Chapter 14 - Quiz

1. The term ageism refers to _____.

A) the veneration of the elderly
B) judging people on the basis of chronological age
C) the view of society held by older people
D) the demographics of the population pyramid

b

2. As he holds the door open for an elderly woman, a middle-aged man says, "After you, Young Lady." This interaction is an example of _____.

A) ageism
B) manners
C) chivalry
D) respect

a

3. A prediction that comes true because people believe it is called _____.

A) ageism
B) a self-fulfilling prophecy
C) elderspeak
D) a universal design

b

4. Using elderspeak when engaging in conversation with an older adult _____.

A) reduces communication
B) helps the individual comprehend the meaning of the conversation
C) only makes sense if the individual has a hearing aid
D) demonstrates respect and understanding

a

5. In the past, there were 20 times more children than older people. Then there were 7 times more people under age 15 than over age 64. Currently, there are 3 times as many children as there are elders. These changes in the age make-up of the population are referred to as _____.

A) population growth
B) a cyclical event
C) a demographic shift
D) elder explosion

c

6. Calorie restriction may _____.

A) slow down aging
B) speed up aging
C) increase the risk of diabetes
D) increase the rate of death

a

7. Maximum life span is defined as the _____.

A) number of years a newborn is likely to live
B) risk of mortality
C) average age at death
D) upper limit to which members of a species can live

d

8. The maximum life span is _____ years for humans.

A) 13
B) 55
C) 122
D) 180

c

9. In 2015 in the United States, the average life expectancy was _____ years for men and _____ years for women.

A) 77; 82
B) 81; 76
C) 65; 84
D) 84; 65

a

**10. Which of the following statements about cellular aging is true?

A) Cells can replicate indefinitely, but errors do occur.
B) Aging may be caused by the inevitable loss of the ability of cells to duplicate perfectly.
C) Damage is caused by telomeres that slow down the cell duplication process.
D) Cells from adults are able to duplicate more quickly and more times than are cells
from embryos.

b

11. Now that Todd is 75, he uses selective optimization with compensation while driving. For example, he _____.

A) drives only at night when fewer cars are on the road
B) relies on rearview and side mirrors so he won't hurt his neck turning his head
C) drives more slowly
D) drives fast to get home as soon as possible to avoid accidents

c

12. Elderly drivers have fewer car accidents than young people do because _____.

A) their reaction time slows, preventing quick responses
B) strict laws require retesting for drivers over age 65
C) younger drivers are impaired by poor peripheral and night vision
D) elderly drivers compensate for deficiencies by driving more slowly and reducing night driving

d

13. The irreversible changes that naturally occur with time are called _____ aging.

A) normal
B) primary
C) secondary
D) geriatric

b

14. Which of the following happens to the brain during senescence?

A) neural fluid increases
B) myelination thickens
C) neurotransmitter production decreases
D) the corpus callosum increases

c

15. White matter lesions start to appear on MRIs after age 50 or so. Which of the following is NOT true about these lesions?

A) They may result from tiny impairments in blood flow.
B) They increase the time it takes to think.
C) They may disrupt transmission from parts of the cortex and cerebellum.
D) They encourage the processing of novel stimuli.

d

16. Older adults have _____ vocabularies but _____ fluency.

A) extensive; limited
B) extensive; extensive
C) limited; limited
D) limited; extensive

a

17. The part of the information-processing system that regulates the analysis and flow of information is called _____.

A) the hippocampus
B) control processes
C) working memory
D) implicit memory

b

18. A marked decrease in brain processing and memory in some older adults may be attributed to _____.

A) the use of both hemispheres of the brain
B) inadequate control processes
C) increased production of neurotransmitters
D) more neural fluid that slows cerebral blood flow

b

**19. The idea that cognition should be measured in terms of everyday tasks and circumstances is referred to as _____.

A) priming
B) recall
C) recognition
D) ecological validity

d

20. Which of the following terms would be ageist?

A) dementia
B) major neurocognitive disorder
C) delirium
D) senility

d

21. When a person under age 60 develops Alzheimer's disease, the final phase of the disease typically occurs around _____ years after the first signs appear.

A) 1 to 2
B) 3 to 5
C) 6 to 9
D) 10 to 15

b

22. Mr. Weatherford was a hard-driving investment banker before his retirement. His workaholic lifestyle alienated his children, who chose to spend little time with him once they grew up. One day, Mr. Weatherford called his daughter, Ava, to invite her over to see his paintings. When she arrived, she found her father dressed in an old sweat suit and standing in front of several abstract paintings in bright, vibrant colors. Mr. Weatherford smiled widely and held his daughter's hand as he showed off his work. She was perplexed—something was wrong, but she loved her father's "new" personality. Which neurocognitive disorder could account for his symptoms?

A) Alzheimer's disease
B) frontotemporal NCD
C) Parkinson's disease
D) mad cow disease

b

23. The major cause of Parkinson's disease is _____.

A) the degeneration of dopamine-producing neurons
B) an overabundance of dopamine-producing neurons
C) the loss of serotonin-producing neurons
D) an overabundance of serotonin-producing neurons

a

24. The fact that many elderly people take many different medications means that _____.

A) they are less likely to have adverse reactions
B) their dosages should be increased
C) the drugs can interact and produce adverse reactions
D) they are especially aware of possible drug overdose

c

25. A challenge faced by researchers who want to know if wisdom increases with age is that _____.

A) most of the older people they want to study die
B) there are no established ways to study change over time
C) the definition of wisdom varies by culture
D) it is difficult to find participants for a study that requires self-reflection

c

26. Most adults over age 65 do not need eyeglasses.

A) True B) False

false

27. Calorie restriction has been shown to reverse neurocognitive disorder.

A) True B) False

false

28. According to one theory of aging, the genetic clock switches on genes that promote aging.

A) True B) False

true

29. The inability to replicate all of the telomeres at the ends of the chromosomes causes aging, according to the wear-and-tear theory.

A) True B) False

false

30. Changing one's views about what constitutes satisfying sex is an example of selective optimization with compensation.

A) True B) False

true

31. Osteoporosis is the official name for fragile bones that have lost density with age.

A) True B) False

true

32. Older people are more likely to use both hemispheres of the brain to solve problems.

A) True B) False

true

**33. Major neurocognitive disorder is an expected condition in the very aged population.

A) True B) False

false

34. Frontotemporal NCDs can cause personality changes.

A) True B) False

true

35. Erikson believed that late adulthood is a time to review one's life and build on one's resilience and strengths.

A) True B) False

true

36. Categorizing or judging people solely on the basis of their chronological age is referred to as _____.

ageism

**37. Using _____, engineers can create settings and equipment that can be used by everyone, even those who are not able-bodied or sensory-acute.

universal design

**38. Humans may have a _____, a mechanism in the DNA of cells that regulates life, growth, and aging.

genetic clock

39. By late adulthood, the material at the ends of chromosomes, or_____, are longer in women than in men.

telomeres

**40. For information to register in memory, it must cross the _____.

sensory threshold

**41. George remembers that he needs to take his medicine after dinner. He is using _____.

prospective memory

**42. Remembering information for a moment before evaluating, calculating, and inferring its significance is known as _____.

working memory

**43. Memory and retrieval strategies, selective attention, and rules or strategies for problem solving are called _____ processes.

control

44. The most common form of frontotemporal NCD is _____.

Parkinson's Disease

45. Elders provide an account of their personal journey by writing or telling their life story in what is called a _____.

life review

**46. You have been hired by an organization that advocates for the elderly. Explain why elderspeak is a concern, and why it is important to reduce it.

Elderspeak, which is a specific way people talk to the elderly, uses simple and short sentences, slower talk, louder volume, higher pitch, and repetition. Elderspeak is problematic because it treats the elderly as if they were children. It also reduces communication because higher frequencies are harder for the elderly to hear, speaking slowly impairs comprehension, and talking loudly can increase anxiety. Elderspeak can also reduce cognition.

**47. Explain the demographic shift that has occurred in the population over the past 100 years. Provide at least three factors that help account for the demographic shift. What is the prediction for the future demographic pattern?

During the past century the ratio of under 15 to over 65 has moved from 20:1 to the current level of 3:1. Reasons for the demographic shift include: (1) the lower birth rate, (2) the improved ability to survive serious illnesses, (3) advances in public health measures, (4) the higher likelihood of surviving early adulthood, and (5) improved health care and medications. The prediction is that by 2075, the ratio of under 15 to over 65 will be 1:1.

**48. Explain the three theories of aging.

There are three theories of aging that explain why no one can live forever: 1) wear and tear (the body wears out from use) 2) genetic adaptation (there is a genetically programmed time to begin aging that differs from person to person; evidence for genetic aging comes from premature aging experienced by children) 3) cellular aging (cells stop replacing themselves and the body is no longer able to fix every cellular error; even without specific infections or stresses, healthy cells stop replicating at a certain point referred to as the Hayflick limit)

**49. Explain the growth of new brain cells in the elderly brain. Which brain structures are most affected?

New neurons form and dendrites grow throughout adulthood. The olfactory area (smelling) and the hippocampus (memory) are most affected. Also, old neurons can develop new dendrites. This helps older adults resist depression and anxiety. Although new neurons develop, their creation and growth is less robust than it was earlier in life, and it is not sufficient to restore the aging brain to its earlier state.

**50. You're concerned that your grandfather may be experiencing polypharmacy. What is polypharmacy, how can you recognize it, and what should be done about it?

Polypharmacy occurs when multiple prescription medications and over-the-counter supplements interact to produce major NCD symptoms. If a person is displaying confusion and/or loss of memory, the first task should be to examine the medicine cabinet. Most doctors ask their patients whether they are taking any medications, but a patient may not respond accurately or even recall all the drugs he or she is taking. A list of all the grandfather's medications and strengths should be presented to a physician so she or he can determine if polypharmacy is an issue.

Chapter 14 - Quiz - Subjecto.com

Chapter 14 – Quiz

Your page rank:

Total word count: 1858
Pages: 7

Calculate the Price

- -
275 words
Looking for Expert Opinion?
Let us have a look at your work and suggest how to improve it!
Get a Consultant

1. The term ageism refers to _____.

A) the veneration of the elderly
B) judging people on the basis of chronological age
C) the view of society held by older people
D) the demographics of the population pyramid

b

2. As he holds the door open for an elderly woman, a middle-aged man says, "After you, Young Lady." This interaction is an example of _____.

A) ageism
B) manners
C) chivalry
D) respect

a

3. A prediction that comes true because people believe it is called _____.

A) ageism
B) a self-fulfilling prophecy
C) elderspeak
D) a universal design

b

4. Using elderspeak when engaging in conversation with an older adult _____.

A) reduces communication
B) helps the individual comprehend the meaning of the conversation
C) only makes sense if the individual has a hearing aid
D) demonstrates respect and understanding

a

5. In the past, there were 20 times more children than older people. Then there were 7 times more people under age 15 than over age 64. Currently, there are 3 times as many children as there are elders. These changes in the age make-up of the population are referred to as _____.

A) population growth
B) a cyclical event
C) a demographic shift
D) elder explosion

c

6. Calorie restriction may _____.

A) slow down aging
B) speed up aging
C) increase the risk of diabetes
D) increase the rate of death

a

7. Maximum life span is defined as the _____.

A) number of years a newborn is likely to live
B) risk of mortality
C) average age at death
D) upper limit to which members of a species can live

d

8. The maximum life span is _____ years for humans.

A) 13
B) 55
C) 122
D) 180

c

9. In 2015 in the United States, the average life expectancy was _____ years for men and _____ years for women.

A) 77; 82
B) 81; 76
C) 65; 84
D) 84; 65

a

**10. Which of the following statements about cellular aging is true?

A) Cells can replicate indefinitely, but errors do occur.
B) Aging may be caused by the inevitable loss of the ability of cells to duplicate perfectly.
C) Damage is caused by telomeres that slow down the cell duplication process.
D) Cells from adults are able to duplicate more quickly and more times than are cells
from embryos.

b

11. Now that Todd is 75, he uses selective optimization with compensation while driving. For example, he _____.

A) drives only at night when fewer cars are on the road
B) relies on rearview and side mirrors so he won’t hurt his neck turning his head
C) drives more slowly
D) drives fast to get home as soon as possible to avoid accidents

c

12. Elderly drivers have fewer car accidents than young people do because _____.

A) their reaction time slows, preventing quick responses
B) strict laws require retesting for drivers over age 65
C) younger drivers are impaired by poor peripheral and night vision
D) elderly drivers compensate for deficiencies by driving more slowly and reducing night driving

d

13. The irreversible changes that naturally occur with time are called _____ aging.

A) normal
B) primary
C) secondary
D) geriatric

b

14. Which of the following happens to the brain during senescence?

A) neural fluid increases
B) myelination thickens
C) neurotransmitter production decreases
D) the corpus callosum increases

c

15. White matter lesions start to appear on MRIs after age 50 or so. Which of the following is NOT true about these lesions?

A) They may result from tiny impairments in blood flow.
B) They increase the time it takes to think.
C) They may disrupt transmission from parts of the cortex and cerebellum.
D) They encourage the processing of novel stimuli.

d

16. Older adults have _____ vocabularies but _____ fluency.

A) extensive; limited
B) extensive; extensive
C) limited; limited
D) limited; extensive

a

17. The part of the information-processing system that regulates the analysis and flow of information is called _____.

A) the hippocampus
B) control processes
C) working memory
D) implicit memory

b

18. A marked decrease in brain processing and memory in some older adults may be attributed to _____.

A) the use of both hemispheres of the brain
B) inadequate control processes
C) increased production of neurotransmitters
D) more neural fluid that slows cerebral blood flow

b

**19. The idea that cognition should be measured in terms of everyday tasks and circumstances is referred to as _____.

A) priming
B) recall
C) recognition
D) ecological validity

d

20. Which of the following terms would be ageist?

A) dementia
B) major neurocognitive disorder
C) delirium
D) senility

d

21. When a person under age 60 develops Alzheimer’s disease, the final phase of the disease typically occurs around _____ years after the first signs appear.

A) 1 to 2
B) 3 to 5
C) 6 to 9
D) 10 to 15

b

22. Mr. Weatherford was a hard-driving investment banker before his retirement. His workaholic lifestyle alienated his children, who chose to spend little time with him once they grew up. One day, Mr. Weatherford called his daughter, Ava, to invite her over to see his paintings. When she arrived, she found her father dressed in an old sweat suit and standing in front of several abstract paintings in bright, vibrant colors. Mr. Weatherford smiled widely and held his daughter’s hand as he showed off his work. She was perplexed—something was wrong, but she loved her father’s "new" personality. Which neurocognitive disorder could account for his symptoms?

A) Alzheimer’s disease
B) frontotemporal NCD
C) Parkinson’s disease
D) mad cow disease

b

23. The major cause of Parkinson’s disease is _____.

A) the degeneration of dopamine-producing neurons
B) an overabundance of dopamine-producing neurons
C) the loss of serotonin-producing neurons
D) an overabundance of serotonin-producing neurons

a

24. The fact that many elderly people take many different medications means that _____.

A) they are less likely to have adverse reactions
B) their dosages should be increased
C) the drugs can interact and produce adverse reactions
D) they are especially aware of possible drug overdose

c

25. A challenge faced by researchers who want to know if wisdom increases with age is that _____.

A) most of the older people they want to study die
B) there are no established ways to study change over time
C) the definition of wisdom varies by culture
D) it is difficult to find participants for a study that requires self-reflection

c

26. Most adults over age 65 do not need eyeglasses.

A) True B) False

false

27. Calorie restriction has been shown to reverse neurocognitive disorder.

A) True B) False

false

28. According to one theory of aging, the genetic clock switches on genes that promote aging.

A) True B) False

true

29. The inability to replicate all of the telomeres at the ends of the chromosomes causes aging, according to the wear-and-tear theory.

A) True B) False

false

30. Changing one’s views about what constitutes satisfying sex is an example of selective optimization with compensation.

A) True B) False

true

31. Osteoporosis is the official name for fragile bones that have lost density with age.

A) True B) False

true

32. Older people are more likely to use both hemispheres of the brain to solve problems.

A) True B) False

true

**33. Major neurocognitive disorder is an expected condition in the very aged population.

A) True B) False

false

34. Frontotemporal NCDs can cause personality changes.

A) True B) False

true

35. Erikson believed that late adulthood is a time to review one’s life and build on one’s resilience and strengths.

A) True B) False

true

36. Categorizing or judging people solely on the basis of their chronological age is referred to as _____.

ageism

**37. Using _____, engineers can create settings and equipment that can be used by everyone, even those who are not able-bodied or sensory-acute.

universal design

**38. Humans may have a _____, a mechanism in the DNA of cells that regulates life, growth, and aging.

genetic clock

39. By late adulthood, the material at the ends of chromosomes, or_____, are longer in women than in men.

telomeres

**40. For information to register in memory, it must cross the _____.

sensory threshold

**41. George remembers that he needs to take his medicine after dinner. He is using _____.

prospective memory

**42. Remembering information for a moment before evaluating, calculating, and inferring its significance is known as _____.

working memory

**43. Memory and retrieval strategies, selective attention, and rules or strategies for problem solving are called _____ processes.

control

44. The most common form of frontotemporal NCD is _____.

Parkinson’s Disease

45. Elders provide an account of their personal journey by writing or telling their life story in what is called a _____.

life review

**46. You have been hired by an organization that advocates for the elderly. Explain why elderspeak is a concern, and why it is important to reduce it.

Elderspeak, which is a specific way people talk to the elderly, uses simple and short sentences, slower talk, louder volume, higher pitch, and repetition. Elderspeak is problematic because it treats the elderly as if they were children. It also reduces communication because higher frequencies are harder for the elderly to hear, speaking slowly impairs comprehension, and talking loudly can increase anxiety. Elderspeak can also reduce cognition.

**47. Explain the demographic shift that has occurred in the population over the past 100 years. Provide at least three factors that help account for the demographic shift. What is the prediction for the future demographic pattern?

During the past century the ratio of under 15 to over 65 has moved from 20:1 to the current level of 3:1. Reasons for the demographic shift include: (1) the lower birth rate, (2) the improved ability to survive serious illnesses, (3) advances in public health measures, (4) the higher likelihood of surviving early adulthood, and (5) improved health care and medications. The prediction is that by 2075, the ratio of under 15 to over 65 will be 1:1.

**48. Explain the three theories of aging.

There are three theories of aging that explain why no one can live forever: 1) wear and tear (the body wears out from use) 2) genetic adaptation (there is a genetically programmed time to begin aging that differs from person to person; evidence for genetic aging comes from premature aging experienced by children) 3) cellular aging (cells stop replacing themselves and the body is no longer able to fix every cellular error; even without specific infections or stresses, healthy cells stop replicating at a certain point referred to as the Hayflick limit)

**49. Explain the growth of new brain cells in the elderly brain. Which brain structures are most affected?

New neurons form and dendrites grow throughout adulthood. The olfactory area (smelling) and the hippocampus (memory) are most affected. Also, old neurons can develop new dendrites. This helps older adults resist depression and anxiety. Although new neurons develop, their creation and growth is less robust than it was earlier in life, and it is not sufficient to restore the aging brain to its earlier state.

**50. You’re concerned that your grandfather may be experiencing polypharmacy. What is polypharmacy, how can you recognize it, and what should be done about it?

Polypharmacy occurs when multiple prescription medications and over-the-counter supplements interact to produce major NCD symptoms. If a person is displaying confusion and/or loss of memory, the first task should be to examine the medicine cabinet. Most doctors ask their patients whether they are taking any medications, but a patient may not respond accurately or even recall all the drugs he or she is taking. A list of all the grandfather’s medications and strengths should be presented to a physician so she or he can determine if polypharmacy is an issue.

Share This
Flashcard

More flashcards like this

NCLEX 10000 Integumentary Disorders

When assessing a client with partial-thickness burns over 60% of the body, which finding should the nurse report immediately? a) ...

Read more

NCLEX 300-NEURO

A client with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) tells the nurse, "Sometimes I feel so frustrated. I can’t do anything without ...

Read more

NASM Flashcards

Which of the following is the process of getting oxygen from the environment to the tissues of the body? Diffusion ...

Read more

Unfinished tasks keep piling up?

Let us complete them for you. Quickly and professionally.

Check Price

Successful message
sending