Chapter 15 – Authority and the State

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Which of the following is NOT an example of an interest group?

an individual needing social services

Employee manuals that outline the "proper" way to build a hamburger at a fast‐food restaurant is an example of:


Piven and Cloward hold who or what responsible for the precipitous drop in political participation?

political elites

Barrington Moore hypothesized that some states end up as democracies and others become dictatorships because the fate of each nation is determined by the struggle:

between social classes

In a legal‐rational society, personality and tradition are less important than:

formal rules

Most modern societies would be classified as having which type of authority?


The theory of logic of industrialism states that ____________ cause(s) the needs provided for by social welfare systems.


When a company dominates because it has a monopoly on the industry, this is called domination by:

economic power

People living within a state have certain citizenship rights. For example, if you were to look for an apartment, you would be free to live in any neighborhood that you chose. These are a person’s:

social rights

According to political theorist T. H. Marshall, a group of protestors picketing a political speech is exercising:

civil rights

____________ is the ruler of the small, previously abandoned sea fort Roughs Tower

Prince Roy of Sealand

the ____________, a little-known aquatic investment opportunity, seeks to build permanent oceanic platforms for the adventurous nation builder for as little as $50 to $200 per square foot

Seasteading Project

what are the two types of legitimate authority?

1. politics 2. authority

power relations among people or other social actors


the justifiable right to exercise power


to classify the kinds of legitimate authority or domination, ____________ used three accounts of a ruler’s "superiority and fitness to rule" –
these explanations are sometimes referred to as "claims to legitimacy"

Max Weber

what are Weber’s three accounts of a ruler’s superiority and fitness to rule:

1. charismatic authority 2. traditional authority 3. legal-rational authoirty

authority that rests in the superhuman appeal of an individual leader
(see page 1-2 for further explanation)

charismatic authority

because charismatic authority derives from the extraordinary attributes of a single individual, Weber anticipated that this form of legitimate authority would be particularly difficult to ____________ or ____________

maintain or pass on

authority based on appeals to past tradition

traditional authority

hereditary monarchies, whereby the crown passes down through a single family, are examples of ____________, as are the customs and ceremonies contained in the Jewish Torah

traditional authority

since traditional authority is based on past traditions, the system would not be very ____________


a system of authority based on legal, impersonal rules; the rules rule

legal-rational authority

the brand of authority that is supposedly most pervasive in modern society

legal-rational authority

within this type of authority formal roles and rules overshadow the personal attributes of individuals and traditional ways of doing things

legal-rational authority

is highly routinized, based on a standard regular procedure – and is highly rationalized

legal-rational authority

the clear, rule-governed procedures used repeatedly for decision making


an ever-expanding process of ordering or organizing


a legal-rational organization or mode of administration that governs with reference to rules and roles and which emphasized meritocracy


in 2005 a New York State agency sent ____________ a letter stating that she was deceased, although it gave no details about the cause or date of her supposed death

Cheryl Horsfall

bureaucracies seek to make routine tasks efficient and to provide order in a disorderly world – they have 5 defining characteristics:

1. usually structured hierarchically 2. positions within are highly specialized 3. distinguished by its impersonality 4. highly efficient 5. look in book?

the process of making work consist of specific, delimited tasks


the methods of labor management introduced by Frederick Winslow Taylor to streamline the processes of mass production in which each worker repeatedly performs one specific task


promotions to higher levels within an idealized bureaucratic hierarchy are based on achievement, not personal attributes or favorism, making a bureaucracy a ____________


a society that bases status and mobility on individual attributes, ability, and achievement


who bureaucratic administration and its effects on individuals and modern society?


who said that bureaucracy was the "iron cage" of modern life?


who referred to bureaucracy as the "parceling-out of the soul"?


who believed that bureaucracy was an unstoppable, totalizing machine becoming ubiquitous in the modern world – even infecting the human soul?


which case study shows that obedience to authority is an extraordinary powerful mechanisms of social control, capable of making perfectly rational people do otherwise unthinkable things?

The Milgram Experiment

in 1961 ____________ devised a test, the so-called Milgram experiment, to see how far ordinary people would go to obey an authority figure

Stanley Milgram

an experiment devised in 1961 by Stanley Milgram, a psychologist at Yale University, to see how far ordinary people would go to obey a scientific authority figure
(see page 4-5 in notes for further explanation)

Milgram Experiment

the ability to carry out one’s own will despite resistance


____________ may be based on "all conceivable qualities of a person and all conceivable combinations of circumstances"


who defined certain types of power?


the probability that a command with specific content will be obeyed by a given group of people


what are the two types of domination?

1. domination by economic power 2. domination by authority

defined by Weber, is control "by virtue of a constellation of interests" or "by virtue of a position of monopoly"

domination of economic power

refers to a situation in which the will of the rulers influences the conduct of the ruled so they act as if the ruler’s will was also their own

domination by authority

as defined by Weber, "a human community that (successfully) claims the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory"


the use of force to het others to do what you want


although the state’s authority derives from the implicit threat of physical force, resorting to coercion strips the state of all legitimate authority – in other words, having to resort to violence is proof that people are not listening to you

paradox of authority

multiple states in Africa, including Angola, Congo, Rwanda, Sudan, Somalia, and Sierra Leone, have (blank or blank) groups that are in constant armed conflict with their respective governments

rebel or insurrectionary

a system in which each state is recognized as territorially sovereign by fellow states

international state system

the state’s role in developing social policies, policies developed to meet social needs, has prompted scholars to reconsider the definition of ____________


after the period of rapid industrialization that began in the late eighteenth century and culminated in the beginning of the twentieth century, many states began adopting variants of social insurance and pension programs such as disability, old age, and unemployment benefits – perhaps, then, starting with the postwar years, it is more accurate to think of (blank) as "organizations that extract resources through taxation and attempt to extend coercive control and political authority over particular territories and the people residing in them"


a system in which the state is responsible for the well-being of its citizen

welfare state

what are the three theories of why welfare states developed?

1. logic of industrialism thesis 2. neo-Marxist theory 3. state-centered approaches

one theory, sometimes called the ____________, holds that nations develop social welfare benefits to satisfy the social needs created by industrialization

logic of industrialism thesis

another view of the development of the welfare states, called (blank), starts with the question of how democracy and capitalism can coexist -this theory is concerned with explaining the contradictions between formal legal equality and social class inequality – in this manner, the welfare state is seen as the mediator of class conflict

neo-Marxist theory

____________ emphasize the role of state bureaucrats in formulating welfare state policies

state-centered approaches

____________ theories tie the development of the welfare state not to economic or political factors but to government bureaucrats who design policies based on perceived social conditions in order to enhance their own power


the people living within a state, excluding noncitizens and felons, have certain rights called ____________: the rights guaranteed to each law-abiding citizen in a nation-state

citizenship rights

____________ defined three broad types of citizenship rights?

T.H. Marshall

what are T.H. Marshall’s three broad types of citizenship rights:

1. civil rights 2. political rights 3. social rights

the rights guaranteeing a citizen’s personal freedom from interference, including freedom of speech and the right to travel freely

civil rights

the rights guaranteeing a citizen’s ability to participate in politics, including the right to vote and the right to hold an elected office

political rights

the rights guaranteeing a citizen’s protection by the state

social rights

social rights to public assistance may be of two broad types:

1. right to contributory programs (such as Social Security benefits) 2. rights to means-tested programs (such as Temporary Assistance to Needy Families and food stamps)

____________ describes power as three-dimensional?

Steven Lukes

According to Lukes’s first dimension of power, when is power most visible?

different agendas clash, conflict results, and one side prevails

Lukes’s second dimension of power is more complicated and occurs when the power is so formidable that…

resisting it seems pointless

Lukes novel contribution to the study of power is what he calls power’s third dimension – it is the power not only to persevere despite overt or veiled resistance but to…

"prevent such conflict from arising in the first place."

one way to wield invisible power is by shaping the…

choice set

____________ won the Nobel Prize for proving this "impossibility theorem," which states that there is no system of voting that will consistently yield the top choice of the most voters when there are more than two alternatives

Kenneth Arrow

traditionally, scholars have highlighted the importance of "____________," or the use of military or economic force to influence behavior, in international politics


Joseph Nye has proposed that the exclusive use of hard power in international politics is out of date –
1. for one thing, states are now increasingly economically dependent on one another thanks to globalization, and this means that the use of force to influence the behavior of other states has become more ____________
2. instead, Nye is a proponent of what he calls ____________: power attained through the use of cultural attractiveness rather than the treat of coercive action (hard power)

1. costly 2. soft power

____________ suggests that in the absence of an agreed-upon authority figure, life would be hideously chaotic and violent

Thomas Hobbes

according to ____________, we need a strong, central authority in order to live in peace and harmony with our neighbors – human interaction is, by nature, rife with conflict and fear


____________ says that before the emergence of a sovereign authority, individuals live in a happy, conflict-free state of nature as equals

John Locke

____________ believed that the sovereign state emerged not because life without it was a disaster but because individuals needed help adjudicating conflicts over personal property – submitting to a centralized authority was not a matter of life or death but a matter of money


a system of government wherein power theoretically lies with the people; citizens are allowed to vote in elections, speak freely, and participate as legal equals in social life


a form of government that restricts the right to political participation to a small group or even to a single individual


the study of strategic decisions under conditions of uncertainty and interdependence

game theory

to play the democratization game and make coherent demands of the elite, the ordinary people must first overcome a ____________: the difficulty in organizing large groups because of the tendency of some individuals to freeload or slack off

collective action problem

who pioneered the idea of collective action problem?

Mancur Olson

in the United States national-level legal authority is split among three branches of government, a system intended to maximize legitimacy by ensuring that each branch is "checked and balances" by the other two

1. executive branch 2. legislative branch 3. judicial branch

the branch led by the president

executive branch

branch composed of the House of Representatives and the Senate, which together make up the U.S. Congress

legislative branch

branch composed of the U.S. Supreme Court and lower federal courts

judicial branch

an organization that seeks to gain power in a government, generally by backing candidates for office who subscribe to the organization’s political ideals

political party

democratic party =


republican party =


an organization that seeks to gain power in government and influence policy without direct election or appointment to office

interest group

U.S. has a voting rate of only around ____________ percent in presidential elections


people don’t vote like they used to not because they are too busy or lazy, but because they are…

prohibited from voting

activity that has the intent or effect of influencing government action

political participation

voter turnout is much lower among the ____________


research has found that citizens receiving ____________ benefits are the least likely to be politically active


____________ points to three components to explain political participation (or non-participation):

civic voluntarism model

civic voluntarism model points to three components to explain political participation (or non-participation):

1. political orientation 2. resources 3. mobilization efforts

The opening story in Chapter 15 about Prince Roy’s purchase of the abandoned sea fort, Rough Towers, illustrates:

a struggle for independence and self-government

In the grocery store one day you spy a mother and her two unruly children. She consistently threatens that she is going to spank them when she gets them home. They ignore her threats. Finally, she swats one of them on the butt, making the other child laugh, suggesting that she has lost control of the situation. This could be called:

paradox of authority

Rationalization means that all steps to a process are decided with ____________ in mind.


Which of these is a characteristic of dictatorships?

limited suffrage

In the context of authority, ____________ refers to the clear, rule-governed procedures used over and over again for decision making.


Since the 1960s, the United States has experienced what kind of shift in political participation?

a decline

____________ guarantee a citizen’s rights to participate in politics, including the right to vote and the right to hold an elected office.

Political rights

In Freakonomics, Levitt and Dubner found that political candidates can’t win an election unless:

the electorate likes him or her

is defined by Weber as the probability that a command with a given specific content will be obeyed by a particular group of people.


Robert volunteers at the local animal shelter. After ten days, abandoned animals are put to death. This distresses Robert and goes against his ethical beliefs, but because the manager of the shelter says he must, Robert participates in the euthanasia. This is an example of:

Milgram’s authority experiment

The citizens who have the most to lose by not being politically active are the group most vulnerable to changing political and policy definitions of what constitutes a social right. Who makes up this group?

The deserving poor

The civic voluntarism model points to three components to explain political participation or non-participation. Which of the following is one of these components?

mobilization efforts.

The Milgram experiment helped explain the actions of Nazis during the Holocaust because it showed that people:

would obey authority figures without hesitation.

What term refers to the ability to carry out one’s own will despite resistance?


Soft power, or co-optive power, is getting others to:

want what you want through attraction rather than coercion

Weber described bureaucracies as the ____________ of modern life.

iron cage

Your deference to your parents and professors and to the laws of the U.S. government is an example of domination by:


How do rulers prove their authority?

by persuading subordinates that their claim to power is valid.

_______ guarantee a citizen’s rights to participate in politics, including the right to vote and the right to hold an elected office.

Political rights

Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Company was in a position to issue commands and dictate the price of oil to oil producers by virtue of its monopoly on oil refining. This is an example of domination by:

economic power

The logic of industrialism thesis argues that:

social welfare benefits emerged to satisfy the social needs created by capitalism.

Domination by authority means that the ruled believe their ideas are ____________ the ideas of the ruler.

the same as

Until places like Somalia are recognized by other states and international institutions such as the United Nations, they will remain:

self-proclaimed nation-states

____________ asks how democracy and capitalism can coexist and is concerned with explaining the contradictions between formal legal equality and social class inequality.

Neo-Marxist theory

A modern model to explain the variations in forms of government is the study of the strategic decisions actors make by taking stock of the options available to them and the other players in a "game." This is referred to as:

game theory

Within the international community, an unwritten rule exists that neighboring states must first recognize a new state’s autonomy before:

more distant ones will do so

Organizations ruled by traditional authority run into problems when a situation occurs:

for which the first leader did not set a precedent

Which of the following is NOT an example of a legal-rational institution?

a family

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