by

subtracting diastolic pressure from systolic pressure

Angiotensin II increases blood pressure by

increasing peripheral resistance

Kidney disease can cause hypertension by

activating the renin-angiotensin mechanism. stimulating the secretion of alderstone. increasing retnetion of sodium and water

The pulmonary trunk divides into the right and left pulmonary arteries about _____ centimeters above its origin


The celiac artery provides blood to the

liver and spleen

Which of the following is not a breach of the aorta

pulmonary artery

The external carotid arteries branch to structures in the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide are the

scalp. face. base of the skull.

The structures that contain chemoreceptors that detect blood levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide are the

aortic bodies

Which artery is incorrectly matched to is location

thyrocervical arteries; thymus

Which of the following supplies blood to parts of the intestinal tract

superior mesenteric artery

The radial and ulnar veins merge to form the _____ vein


The longest vein in the body is the

great saphenous vein

Blood from the face and scalp is drained by the

external jugular vein

When a person’s pulse is taken by a palpating near the thumb on the wrist, which artery is felt

radial artery

Heart rate in a fetus is about _____,in a newborn about ____, and in an adult about _____

145; 140; 70

Which of the following is due to an aging cardiovascular system

the tunica interna thickens

Sudden cardiac arrest can result from

an artery blocked with plaque. scar tissue from a previous heart attack. accelerated heart rate.

A left ventricular assist device

can maintain cardiac function until a donor heart becomes available

Small areas of the myocardium contracting chaotically is called


Bruce has colorectal cancer that has spread to his lymphatic system. He is given a drug that is an angiogenesis inhibitor, the drug works by

starving tumors by cutting of their blood supplies

In the arterial disease artherosclerosis

plaque accumulates on the interior walls of arteries. blood flow through affected arteries slows. risk of thrombus or embolus forming increases

Marjorie suffers from phlebitis. She has

inflammation of her veins

A sphymomanometer measures

blood pressure

Which of the following is not a normal response to physical exercise

increased blood flow to the abdominal viscera

Tim runs 5 to 8 miles a day. He has an enlarged heart and low heart rate and blood pressure. He most likely has

a very healthy cardiovascular system

Which of the following is not a factor that increases risk of developing artherosclerous

low blood pressure

The apical heartbeat is heard by listening between the fifth and sixth ribs about 7.5 cm left of the midline


The coronary sinus drains blood from the wall of the heart into the left atrium


The smaller branches of the coronary arteries have some anastomoses between vessels


The visceral pericardium lines the pericardial cavity, whereas the parietal pericardium covers the surface of the heart


The SA node relays nerve impulses into the AV bundle of the intervenors ulnar septum and the AV node is responsible for the rhythmic contractions of the heart


Capillary walls consist of a single layer of epithelial cells and they exchange substances in the blood substances in the tissue fluid surrounding body cells.


Arteries are strong, elastic vessels that carry blood to the heart


Met arteriolar connect arteriolar and venues, and allow blood to bypass the capillaries


The distribution of blood in capillary pathways is largely controlled by the action of pre-capillary sphincters


Osmotic pressure forces molecules in the blood out through capillary walls


Blood flow through a capillary is controlled by a capillary sphincter, which opens or closes due to the requirements of the cells the capillary supplies.


Lipid-soluble substances diffuse through channels in call membranes of cells forming the capillary wall, whereas lipid- insoluble substances diffuse through most areas of the capillary cell membranes


Histamine increases capillary membrane permeability, which can result in an edematous and painful condition.


Venues continue form capillaries to form veins, which return blood to the atria


Central venous pressure is the pressure in the inferior vena cava at the central point of the abdomen


Cardiac output is calculated by multiplying stroke volume by the systolic blood pressure


The aorta is the largest artery in the pulmonary circuit


The great saphenous vein is the longest vein in the body


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