Chapter 14 The Autonomic Nervous System

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Because the ANS is a visceral motor system, afferent pathways are of no importance and actually are rarely found


The rami communicantes are associated only with the sympathetic divison of the ANS


The gray rami communicantes consists of myelinated postganglionic fibers


Splanchnic nerves are mixed motor and sensory nerves


The autonomic nervous system may cause activation or inhibition, depending on the division that is active and the target that is affected


The celiac ganglion is primarily associated with the sympathetic division


All visceral organ receive dural innnervation from both the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS


Thermoregulatory responses to increased heat are mediated by the sympathetic nervous divison


Most disorders of the autonomic nervous system reflect abnormalities of smooth muscle control


Alpha-adrenergic effects dominate the direct control of blood pressure


The adrenal medulla is considered a "misplaced" sympathetic ganglion by some


Acetylcholine is the substance released by the axonal endings of the somatice efferent fibers and by the parasympathetic nerve ending fibers


The sympathetic and parasympthathetic divisions of the ANS have the same effect on most body organ systems


Through direct neural stimulation, the sympathetic division promotes many metabolic effects via hormone release


Cranial nerves VII, IX, and X contain postaganlionic fibers of the parasympathetic nervous system


The ANS stimulates smooth muscles, skeletal muscles and glands, whereas the somatic nervous system innervates skeletal muscle only


Norepinephrine-releasing fibers are called cholinergic fibers


Autonomic ganglia are motor ganglia only


The craniosacral division is another name for the parasympathetic division alone.


Most blood vessels are innervated by the sympathetic division alone


The blood vessels of the skin are one of the few areas of the body whre the vessels are innervated by both the sympathetic and parasympathetic division.


Events recorded in a lie detector examination are controlled by the sympathetic division


All splanchnic nerves are sympathetic


The structures that specifically exhibit vasomotor tone are mostly under sympathetic control


Most splanchnic nerves pass through the abdominal aortic plexus


Because many of the same cardiac cells are innervated by both parasympathetic and sympathetic fibers, the influence of the two divisions on the heart is synergistic


Adrenergic receptors are the only receptors found on the heart


Autonomic reflex centers occur in the spinal cord, medulla, and midbrain.


Cranial nerves III, VII, and IX supply the entire parasympathetic innervation of the head; however, only the preganglionic fibers lie within these three pairs of cranial nerves


Because the parasympathetic fibers never run in spinal nerves, rami communicantes are associated only with the sympathetic division


Rami communicantes are designated white or grey to indicate wheather or not the fibers passing through them are myelinated


The autonomic and somatic nervous systems are two separate systems that work totally independent of each other


Albuteral is used by asthma patients to dialate thhe bronchioles of the lungs and ease breathing


The secretions of the adrenal medulla act to supplement the effects of

sympathetic stimulation

Which of the following does not describe the ANS

a system of motor neurons that innervates all muscle cells

Preparing the body for the "fight or flight" response is the role of the

sympathetic nervous system

The somatic and autonomic nervous systems differ in all of the following except

all of the neurotransmitters

Where would you not find a cholinergeric nicotinic receptor?

all parasympathetic target organs

The parasympathetic ganglion that serves the eye is the

ciliary ganglion

Cardiovascular effects of the sympathetic divison include all except

dialiation of the blood vessels serving the skin and digestive viscera

Over 90% of all parasympathetic fibers are derived from the cranial nerve number


The "resting and digesting" division of the autonomic nervous system is the

parasympathetic division

Control of temperature , endocrine activity, and thirst are functions associated with the


Which of these effectors is not directly controlled by the autonomic nervous system?

increased peristalsis of the digestive viscera

Which of the following statements is not true?

Sympathetic origin is craniosacral, parasympathetic is thoracolumbar.

Sympathetic responses generally are widespread because

NE and epinephrine are secreted into the blood as part of the sympathetic response

Sympathetic nerves may leave the spinal cord at which vertebra?

first thoracic

Autonomic ganglia contain

the cell bodies of motor neurons

The parasympathetic fibers of the __________nerves innervates smooth muscles of the eye that cause the lenses to bulge to accomodate close vision


Fibers that enter and leave the sympathetic chain without synapsing form structures called

splanchnic nerves

Which of the following is not a plexus of the vagus nerve?


Visceral reflex arcs differ from somatic in that

visceral arcs involve two motor neurons

The parasympathetic tone

determines normal activity of the urinary tract

Once a sympathetic preganglionic axon reaches a trunk ganglion, it can do all but which one of the following?

synapse with a parasympathetic neuron in the same trunk ganglion

Which of the following appears to exert the most direct influence over the autonomic function?

reticular formation

Beta- blockers

decrease heart rate and blood pressure

Erection of the penis or clitoris

is primarily under parasympathetic control

Which is a uniquely sympathetic function?

regulation of body temperature

Raymond’s disease

is characterized by exaggerated vasoconstriction in the extremities

Autonomic dysreflexia

involves uncontrolled activatio of autonomic neurons

Which sympathetic fibers from a splanchhnic nerve?

those that pass through the trunk ganglion to synapse in collateral or prevertebral ganglia

Which of the following adrenergic neurotransmitter receptors plays the major role in heart activity

beta 1

Where would you not find an autonomic ganglion?

in the armpit

Sympathetic division stimulation causes

increased blood glucose, decreased GI peristalsis, and increased heart rate and blood pressure

The smooth muscle of the digestive viscera is served largely by the

tenth cranial nerve

The route of major parasympathetic outflow from the head is via the

vagus nerve

Parasympathetic functions include

lens accomodation for close vision

Emotions influence autonomic reactions primarily through integration in the


Alpha and beta receptors are classes of

adrenergic receptors

Sweat glands are innervated by the

sympathetic fibers alone

A division alone that adaptss the lens of the eye for close vision

parasympathetic divison

The two cholinergic receptor types are nicotonic and


A receptor type is used by the heart, and when activated increases heart rated


The only sympathetic preganglionic neuron to go directly to an organ is one branch of the

greater splanchnic nerve

The parasympathetic division uses only_____________ as a neurotransmitter in the ganglionic neurons


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